Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular songs, as well as dance. The etymology of the name is uncertain, but some propose it may derive from the name of a Royal hunting lodge, the Palacio de la Zarzuela near Madrid, where this type of entertainment was first presented to the court; the palace was named after the place called "La Zarzuela" because of the profusion of brambles that grew there, so the festivities held within the walls became known as "Zarzuelas". There are two main forms of zarzuela: Baroque zarzuela, the earliest style, Romantic zarzuela, which can be further divided into two. Main subgenres are género género chico, although other sub-divisions exist. Zarzuela spread to the Spanish dominions, many Hispanic countries – notably Cuba – developed their own traditions. There is a strong tradition in the Philippines where it is known as sarswela/sarsuela. Other regional and linguistic variants in Spain include the Basque zartzuela and the Catalan sarsuela.
A masque-like musical theatre had existed in Spain since the time of Juan del Encina. The zarzuela genre was innovative in giving a dramatic function to the musical numbers, which were integrated into the argument of the work. Dances and choruses were incorporated as well as solo and ensemble numbers, all to orchestral accompaniment. In 1657 at the Royal Palace of El Prado, King Philip IV of Spain, Queen Mariana and their court attended the first performance of a new comedy by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, with music by Juan Hidalgo de Polanco titled El Laurel de Apolo. El Laurel de Apolo traditionally symbolises the birth of a new musical genre that had become known as La Zarzuela. Like Calderón de la Barca's earlier El golfo de las sirenas, El Laurel de Apolo mixed mythological verse drama with operatic solos, popular songs and dances; the characters in these early, baroque zarzuelas were a mixture of gods, mythological creatures and rustic or pastoral comedy characters. Unlike some other operatic forms, there were spoken interludes in verse.
In 18th-century Bourbon Spain, Italian artistic style dominated in the arts, including Italian opera. Zarzuela, though still written to Spanish texts, changed to accommodate the Italian vogue. During the reign of King Charles III, political problems provoked a series of revolts against his Italian ministers; the older style zarzuela fell out of fashion, but popular Spanish tradition continued to manifest itself in shorter works, such as the single-scene tonadilla of which the finest literary exponent was Ramón de la Cruz. Musicians such as Antonio Rodríguez de Hita were proficient in the shorter style of works, though he wrote a full-scale zarzuela with de la Cruz entitled Las segadoras de Vallecas. José Castel was one of several composers to write for the Teatro del Príncipe. In the 1850s and 1860s a group of patriotic writers and composers led by Francisco Barbieri and Joaquín Gaztambide revived the zarzuela form, seeing in it a possible release from French and Italian music hegemony; the elements of the work continue to be the same: sung solos and choruses, spiced with spoken scenes, comedic songs and dances.
Costume dramas and regional variations abound, the librettos are rich in Spanish idioms and popular jargon. The zarzuelas of the day included in their librettos various regionalisms and popular slang, such as that of Madrid castizos; the success of a work was due to one or more songs that the public came to know and love. Despite some modifications the basic structure of the zarzuela remained the same: dialogue scenes, songs and comic scenes performed by two actor-singers; the culminating masterpieces from this period were Barbieri's Pan y toros and Gaztambide's El juramento. Another notable composer from this period was Emilio Arrieta. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868, the country entered a deep crisis, reflected in theatre; the public could not afford high-priced theatre tickets for grandiose productions, which led to the rise of the Teatros Variedades in Madrid, with cheap tickets for one-act plays. This "theatre of an hour" had great success and zarzuela composers took to the new formula with alacrity.
Single-act zarzuelas were classified as género chico whilst the longer zarzuelas of three acts, lasting up to four hours, were called género grande. Zarzuela grande battled on at the Teatro de la Zarzuela de Madrid, founded by Barbieri and his friends in the 1850s. A newer theatre, the Apolo, opened in 1873. At first it attempted to present the género grande, but it soon yielded to the taste and economics of the time, became the "temple" of the more populist género chico in the late 1870s. Musical content from this era ranges from full-scale operatic arias through to popular songs, dialogue from high poetic drama to lowlife comedy characters. There are many types of zarzuela in between the two named genres, with a variety of musical and dramatic flavours. Many of the greatest zarzuelas were written in the 1880s and 1890s, but the form continued to adapt to new theatrical stimuli until well into the 20th century. With the onset of the Spanish Civil War, the form declined, the last romantic zarzuelas to hold the stage were written in the 1950s.
Whilst Barbieri produced the greatest zarzuela grande in El barberil
The following is a list of episodes of the French comedy series, Caméra Café. 1: Sylvain's Birthday 2: Mougier 3: Goalkeeper 4: Tragic night 5: Harassment 6: The big office 7: Leaving doo 8: Temporal paradox 9: Killing move 10: What are you doing this evening? 11: Annabelle 12: Paid leave 13: Corporate Movie 14: Roland Garros 15: Restriction of budget 16: Good catch 17: Homonymism 18: The licence 19: All registered 20: Sales force 21: Coffee transgenic 22: Bonus 23: Exhibition 24: The bomb 25: lunch Invitation 26: Job interview 27: The return 28: Communicating vases 29: Strikes 30: Elections 31: Seminary 32: Epidemic 33: Tango 34: The disabled person 35: The color of money 36: Medical examination 37: The letter 38: corporate winter vacation 39: The buffoon 40: spitting image 41: Questions answers 42: The paranoid 43: The weekend 44: A month in Poland 45: The consultant 46: The Farm 47: The Guard 48: Caramel 49: Resign 50: HR Blues 51: Out of Order 52: A Gay Mate 53: Good Sign 54: The Chief's Kitchen 55: Headhunter 56: Dialogue of the Deaf 57: Dark Thoughts 58: The Little Beast 59: When I Grow Up 60: Interim 61: Damage 62: The Leek and Bitch 63: Desability Pension 64: Double Fracture 65: Mrs. Sorel is Retiring 66: Canary's Theory 67: Expense 68: Golf 69: Transit Strike: Part 1 70: Transit Strike: Part 2 71: Engineering Calculation 72: Company Commits 73: The Words to Say 74: Pizza 75: Part Golf 76: The Removal 77: It Falls Stack 78: Open Space 79: The Specialist 80: Team Spirit 81: A Stupid Challenge 82: U.
