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Zeppelin

A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century. Zeppelin's notions were first formulated in 1874 and developed in detail in 1893, they were patented in Germany in 1895 and in the United States in 1899. After the outstanding success of the Zeppelin design, the word zeppelin came to be used to refer to all rigid airships. Zeppelins were first flown commercially in 1910 by Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-AG, the world's first airline in revenue service. By mid-1914, DELAG had carried over 10,000 fare-paying passengers on over 1,500 flights. During World War I, the German military made extensive use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts, killing over 500 people in bombing raids in Britain; the defeat of Germany in 1918 temporarily slowed down the airship business. Although DELAG established a scheduled daily service between Berlin and Friedrichshafen in 1919, the airships built for this service had to be surrendered under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which prohibited Germany from building large airships.

An exception was made allowing the construction of one airship for the US Navy, which saved the company from extinction. In 1926 the restrictions on airship construction were lifted, with the aid of donations from the public, work was started on the construction of LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin; this revived the company's fortunes, during the 1930s, the airships Graf Zeppelin and the larger LZ 129 Hindenburg operated regular transatlantic flights from Germany to North America and Brazil. The Art Deco spire of the Empire State Building was designed to serve as a mooring mast for Zeppelins and other airships, although it was found that high winds made this impossible and the plan was abandoned; the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, along with political and economic issues, hastened the demise of Zeppelins. The principal feature of Zeppelin's design was a fabric-covered rigid metal framework made up from transverse rings and longitudinal girders containing a number of individual gasbags; the advantage of this design was that the aircraft could be much larger than non-rigid airships, which relied on a slight overpressure within the single pressure envelope to maintain their shape.

The framework of most Zeppelins was made of duralumin. Early Zeppelins used rubberised cotton for the gasbags, but most craft used goldbeater's skin, made from the intestines of cattle; the first Zeppelins had long cylindrical hulls with complex multi-plane fins. During World War I, following the lead of their rivals Schütte-Lanz Luftschiffbau, the design changed to the more familiar streamlined shape with cruciform tail surfaces, as used by all airships, they were propelled by several engines, mounted in gondolas or engine cars, which were attached to the outside of the structural framework. Some of these could provide reverse thrust for manoeuvring while mooring. Early models had a comparatively small externally mounted gondola for passengers and crew, attached to the bottom of the frame; this space was never heated so passengers during trips across the North Atlantic or Siberia were forced to bundle themselves in blankets and furs to keep warm and were miserable with the cold. By the time of the Hindenburg, several important changes had taken place: the passenger space had been relocated to the interior of the overall vessel, passenger rooms were insulated from the exterior by the dining area, forced-warm air could be circulated from the water that cooled the forward engines, all of which made traveling much more comfortable.

On both the older and newer vessels, the external viewing windows were opened during flight. The flight ceiling was so low that no pressurization of the cabins was necessary, though the Hindenburg did maintain a pressurized air-locked smoking room. Access to Zeppelins was achieved in a number of ways; the Graf Zeppelin's gondola was accessed. The Hindenburg had passenger gangways leading from the ground directly into its hull, which could be withdrawn ground access to the gondola, an exterior access hatch via its electrical room. Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin's serious interest in airship development began in 1874, when he took inspiration from a lecture given by Heinrich von Stephan on the subject of "World Postal Services and Air Travel" to outline the basic principle of his craft in a diary entry dated 25 March 1874; this describes a large rigidly framed outer envelope containing several separate gasbags. He had encountered Union Army balloons in 1863 when he visited the United States as a military observer during the American Civil War.

