Richard Serra is an American artist involved the Process Art Movement. He lives and works in Tribeca, New York and on the North Fork, Long Island. Serra was born on November 1938, in San Francisco as the second of three sons, his father, was a Spanish native of Mallorca who worked as a candy factory foreman and in steel mills. Serra described the San Francisco shipyard where his father worked as a pipe-fitter as an important influence to his work, saying of his early memory: “All the raw material that I needed is contained in the reserve of this memory which has become a recurring dream.” His mother, Gladys Feinberg, was born in Los Angeles to Russian Jewish immigrants from Odessa. Serra went on to study English literature at the University of California, Berkeley in 1957 before transferring to the University of California, Santa Barbara, graduating with a B. A. in 1961. While at Santa Barbara, he studied art with Rico Lebrun. Serra helped support himself by working in steel mills, to have a strong influence on his work.
Serra studied painting in the M. F. A. program at the Yale University School of Art and Architecture between 1961 and 1964. Fellow Yale Art and Architecture alumni of the 1960s include the painters and sculptors Brice Marden, Chuck Close, Nancy Graves, Robert Mangold, he claims to have taken most of his inspiration from the artists who taught there, including Philip Guston and the experimental composer Morton Feldman, as well as painter Josef Albers. While at Yale, Serra proofed Albers' book Interaction of Color. In 1964, after he received his M. F. A, he went to Paris. He was awarded a Fulbright fellowship the following year in Florence. Since he has lived in New York. In New York, his circle of friends included Carl Andre, Walter De Maria, Eva Hesse, Sol LeWitt, Robert Smithson. At one point, to fund his art, Serra started a furniture-removals business, Low-Rate Movers, employed Chuck Close, Philip Glass, Spalding Gray, others. In 1966, Serra made his first sculptures out of nontraditional materials such as fiberglass and rubber.
Serra's earliest work was abstract and process-based made from molten lead hurled in large splashes against the wall of a studio or exhibition space. In 1967 and 1968 he compiled a list of infinitives, titled "Verb List," that served as catalysts for subsequent work: "to hurl" suggested the hurling of molten lead into crevices between wall and floor, he began in 1969 to be concerned with the cutting, propping or stacking of lead sheets, rough timber, etc. to create structures, some large, supported only by their own weight. His "Prop" pieces from the late 1960s are arranged so that weight and gravity balance lead rolls and sheets. Cutting Device: Base Plate Measure consists of an assemblage of heterogeneous materials into which two parallel cuts have been made and the results strewn around in a chance configuration. In Malmo Role, a four-foot-square steel plate, one and a half inches thick, bisects a corner of the room and is prevented from falling by a short cylindrical prop wedged into the corner of the walls.
Still, he is better known for his minimalist constructions from large sheets of metal. Many of these pieces emphasize the weight and nature of the materials. Rolls of lead are designed to sag over time. Around 1970, Serra shifted his activities outdoors. Serra constructs site-specific installations on a scale that dwarfs the observer, his site-specific works challenge viewers' perception of their bodies in relation to interior spaces and landscapes, his work encourages movement in and around his sculptures. Most famous is the "Torqued Ellipse" series, which began in 1996 as single elliptical forms inspired by the soaring space of the early 17th century Baroque church San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome. Made of huge steel plates bent into circular sculptures with open tops, they rotate upward as they lean in or out. Serra begins a sculpture by making a small maquette from flat plates at an inch-to-foot ratio: a 40-foot piece will start as a 40-inch model, he makes these models in lead as it is "very malleable and easy to rework continuously."
He consults a structural engineer, who specifies how the piece should be made to retain its balance and stability. The steel pieces are fabricated in Germany; the steel he uses takes about 8–10 years to develop its characteristic dark patina of rust. Once the surface is oxidized, the color will remain stable over the piece's life. Serra's first larger commissions were realized outside the United States. Shift consists of six walls of concrete zigzag across a grassy hillside in Ontario. Spin Out, a trio of steel plates facing one another, is situated on the grounds of the Kröller-Müller Museum in Otterlo, the Netherlands. Part of a series works involving round steelplates, Elevation Circles: In and Out was installed at Schlosspark Haus Weitmar in Bochum, Germany. For documenta VI, Serra designed Terminal, four 41-foot-tall trapezoids that form a tower, situated in front of the main exhibition venue. After long negotiations, accompanied by violent protests, Terminal was purchased by the city of Bochum and installed at the city's train station in 1979.