S. Imperialism 83: Fatal Mixion 84: Telethon 85: Conspiracy 86: The Big Leap 87: The Fire Alarm 88: Leave me a Message 89: Sexual Harassment 90: The Finding 91: A Good Company 92: Accounting Error 93: Pregnant 94: The Raven 95: The Question of Commercial 96: Of All the Colors 97: Bad Back 98: Shared Twist 99: Pater 100: Insemination 101: Bad Mood 102: State of Shock 103: The Mobile 104: Meditation 105: Old Memories 106: The Look 107: A Load of Revenge 108: The Young Intern 109: My Friend Annie 110: Express Delivery 111: Live Oldest 112: The Flowchart 113: Bear in Mind 114: Petition 115: John Molkovich 116: Orgasm 117: Invitation 118: Beasts' Life 119: Holy Maéva 120: Band Wagon 121: Carole's Day 122: Wanton 123: Lounge 124: Stamped 125: The Trophy 126: Harmony 127: Burial 128: Excuse 129: A Perfect Man 130: Valetudinarian 131: Little Bird 132: Culture 133: Seller to Cool 134: Poem 135: Iron Woman 136: Stand 137: The Friend 138: Hervé In Love 139: Reintegration 140 (1-14
Kayden Kross is an American pornographic actress and director. Kross was raised in Sacramento, California, she grew up in the foothills between Placerville. She is of Swedish ancestry, she has described herself as "the book nerd" during her time as a high school student. Kross began stripping at Rick's Showgirls in Rancho Cordova, California when she was eighteen years old to earn extra money to rescue a pony from a slaughter house, which she kept for eight months, she was contacted by an agent, whose business relationship provided Kross with the opportunity of modeling in adult magazines. Her movies with Vivid included Kayden's First Time, Hard Time, Be Here Now. Unhappy with the company, she became a free agent one year when she did not renew her contract, she signed an exclusive contract with Eve after one month of being a free agent. She was named Penthouse Pet of the Month for September 2008. Kross' official website, ClubKayden.com, was launched on September 2, 2008. Kross has hosted a blog at UnKrossed.com, has written regular updates and opinion columns for MikeSouth.com, an adult industry gossip blog, among other sites.
Kross became exclusive to Digital Playground under a multi-year contract on January 1, 2010. Her first movie with the company, The Smiths, topped sales charts and has continued to be a best seller, she was given the lead in Body Heat, in her third month in contract. She won two Best Actress Awards for the role. Kross hosted the 2010 AVN Awards show, along with porn actress Kirsten Price and comedian Dave Attell, she was Penthouse magazine's "Cover Girl" for September 2008 and 2010. Kross starred in the 2010 AVN Best Feature The 8th Day and portrayed the role of Elin Nordegren, wife of Tiger Woods, in Adam & Eve Pictures' film Tyler's Wood. In 2012, she hosted the Xbiz awards for the second time, appeared in the ceremony alongside Wicked Pictures/Wicked.com contract star, Jessica Drake, on the AVN red carpet with co-hosts Jesse Jane and guitarist Dave Navarro. Kross has made appearances in the FX's comedy series The League, the G4 reality series The Block, Family Jewels. In 2011 she was cast as Tara in Gregory Hatanaka's drama Blue Dream co-hosted a regular videocast, Kayden's Review, for Triggla TV alongside the comedian Dane Hanson.
From 2012 - 2013, Kross portrayed a main character in the second season of Tucky Williams' lesbian-themed web series Girl/Girl Scene. Starting from January 2013 Kross hosts the weekly call-in show Krossfire on Playboy Radio. In 2013, Kross appeared in the featurette "Chicks'N Guns" on the Breaking Bad 5th season DVD as a stripper; the scene takes place during the season 5 episode "Gliding Over All." Kross appeared in two music videos from the band Nekrogoblikon, "No One Survives" in 2012 and "We Need a Gimmick" in 2015. Kross writes columns for publications such as Complex magazine, XBIZ magazine, a blog for xcritic.com. She has contributed to Timothy McSweeney's Internet Tendency, her short story "Plank" appeared in the 2012 short story collection Forty Stories: New Writing from Harper Perennial, an e-book; as of August 2012, she was writing an autobiographical book about the porn industry. In 2008, she was among those testifying against a proposed tax in California on all producers and distributors of adult entertainment.
In February 2012, she and conservative pundit Wendy Murphy appeared on Stossel, with host John Stossel, to discuss legislation in California that would require that condoms be used during the production of adult movies. In October 2008, Kross was charged with grand theft and violations of the California Civil Code, involving contracts for purchases of home equity mortgages. In July 2009, the grand-theft charge was dismissed, the real-estate-fraud charge was reduced to a misdemeanor, she blamed her involvement in the situation on her naïveté and being scammed by the broker and mortgage lender. Kross and her French partner Manuel Ferrara have one daughter, born in January 2014. In 2013, Ferrara asked her to no longer perform with other men. Official website Personal blog site Kayden Kross on IMDb Kayden Kross at the Internet Adult Film Database Kayden Kross at the Adult Film Database