click links in text for more info


Zemun is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. Zemun was a separate town, absorbed into Belgrade in 1934; the development of New Belgrade in the late 20th century affected the expansion of the continuous urban area of Belgrade. According to the 2011 census results, the municipality of Zemun has a population of 168,170 inhabitants. In ancient times, the Celtic and Roman settlement was known as Taurunum; the Frankish chroniclers of the Crusades mentioned it as a toponym from the 9th century. This was a period when the Slavic name Zemln was recorded for the first time. Believed to be derived from the word zemlja, meaning soil, it was a basis for all other future names of the city: modern Serbian Земун or Zemun, Hungarian Zimony and German Semlin; the area of Zemun has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. Baden culture graves and ceramics like bowls and anthropomorphic urns were found in the town. Bosut culture graves were found in nearby Asfaltna Baza; the first Celtic settlements in Taurunum area originate from the 3rd century BC when the Scordisci occupied several Thracian and Dacian areas of the Danube.

The Scordisci founded both Singidunum across the Sava, predecessor of modern Belgrade. The Romans came in the 1st century BC, Taurunum became part of the Roman province of Pannonia around 15 AD, it served as a harbour for the Pannonian fleet of Singidunum. The pen of Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso was said to be found in Taurunum. After the Great Migrations the area was under the authority of various peoples and states, including the Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of the Gepids and the Bulgarian Empire; the town was conquered by the Kingdom of Hungary in the 12th century and in the 15th century it was given as a personal possession to the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. After the nearby Serbian Despotate fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1459, Zemun became an important military outpost. In 1521, the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary, 500 šajkaši led by Croatian Marko Skoblić, Serbs fought against the invading Ottoman army of Suleyman the Magnificent. Despite hard resistance, Zemun fell on July Belgrade soon afterwards.

In 1541, Zemun was integrated into the Syrmia sanjak of the Budin pashaluk. Zemun and the southeastern Syrmia were conquered by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1717, after the Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Peterwardein and through the Treaty of Požarevac became a property of the Schönborn family. In 1736, Zemun was the site of a peasant revolt, its strategic location near the confluence of the Sava and the Danube placed it in the center of the continued border wars between the Habsburg and the Ottoman empires. The Treaty of Belgrade of 1739 fixed the border, the Military Frontier was organized in the region in 1746, the town of Zemun was granted the rights of a military commune in 1749. In 1754, the population of Zemun included 1,900 Orthodox Christians, 600 Catholics, 76 Jews, about 100 Romani. In 1777, the population of Zemun numbered 1,130 houses with 6,800 residents, half of which were ethnic Serbs, while another half of population was composed of Catholics, Jews and Muslims. Among Catholic population, the largest ethnic group were Germans.

From this period originates the increased settlement of Germans and Hungarians in the Zemun. While during the Ottoman period Zemun was a typical oriental-type small town, with khans and large number of Turkish population, after becoming part of Austria, the town prospered as an important road intersection and a border city, which boosted trade; the town was a major fishing center. It is recorded. In 1816 it was expanded by mass resettlement of Germans and Serbs in the new town suburbs of Franzenstal and Gornja Varoš, respectively. In the 19th century, Zemun reached 1,310 houses. Zemun became important in Serbian history as the refuge for Karađorđe in 1813 as well as many other people from the nearby Belgrade and the rest of Karađorđe's Serbia which fell to the Ottoman rule. During the Revolution of 1848–1849, Zemun was one of the de facto capitals of Serbian Vojvodina, a Serbian autonomous region within Habsburg Empire, but in 1849, it was returned under the administration of the Military Frontier.

With the abolishment of the Military Frontier in 1882, Zemun and the rest of Srem was included into Syrmia County of Croatia-Slavonia, an autonomous part of the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria-Hungary. The first railway line that connected it to the west was built in 1883, the first railway bridge over the Sava followed shortly thereafter in 1884. During World War I, Zemun changed hands between Serbia and Austria-Hungary ending up in Serbia on November 5, 1918; the town became part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. The inter-war period was marked by political struggle between the city gentry and the more socialist parties supported by the ethnic Germans. In 1934 two intra-city bus lines were introduced connecting Zemun with the parts of Belgrade, the general shift of attention towards this issue was supported by the growing Serbian population of Zemun; the Zemun airbases built in 1927 were an important geostrategic objective in the Axis invasion of April 1941. Following the surrender of Yugoslavia that same month, along with the rest of Syrmia, was given to the Independent State of Croatia.