Carnegie, a 39-foot-high vertical shaft outside the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh
Bunschoten is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. It lies about 7 km north of Amersfoort, its territory comprises the original municipality of Bunschoten and the former municipality of Duyst, De Haar and Zevenhuizen, a part of Hoogland from 1854 until 1971. The successful female darts player, Aileen de Graaf, is from Bunschoten, from the village of Spakenburg.. Bunschoten was first named in 1294, it was located on the border between Utrecht and Guelders, it suffered a number of times from invasions from Guelders. In 1383, the bishop of Utrecht gave Bunschoten city rights, which allowed the citizens to build an earthen wall around the town; the fortifications and a part of the town were destroyed at Christmas 1427 in a war between two rival bishops, were never rebuilt. The municipality of Bunschoten consists of the following cities, villages and/or districts: Bunschoten Spakenburg Eemdijk Zevenhuizen Dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Bunschoten, June 2015.
Media related to Bunschoten at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Edinburgh Rugby is one of the two professional rugby teams from Scotland. The club competes in the Pro14, along with its oldest rival. Edinburgh plays most of its home games at Murrayfield Stadium; the original Edinburgh District team played the first inter-district match against Glasgow District in 1872, winning the match 3–0. The amateur district team was reformed with professionalism, as Edinburgh Rugby, in 1996 to compete in the Heineken Cup, its best performance coming in the 2011–12 season, when the club reached the semi-final but lost narrowly to Ulster, 22–19; the quarter-final tie against Toulouse attracted a club record crowd of over 38,000 spectators to Murrayfield. In 2003–04 Edinburgh became the first Scottish team to reach the quarter-finals. In 2014–15 Edinburgh became the first Scottish club to reach a major European final, when they met Gloucester Rugby in the European Rugby Challenge Cup showpiece at Twickenham Stoop in London. Edinburgh District played in the world's first inter-district match, against Glasgow District, in 1872.
For the history of the District prior to professionalism, see: Following the introduction of professional rugby in 1995, the Scottish Rugby Union considered that Scottish club sides would not be able to compete against the best teams from France and England. The SRU therefore decided that the four district teams were to be Scotland's vehicle for professional rugby and in 1996 the Edinburgh District team was reformed as Edinburgh Rugby to compete in the Heineken Cup; because of the SRU's significant debt as a result of the redevelopment of Murrayfield Stadium, further reorganisation soon became necessary and the four professional sides were reduced to two. After two seasons as Edinburgh Rugby, the club was merged with Border Reivers to form a new team known as Edinburgh Reivers. For the 1999 and 2000 seasons the Scottish Rugby Union and Welsh Rugby Union joined forces, with the expansion of the Welsh Premier Division to include Edinburgh Reivers and Glasgow Caledonians, under the name Welsh-Scottish League.
However, further change was imminent and in 2001 an agreement was made between the Irish Rugby Football Union, Scottish Rugby Union and Welsh Rugby Union to create a new competition which would bring in the four Irish provinces. 2001 saw the first incarnation of the Celtic League. In that inaugural season Edinburgh finished in sixth place; the following season, to coincide with the re-establishment of the Border Reivers, a Scottish League competition modelled on the Tri-Nations was introduced alongside the Celtic League, however this survived for only a single season, Edinburgh becoming the only champions. Following the reduction of Scotland's professional structure from four to two sides, a further rebranding took place; the Edinburgh Reivers name was replaced by Edinburgh Rugby, with the Glasgow Caledonians undergoing a similar renaming process, as part of a "major revamp" of the professional structure in Scotland. In the 2003–04 season the team found some success, when it reached the Final of the inaugural Celtic Cup, beating Cardiff Blues and Connacht en route in the quarter-finals and semi-finals respectively.
