Zero-point energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have. Unlike in classical mechanics, quantum systems fluctuate in their lowest energy state as described by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle; as well as atoms and molecules, the empty space of the vacuum has these properties. According to quantum field theory, the universe can be thought of not as isolated particles but continuous fluctuating fields: matter fields, whose quanta are fermions, force fields, whose quanta are bosons. All these fields have zero-point energy; these fluctuating zero-point fields lead to a kind of reintroduction of an aether in physics, since some systems can detect the existence of this energy. Physics lacks a full theoretical model for understanding zero-point energy. Physicists Richard Feynman and John Wheeler calculated the zero-point radiation of the vacuum to be an order of magnitude greater than nuclear energy, with a single light bulb containing enough energy to boil all the world's oceans.
Yet according to Einstein's theory of general relativity any such energy would gravitate and the experimental evidence from both the expansion of the universe, dark energy and the Casimir effect shows any such energy to be exceptionally weak. A popular proposal that attempts to address this issue is to say that the fermion field has a negative zero-point energy while the boson field has positive zero-point energy and thus these energies somehow cancel each other out; this idea would be true. This discrepancy is known as the cosmological constant problem and it is one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in physics. Many physicists believe that "the vacuum holds the key to a full understanding of nature"; the term zero-point energy is a translation from the German Nullpunktsenergie. Sometimes used interchangeably with it are the terms zero-point radiation and ground state energy; the term zero-point field can be used when referring to a specific vacuum field, for instance the QED vacuum which deals with quantum electrodynamics or the QCD vacuum which deals with quantum chromodynamics.
A vacuum can be viewed not as the combination of all zero-point fields. In quantum field theory this combination of fields is called the vacuum state, its associated zero-point energy is called the vacuum energy and the average energy value is called the vacuum expectation value called its condensate. In classical mechanics all particles can be thought of as having some energy made up of their potential energy and kinetic energy. Temperature, for example, arises from the intensity of random particle motion caused by kinetic energy; as temperature is reduced to absolute zero, it might be thought that all motion ceases and particles come to rest. In fact, kinetic energy is retained by particles at the lowest possible temperature; the random motion corresponding to this zero-point energy never vanishes as a consequence of the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. The uncertainty principle states that no object can have precise values of position and velocity simultaneously; the total energy of a quantum mechanical object is described by its Hamiltonian which describes the system as a harmonic oscillator, or wave function, that fluctuates between various energy states.
All quantum mechanical systems undergo fluctuations in their ground state, a consequence of their wave-like nature. The uncertainty principle requires every quantum mechanical system to have a fluctuating zero-point energy greater than the minimum of its classical potential well; this results in motion at absolute zero. For example, liquid helium does not freeze under atmospheric pressure regardless of temperature due to its zero-point energy. Given the equivalence of mass and energy expressed by Einstein's E = mc2, any point in space that contains energy can be thought of as having mass to create particles. Virtual particles spontaneously flash into existence at every point in space due to the energy of quantum fluctuations caused by the uncertainty principle. Modern physics has developed quantum field theory to understand the fundamental interactions between matter and forces, it treats every single point of space as a quantum harmonic oscillator. According to QFT the universe is made up of matter fields, whose quanta are fermions, force fields, whose quanta are bosons.
All these fields have zero-point energy. Recent experiments advocate the idea that particles themselves can be thought of as excited states of the underlying quantum vacuum, that all properties of matter are vacuum fluctuations arising from interactions of the zero-point field; the idea that "empty" space can have an intrinsic energy associated to it, that there is no such thing as a "true vacuum" is unintuitive. It is oft
The March known as The March to Washington, is a 1964 documentary film by James Blue about the 1963 civil rights March on Washington. It was made for the Motion Picture Service unit of the United States Information Agency for use outside the United States – the 1948 Smith-Mundt Act prevented USIA films from being shown domestically without a special act of Congress. In 1990 Congress authorized these films to be shown in the U. S. twelve years after their initial release. In 2008, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Civil rights movement in popular culture List of American films of 1964 The March on YouTube on the US National Archives YouTube channel The March on IMDb