The city was taken from Axis control in 1944, since it is part of

Robert Buzzanco

Robert Buzzanco is a scholar of 20th century U. S. history and diplomatic history. He is one of the America’s leading authorities on the Vietnam War and the dynamics that encompassed this time period. Buzzanco received his Ph. D. from The Ohio State University and teaches at the University of Houston. Buzzanco has lectured at national conferences on the Second Gulf War and the influence of the industrial military complex. Among his other many professional activities, he has served as the Chair of the Stuart L. Bernath Lecture Prize Committee for Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations. Buzzanco has contributed to national newspapers and magazines such as the Baltimore Sun, Houston Chronicle and Newsday magazine, he has been interviewed or cited by various international media such as the BBC, NPR, the Financial Times, Al-Jazeerra and the Islamic News Network. Buzzanco teaches a variety of courses in U. S. history, including, at the undergraduate level, both halves of the survey, the history of the Vietnam War, America in the 1960s, U.

S. foreign policy, as well as a new course in 2004 titled "War and Terror". He has taught graduate courses on the Vietnam War, post-1945 U. S. history, U. S. foreign relations, as well as numerous research seminars. Buzzanco has been the advisor on many dissertation thesis committees, he teaches at the University of Houston, in Houston, Texas. Buzzanco is the author or editor of three books, he has written more than twenty articles that have appeared in scholarly publications and major newspapers, his current works include a manuscript on culture and politics for Oxford’s VSI series, as well as his continuing work on the political economy of the 1960s and the impact of the Vietnam War on the U. S. economy. Buzzanco, Robert. Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521599405. Recipient of Stuart L. Bernath Prize, awarded by Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations. Chapter on Tet Offensive excerpted in Robert McMahon, ed, Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War, 3d edition.

Young, Marilyn B.. A Companion to the Vietnam War. Wiley-Blackwell. P. 528. ISBN 978-1405149839.. A collection of essays on Vietnam in the "Blackwell Companion Series.” "The Politics of Escalation in Vietnam during the Johnson Years", in Young, Marilyn B.. A Companion to the Vietnam War. Wiley-Blackwell. P. 528. ISBN 978-1405149839. Buzzanco, Robert. Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life. Blackwell Publishers. P. 276. ISBN 978-1577180944. "Anti-Imperialism" in Encyclopedia of American Foreign Relations, 2002 "How Did Iraq and the United States Become Enemies", History News Network, 28 October 2002. "The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1968: Capitalism and Containment", in Empire and Revolution: The United States and the Third World since 1945, edited by Peter L. Hahn and Mary Ann Heiss, pp. 94–120.. Robert Buzzanco's website Robert Buzzanco's biography

Sien (Van Gogh series)

Vincent van Gogh drew and painted a series of works of his mistress Sien during their time together in the Netherlands. In particular, his drawing Sorrow is acknowledged as a masterwork of draftsmanship, the culmination of a long and sometimes uncertain apprenticeship in learning his craft. Called Sien Hoornik, Clasina Maria Hoornik lived with van Gogh during much of his time in The Hague from 1881 to 1883. Van Gogh used Sien, a pregnant prostitute, as a model for his work and took Sien and her daughter into his home. Van Gogh made drawings and paintings of Sien and her daughter and mother over that period, which reflected the domestic life and hardships of the working poor, their relationship was not accepted by his family or supporters, although his brother Theo did not withdraw his support over it. It did contribute undoubtedly, however, to a split with Anton Mauve, a cousin-in-law and noted painter of the Hague School, who had introduced van Gogh to painting as well as supporting him financially, whom van Gogh revered.

At his brother Theo's urging, van Gogh left Sien in 1883 to paint in Drenthe, ending the only domestic relationship he would have. Sien resumed her life as a seamstress, cleaning woman and prostitute before marrying in 1901. On 12 November 1904, aged 54, she threw herself into the Schelde river and drowned, fulfilling a prediction she had made to van Gogh in 1883: "what the bad moods are is still more desperate...'it's bound to end up with me jumping into the water.'" In the summer of 1881, van Gogh fell in love with his widowed first cousin, Kee Vos Stricker. He proposed marriage, but was rebuffed with an adamant "no, never". Undeterred, he continued to press his attentions despite the increasing dismay and disapproval of his family which led to his leaving the family home for a while to study drawing at The Hague with his cousin-in-law Anton Mauve. Mauve was a successful and noted artist, a leading member of the Hague School and a master colorist whose paintings found a ready market both home and abroad.