The team's good run came to an end in the Final, with a 21–27 loss to Ulster, at Murrayfield. David Humphreys kicked 17 points in the match to earn the Irish province the trophyFor the 2005–06 season, the Edinburgh team found itself looking for a new coach after the departure of Frank Hadden to coach Scotland. Sean Lineen Glasgow Warriors assistant coach, was linked with the post before Todd Blackadder acquired the position for the season after a spell as interim coach. During the same season the team nickname was incorporated into the official name, which became the Edinburgh Gunners; the "Gunners" moniker was dropped on 29 September 2006, after the club had become Scottish rugby's first private franchise during the summer. The team name reverted to Edinburgh Rugby. One reason for the change was that the name The Gunners was a registered Trademark of Arsenal Football Club. Another reason was the wish of the new owners for a re-branding, including a different name and the introduction of a new logo.
In 2006, it was announced that from the end of the 2005–06 season, Edinburgh would become a franchise. Finance would come from a private company headed by Bob Carruthers; this was thought to be a saving grace for Border Reivers. The team was thought to be the favourite to be folded, after the Scottish Rugby Union warned that funding problems could force it to scrap one of its Celtic League sides; the SRU was to retain a seat on the new company board and continue to provide development funding and support to the new owners. Following the departure of Todd Blackadder to join the Crusaders coaching setup in Super Rugby, Lynn Howells was appointed as head coach by Edinburgh's new Executive Chairman, Alex Carruthers. In July 2007, a dispute arose between the Scottish Rugby Union and the owners of the newly franchised Edinburgh team. According to owner Bob Carruthers the SRU owed Edinburgh a six-figure sum which, he said, had not been paid. Carruthers claimed that SRU had threatened to withdraw funding should Edinburgh continue with legal action relating to the sum.
During the dispute, Alex Carruthers resigned along with Managing Director Graeme Stirling. The dispute caused much disruption in Scottish rugby at the time, leading to the temporary withdrawal of 12 players from the Scotland squad training for the 2007 Rugby World Cup; this included leading players such as Chris Paterson and Mike BlairThe dispute escalated when, on 9 July 2007, Edinburgh revoked its associate membership of the SRU. This led to doubts about Edinburgh Rugby's ability to fulfil fixtures in the Celtic League and Heineken Cup a
Miss Earth 2006
Miss Earth 2006, the sixth edition of Miss Earth pageant, took place on 26 November 2006 at the grounds of the National Museum in Manila, Philippines. The pageant was won by Hil Hernández of Chile and crowned by outgoing titleholder, Miss Earth 2005, Alexandra Braun; the event was intended to be held in Santiago, Chile on 15 November, but the Chilean organizers did not meet requirements. In the end, pageant owners Carousel Productions decided to hold the pageant in the Philippines, where all previous Miss Earth pageants had been held, despite having less than two months to prepare for the event. More than 100 contestants were expected to compete, but only 82 participated, it was still the highest turn-out for the event. On 24 November, a number of delegates participated in the Philippine version of Deal or No Deal, acting as suitcase models during the game; this followed an episode of the US game show, where 26 Miss USA 2006 contestant acted as suitcase models. Final Question in Miss Earth 2006: "What effort must the country's government exert to stop global warming?"
Answer of Miss Earth 2006: "We have to educate the people on global warming. We should create global consciousness. Bigger industries are involved here. You run the economy, now it is your turn to take care of Mother Earth". – Hil Hernández, represented Chile. The following is the list of the board of judges in this year's Miss Earth: The delegates were divided into three groups which competed in the swimsuit preliminary competition in three different locations: Trace Aquatic Sports Complex in Los Baños, Golden Sunset Resort in Calatagan, Batangas and in Coron, Palawan; the competition was held on 12 November 2006. The finalists from the Laguna group were: Jessica Anne Jordan, Francys Sudnicka, Patra Rungratansunthorn, Amanda Pennekamp, Marianne Puglia The finalists from the Batangas group were: Ana Quinot, Riza Santos, Anne-Charlotte Triplet, Paloma Navarro, Richa Adhia Rounding off the top 15 finalists were the finalists who were selected from the third group in Coron, Palawan: Catherine Gregg, Catherine Untalan, Cathy Daniel, Raimata Agnieray, Karina Kharchynska The 15 finalists competed in the Final Swimsuit Competition, held on 18 November at the Fontana Leisure Park in Clark Field, Pampanga.