Count Zeppelin began to pursue his project after his early retirement from the military in 1890 at the age of 52. Convinced of the potential importance of aviation, he started working on various designs in 1891, had completed detailed designs by 1893. An official committee reviewed his plans in 1894, he received a patent, granted on 31 August 1895, with Theodor Kober producing the technical drawings. Zeppelin's patent described a Lenkbares Luftfahrzug mit mehreren hintereinanderen angeordneten Tragkörpern [Steerable airship-train with several carri

Gerhard Jahn

Gerhard Jahn was a German politician and a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. He was Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1967 to 1969, Federal Minister of Justice from 1969 to 1974. Jahn was born on September 10, 1927 at Kassel, Germany to Ernst and Lilli Jahn, a couple of medical practitioners. Together with four younger siblings, he stayed with his mother after his parents divorced in 1942, his mother, a German Jew, had been banned from her medical occupation since the Nazi take-over, lost her and the children's home during a bombing raid in 1943. The Nazis subjected Lilli Jahn to forced labour, sent her to Auschwitz in 1944, where she died in July after three months. After his mother was deported and his siblings lived with their father and his new wife. Gerhard Jahn studied before the Second World War. During the war, he was drafted as an airforce auxiliary manning anti-aircraft guns in 1943–44, sent to the Reichsarbeitsdienst. After the war, he worked in a job in the food office of the local town hall.

After graduating from school with Abitur in 1947, he studied law at the University of Marburg. In the same year, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany, became an active member while at the university, he took multiple jobs to support himself. In 1949, he was elected leader of the student movement of the SPD, the Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund. Since 1950, he held the office of a secretary of the local SPD group Marburg-Frankenberg, he graduated from Marburg University. In 1956 he qualified as a lawyer, began practicing law. Jahn was elected to the Federal German parliament, Bundestag, in 1957, where he was a member until 1990, he served on various parliamentary committees at the Bundestag. In 1960 he was elected to chair committee on restitution in the public service. Alfred Frenzel, Jahn's predecessor was exposed as a KGB spy, he represented the SPD in various legal cases. In addition to his federal offices, he was chairmen of the SPD-fraction of the Marburg town parliament since 1962.

In 1963, while Jahn was a member of the parliamentary committee for defense, he involved himself in a scandal by handing over a confidential document to the press, which proved that the former minister for defense, Franz Josef Strauß, had knowingly made untrue statements. Jahn was Parliamentary State Secretary to Minister for Foreign Affairs Willy Brandt from 1967–69; when Brandt became Chancellor of Germany in 1969, he selected Jahn as Federal Minister of Justice. While in this position, he initiated reforms of the laws on marriage and divorce as well as on abortion. On the latter issue, Jahn favoured a modified legalising abortion in several exceptional cases - the so-called Indikationsregelung, but his cabinet colleagues insisted on a general legalisation during the first trimester; this Fristenregelung was passed by parliament but was held up by the Constitutional Court, so that Jahn's position prevailed. Jahn decided to withdraw from the office when chancellor Brandt resigned in 1974. Jahn was founding chairman of the German-Israeli Society in 1966, president of the German Lessee Union from 1979 to 1995.

After Jahn left his position of Minister of Justice, he continued to work in the parliamentary committees, became the managing director of the SPD-fraction. He served as West German representative to the United Nations Human Rights Commission twice. Jahn died from cancer on 20 October 1998. Publications by Gerhard Jahn, German National Library

Gopal Mishra

Gopal Mishra was an Indian journalist and columnist. Born in Bidyadharpur, Orissa in 1933, Mishra’s career spanned five decades, starting with the Oriya daily Prajatantra, followed by editorship of the English newspaper of the same group the Eastern Times, he worked several years for the Amrita Bazar Patrika, where he head of the News Bureau. After leaving them he became a freelance writer and settled in Bhubaneshwar, his columns and articles appeared in newspapers till the end in for leading Oriya daily `Sambad','Jhankara' and other publications. A winner of several awards for his contribution to journalism, including like Narada Samman, Dr Mahatab Samman, Justice Raj Kishore Das Samman and Dr Radhanath Rath Samman, he was the president of'Utkal Sambadika Sangha', a union of working journalists and was the vice-president of Indian Federation of Working Journalists, he died on November 1, 2009 at the age of 77 and was survived by his wife, four sons and a daughter