He had married van Gogh's cousin, Ariëtte Carbentus, in 1874 while she was still young and he was established and successful, as such was lionised by the van Gogh family. At the time, he was busy with his massive Fishing Boat on the Beach that he was preparing for the next year's Salon, but he found time for van Gogh to advise him on his drawings, inviting him to return in a few months time to review progress. After a last, humiliating effort to win Kee over, an episode that rocked his religious faith, van Gogh returned to his parents' home in Etten in late 1881. On Christmas Day that year, he refused to attend church, provoking a violent quarrel with his father, a pastor, which resulted in his leaving home the same day, he studied further under Mauve. Mauve helped him to establish a modest studio on the Schenkweg on the outer fringes of The Hague, lending him money to purchase furniture, introduced him to the Pulchri Studio, The Hague's most important art society in which he himself played a major role.

He introduced van Gogh to painting, first in oils and with watercolor. At the end of January 1882, on his own account, van Gogh met a homeless, prostitute named Clasina Maria Hoornik, deserted by the father of the child she was carrying; the exact date of this meeting is not known beyond van Gogh's dating of it in a letter to Theo written in May. However, another letter written mid-January mentions he was negotiating modelling with "a mother with a little child" and it does seem plausible this was Sien, it has been suggested that the woman he "found" following his humiliating rejection by his cousin Kee Vos, as described in a letter to Theo around 23 December the preceding year and before his final estrangement from his father that Christmas Day, was in fact Sien, although there is no direct evidence for the surmise. Based on the dates, van Gogh could not have been the father of the child. Sien was born in 1850, the eldest of ten children of Pieter Hoornik, a porter in the poor district of the Geest, his wife.

Pieter died in 1875. To provide for the family and her mother worked as seamstresses and cleaned homes, their earnings were supplemented by what Sien's brother, could provide from the income of his chair-making business. The family relied upon public assistance. For a time Sien and some of her siblings lived at a Catholic orphanage, relying on assistance from the public soup kitchen and church charities. So meager were her earnings, she turned to prostitution for a better income. By the age of 32, the unmarried Sien had given birth to four children, two of whom lived: Maria Wilhelmina, born about 1877, Willem, born July 1882. Sien experienced poor health due to the post-operative effects of earlier surgeries and venereal disease, which she seems to have passed to van Gogh, hospitalized in June 1882 for gonorrhea. Sien posed for van Gogh throughout the winter. In exchange, van Gogh provided her daughter with a place to live and food to eat. Sien was ill when he met he did what he could to nurse her back to health.

Van Gogh considered marrying Sien to keep her off the streets. He envisioned a life where Sien would be his helpmate. Sien wanted to be married to him, too though he was poor, his family, including his brother and supporter Theo, opposed the relationship and his hope for continued support was doubtful. In June 1882, van Gogh was hospitalized for gonorrhea. Disobeying doctor's orders, he left the hospital July 1 to visit Sien in Leiden, where she had just given birth t

Light of Worlds

Light of Worlds is the fifth studio album, seventh album of new material by the American R&B group Kool & the Gang. Released in 1974, it was remastered by Polygram and was a second success for the band, reaching number 16 in the R&B Charts and number 63 in the Pop Charts, it was a landmark in the funk/jazz fusion genre of the 1970s. Light of Worlds is regarded as Kool & the Gang's most spiritual and sophisticated work, produced in the wake of the success of their previous album and Peaceful. While it was their seventh album of original material, the band considered Light of the Worlds their ninth LP, therefore consciously chose nine songs for the album to represent the nine planets in the solar system; the album contains rock-inspired funk set to jazz-informed playing with afrobeat influences and a tinge of analogue synthesizing. "Summer Madness" is considered to be the album's highlight, incorporating smooth melodies and a synthesizer. It was released as a single, with a follow-up titled "Winter Sadness" in Kool & the Gang's Spirit of the Boogie a year later.