From the 15 finalists, Marianne Puglia of Venezuela was awarded Best in Swimsuit. The 2006 talent competition was held on 22 November at Marikina City. 15 of the delegates, chosen in a preliminary competition days before, performed their talents in front of the judges and audience. The semi-finalists were Riza Raquel Santos, Zhou Mei Ting, Kristal Sprock, Nicoline Qvortrup, Maria Stahl, Anne-Charlotte Triplet, Yelena Setiabudi, Sharon Amador, Paloma Navarro, Catherine Untalan, Nicoleta Motei, Raimata Agnieray, Tsering Chungtak, Nicquell Garland, Ha Anh Vu; the winner of the competition was Zhou Mei Ting of China. Ha Anh Vu was first runner-up. List of countries and delegates that participated in Miss Earth 2006: Notes: England and Wales are technically new as they were represented in the previous years as Great Britain or UK. Canada: Riza Santos joined the Pinoy Big Brother Celebrity Edition 2 on 14 October 2007 and won as first runner-up. Lebanon: Nahed Al-Saghir died on 16 April 2011, of complications from a severe kidney infection.
Thailand: Pailin Rungratanasunthor competed at Amazing Race Asia 3 alongside Miss Universe 2005 Natalie Glebova. Miss Earth official website Miss Earth Foundation Miss Earth Foundation Kids' I Love My Planet 2006 Miss Earth Press Presentation Fan Page
Sabrina van der Donk
Sabrina van der Donk is a Dutch model who participated in the Miss Earth 2006 beauty pageant in the Philippines. Van der Donk assumed the title of Miss Netherlands Earth 2006 after the winner, Lara Seveke, failed to perform her duties and therefore was dethroned. Van der Donk was appointed to take over the Miss Netherlands Earth title from a selection of contestants, who placed as finalists in the competition, she participated in Miss Kemer 2006 pageant in Turkey, where she emerged as the second runner-up. Sabrina van der Donk was a contestant in Holland's Next Top Model, Cycle 2, she did not win the contest. Sabrina Van Der Donk website Miss Earth official website
Lelystad is a municipality and a city in the centre of the Netherlands, it is the capital of the province of Flevoland. The city, built on reclaimed land, was founded in 1967 and was named after Cornelis Lely, who engineered the Afsluitdijk, making the reclamation possible. Lelystad is 3 metres below sea level. Lelystad is built on the seabed of the former Zuiderzee. About 6500 years ago this wetland was above high tide level and inhabited. Near Lelystad at Swifterbant, the oldest human skeletons in Western Europe were discovered. Due to rising water levels and storms, the peatlands were washed away, the Lacus Flevo grew to be the Almere and became the Zuiderzee; the Zuiderzee was the main transport route from Amsterdam to the North Sea and the Hanseatic League cities. Due to the many shipwrecks in Flevoland, Lelystad now houses the National Centre for Maritime History, with a museum and the shipyard that has built the Batavia replica. After the Second World War the Zuiderzee Works continued, constructing the polder of Eastern Flevoland.
In 1950 work commenced on several construction islands in the middle of the IJsselmeer. Lelystad-Haven was the largest island, its wooden barracks housed a community of dyke-builders. In 1955 they reached the mainland. One of the three pumping stations, which drained the polder in June 1957, was the diesel-powered Wortman in Lelystad-Haven; until 1967 the only inhabitants of Lelystad were technical engineers and laborers and superintendents, living on the former construction island. Lelystad is the largest municipality in the Netherlands in area, but a large part of that area is water: Markermeer and IJsselmeer. Another major area is the internationally famous nature park of Oostvaardersplassen, which arose when the polder of South Flevoland was drained. Lelystad is surrounded by a square of woodlands and parks and flat farmland; the importance of the landscape and sky is emphasized by several pieces of land art: engineers' work and works such as the Observatorium by Robert Morris. Lelystad has several tourist attractions, including: The replica of the 17th-century ship Batavia at the Batavia Shipyard.
Batavia Stad Fashion Outlet Hanzestad Compagnie, a fleet of historical sailing ships Lelystad Nature Park National Aviation Theme Park Aviodrome Modern architecture, for example the Zilverparkkade and Agora TheatreLelystad hosts many one-day events like the Lelystad Airshow, the Water Festival, the National Old Timer Day, Lelystad Speedway, Architecture day and several sports events. On the Midland Circuit many motor and stock car racing events and several autoclub meetings are held. On the coast there are several marinas. Lelystad can be reached by air and land. Air: Lelystad Airport is the biggest general aviation airport in the Netherlands, it is owned wholly by Schiphol Group. Lelystad Airport is undergoing major expansion, including the construction of a passenger terminal for commercial flights, as well as an extension of the runway. Commercial flights are expected to take off from and arrive at Lelystad Airport in 2020, with Ryanair and Transavia showing interest in operating from the airport.
Water: Lelystad has a small inland port, several marinas, a canal system which functions to aid in managing the water levels in the rest of the polder. The canal system connects to the Markermeer with a lock to the southwest of Lelystad, connects the city and its industrial areas to all other towns and their respective industrial areas in the polder. Rail: the Weesp–Lelystad railway extends south from Lelystad Centrum railway station and connects the city with Almere, to the Randstad region beyond; the Lelystad–Zwolle railway extends north from Lelystad and connects it with Dronten and Zwolle. Motorway: The A6 motorway runs along Lelystad on the eastern side of the city. There are two on-ramps connecting this motorway to Lelystad, each allowing traffic to travel northbound to Emmeloord and the province of Friesland, or southbound to Almere and the Randstad region. Provincial roads: The N302 provincial road runs through Lelystad, this road connects Lelystad to the south-east with Harderwijk and the province of Gelderland beyond, across the Houtribdijk to Enkhuizen and the province of North Holland beyond.
The N307 and N309 extend to the east from Lelystad, both connecting to Dronten and beyond that to Kampen in the province of Overijssel and Elburg in the province of Gelderland respectively. The honeycomb grid in the arms of Lelystad represents the dykes, built with six-edged concrete or basalt blocks; the colour gold indicates the high costs of the project of making the polder. The centre shield is the arms of engineer Cornelis Lely; the sealions reflect the history of the land. In the flag, the fleur-de-lis again takes a central point; the yellow background reflects the precious land, the blue lines the dykes and waterways. The flag of the province is adorned with the fleur-de-lis to commemorate Lely. Abraham Bueno de Mesquita and actor Rianne ten Haken, model Karin Ruckstuhl, former athlete Niels de Ruiter, professional darts player Ivan Sokolov, Bosnian chess master Co Stompé, professional darts player Jolijn van Valkengoed, swimmer Thijs van Valkengoed, breaststroke swimmer Chiel Warners, former decathlete Boy Waterman, football goalkeeper Nathaniël Will, footballer Aron Winter, retired footballer, football manager Ruben Schaken, football player Edsilia Rombley, singer Lelystad travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website
The Wolderwijd is a bordering lake situated in the Netherlands, created in 1967 by the gaining of land in Southern Flevoland. It is one of four Veluwe bordering lakes. On the northern and western bank it is encompassed by the municipality of Zeewolde, in the Province of Flevoland, on the southern and eastern bank it is encompassed by the municipality of Harderwijk in the Province of Gelderland; as the bordering lakes of Flevoland are speaking one mass of water there are no exact markers on where the Wolderwijd ends and the adjacent lakes start. In the west near Strand Horst the Wolderwijd becomes the Nuldernauw and in the east at the aqueduct at the provincial road N302 it becomes the Veluwemeer; the lake was created as a buffer between the old land of the Veluwe and the newly created Flevopolder, to ensure that the water level of the Veluwe would not drop. The lake receives water from the neighboring Veluwemeer and several sluices. An additional source is low-phosphate water from the Flevopolder to counter eutrophication.
The Wolderwijd lake is used for commercial fishery, shipping traffic, water management, sand extraction. The lake, together with the Nuldernauw, has been designated as a Ramsar wetland of international importance since 29 August 2000, it was designated as such because it held over 1% of relevant biogeographical populations of two bird species, the swan species Cygnus bewickii and the common pochard. Ramsar information sheet on Wolderwijd