A remake of "Summer Madness" was released on their 1993 album Unite titled "WKOOL/Summer". In 1991 the Hip-Hop duo DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince sampled elements of Summer Madness for their song Summertime. Ronald Bell – arrangements, acoustic piano, clavinet, ARP synthesizer, percussion, tenor saxophone, alto flute, mellotron, ARP 2600, lead vocals, electric piano, kalimba Robert "Kool" Bellbass, vocals George "Funky" Brown – drums, vocals, kettle drums, gong Robert "Spike" Mickens – trumpet, vocals, arrangements Claydes Charles Smithguitar, percussion, conductor Ricky West – acoustic piano, lead vocals, electric piano Dennis "D. T." Thomas – alto saxophone, congas, lead vocals, arrangements Herb Lane – vocals, backing vocals Alton Taylor – vocals, lead vocals Penni Phynjuar Saunders – vocals Richard Shade – backing vocals Kenneth Banks – backing vocals Al Pazant – trumpet Ed Pazant – oboe, alto saxophone Noel Pointer – strings Producers – Kool & The Gang Engineers – Bob Clearmountain, Godfrey Diamond, Harvey Goldberg and Alec Head.

Cover Design – Frank Daniel Liner Notes – Cleveland "Clevie" Browne Photography – Bernie Block, David Lartaud and Phil Willen. ReissueDigital Remastering – Gary N. Mayo Package – Mitchell Kanner Liner Notes – Cleveland "Clevie" Browne Light of Worlds at Discogs

University of Lyon

The University of Lyon, located in Lyon and Saint-Étienne, France, is a center for higher education and research comprising 12 members and 25 associated institutions. The three main universities in this center are: Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, which focuses upon health and science studies and has 27,000 students. Claude Bernard University Lyon 1 Lumière University Lyon 2 Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 Jean Monnet University École Normale Supérieure de Lyon École centrale de Lyon École nationale des travaux publics de l'État INSA Lyon Institut d'études politiques de Lyon École vétérinaire de Lyon École nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne, Centre national de la recherche scientifique EM Lyon Business School Université catholique de Lyon Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Lyon Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Saint-Etienne École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne École supérieure de commerce et management École de management de Lyon Institut polytechnique de Lyon École nationale des travaux publics de l'État Ecole Nationale Superieure des Sciences de l'information et des Bibliotheques CROUS University of Lyon

Streak (mineralogy)

The streak of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across an un-weathered surface. Unlike the apparent color of a mineral, which for most minerals can vary the trail of finely ground powder has a more consistent characteristic color, is thus an important diagnostic tool in mineral identification. If no streak seems to be made, the mineral's streak is said to be colorless. Streak is important as a diagnostic for opaque and colored materials, it is less useful for silicate minerals, most of which have a white streak or are too hard to powder easily. The apparent color of a mineral can vary because of trace impurities or a disturbed macroscopic crystal structure. Small amounts of an impurity that absorbs a particular wavelength can radically change the wavelengths of light that are reflected by the specimen, thus change the apparent color. However, when the specimen is dragged to produce a streak, it is broken into randomly oriented microscopic crystals, small impurities do not affect the absorption of light.

The surface across which the mineral is dragged is called a "streak plate", is made of unglazed porcelain tile. In the absence of a streak plate, the unglazed underside of a porcelain bowl or vase or the back of a glazed tile will work. Sometimes a streak is more or described by comparing it with the "streak" made by another streak plate; because the trail left behind results from the mineral being crushed into powder, a streak can only be made of minerals softer than the streak plate, around 7 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. For harder minerals, the color of the powder can be determined by filing or crushing with a hammer a small sample, usually rubbed on a streak plate. Most minerals that are harder have an unhelpful white streak; some minerals leave a streak similar to their natural color, such as lazurite. Other minerals leave surprising colors, such as fluorite, which always has a white streak, although it can appear in purple, yellow, or green crystals. Hematite, black in appearance, leaves a red streak which accounts for its name, which comes from the Greek word "haima", meaning "blood."

Galena, which can be similar in appearance to hematite, is distinguished by its gray streak. Bishop, A. C.. R.. R.. Cambridge Guide to Minerals and Fossils. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 12–13. Holden, Martin; the Encyclopedia of Gemstones and Minerals. New York: Facts on File. p. 251. ISBN 1-56799-949-2. Schumann, Walter. Minerals of the World. New York: Sterling Publishing. Pp. 18–16. ISBN 0-00-219909-2. Physical Characteristics of Minerals, at Introduction to Mineralogy by Andrea Bangert What is Streak? from the Mineral Gallery