José Antonio Zardón Sánchez was a professional baseball outfielder. Born in Havana, Cuba, he played one season in Major League Baseball for the Washington Senators in 1945; the 22-year-old rookie stood 6'0" and weighed 150 pounds. Zardón is one of many ballplayers who only appeared in the major leagues during World War II, he made his major league debut on April 18, 1945, in a road game against the Philadelphia Athletics at Shibe Park. His season, career, totals include 54 games played, a.290 batting average, 13 runs batted in, 13 runs scored, a.374 slugging percentage. In his 43 outfield appearances he handled 106 of 109 chances and his.972 fielding percentage was just a shade below the league average. Zardón was a member of the 1947 Havana Cubans, considered one of the top teams in minor league history, he died March 2017 in Tamarac, Florida. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Mexican Baseball League statistics Venezuelan Professional Baseball League statistics
Rawdna Carita Eira is a Norwegian and Sámi playwright and author. She trained to be a teacher, she has worked as a reindeer herder, stage manager and playwright associated with Beaivváš Sámi Theatre. She has written lyrics for her own songs and tunes among others, Mari Boine. Eira published a bilingual book in 2011, ruohta muzetbeallji ruohta/løp svartøre løp, nominated for the Nordic Council Literature Prize in 2012, she lives in Kautokeino. "Grense", short stores in Gába 1998:1-2 Elle muitalus/ Elens historie, drama, 2003 Kjøttstykker, short stories in Kuiper 2008:3-4 Arktisk Hysteri, drama, 2011 Maijen i huldrelandet, radio story for children in 19 parts, 2008 Guohcanuori šuvva/ Sangen fra Rotsundet, drama, 2011 ruohta muzetbeallji ruohta/løp svartøre løp, Gyldendal, 2011, ISBN 9788205418738 Sami Film - Mari Boine - Music For The Kautokeino Rebellion - Kautokeino-opproret 1852 - Lyrics by Rawdna Carita Eira
Air Transport Squadron 61 is a unit in the Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force. It is a part of the Fleet Air Force and is based at Naval Air Facility Atsugi in Kanagawa prefecture, it operates LC-90 and Lockheed C-130R Hercules aircraft. The squadron was founded at Atsugi Naval Air Facility on December 20, 1971 equipped with NAMC YS-11 aircraft. In 1989 it began to operate the LC-90, in November 2014 the unit began to operate five former Lockheed Martin KC-130R tanker aircraft of the US Marine Corps, they were redesigned as C-130R aircraft. In December 2014 the squadron's YS-11s were retired; the former US C-130s came into service from 2014 to 2016. In the past the squadron has operated Grumman S-2F-U Tracker, Douglas C-27 Skytrain RFD-6 and Beechcraft B65 Queen Air aircraft. Douglas C-27 Skytrain RFD-6 Grumman S-2F-U Tracker Beechcraft B65 Queen Air YS-11M/M-A LC-90 Lockheed C-130R Aircraft
Trapped in a Purple Haze is a TV movie about drug abuse which aired on ABC in 2000. The film starred Jonathan Jackson, JoBeth Williams, Carly Pope, with a supporting role by Hayden Christensen. Chicago college student Max Hanson is a talented hockey player. Though more interested in the latter, he is under pressure from his mother, Sophie to pursue a career in art, influenced by the fact that she put her own career aside to raise the family and has just landed a coveted position with a local art gallery. Max's father, Ed, is a tax attorney with a more laid-back approach to his son's future, just wanting him to be happy. While working at the local video store with best friends Orin and Kate, a cute girl comes in with her friends seeking a copy of Arachnophobia, Max is smitten. After locating her on campus the next day, she introduces herself as Molly White, who knows Max's name from his hockey jersey, she gives Max her phone number and invites him to a party she's attending that night. Before long and Molly are becoming an item, the two managing to make love in his bedroom with his mother and younger sister Chloe in the house.
However, Max soon finds out that Molly is a drug addict, as he accompanies her on a trek to score some heroin, which she promptly snorts. Max invites Molly to Chloe's birthday party, though she refuses to attend because it's the same night as a Smashing Pumpkins concert, she relents. However, a minor argument erupts between her and Sophie, resulting in Molly leaving abruptly and putting the brakes on their budding relationship. Devastated, Max has a hard time doing so. He's taken to a party one night by Orin and Kate, where he promptly spots Molly, she asks if they can talk. The next day, Max visits Sophie at work and tries to express his feelings about Molly, but her response is less than positive. A short time Molly celebrates their new-found relationship by having them shoot up together in her apartment, Max soon becomes hooked, neglecting his studies and job. Soon thereafter, Molly learns that she's three months behind on rent, has a week to pay before being evicted. Not having enough money in his bank account to pay it, Max goes to the video store to get his paycheck, but having only worked two hours during the past week, that's all the pay he receives, he is given a pink slip.
Sensing his friend may be in over his head, Orin offers to try to help Max, but all he wants is money to "fix the car". After returning home, Max takes $200 from Ed's wallet. Feeling as though he can never go back home and Molly move in with her druggie friends. Not long after, Max shows up at the ice rink attempting to steal money from Orin in the locker room, but is caught in the act. Once back at the pad, Max catches Molly having sex with a man in exchange for drugs, physically confronts him; as their financial situation worsens, the couple is reduced to panhandling at the local mall, where Sophie spots Max, but says nothing until a few days later. After hearing this news, Ed and his other son Brian are unsuccessful, his addiction now out of control, Max tries to rob a local comic book store for drug money, but is caught by the police. Ed and Brian bail Max out, while Brian thinks he needs to be put into rehab, Ed insists he can take care of Max at home. However, the effects of withdrawal are in full swing, it proves to be an uphill battle.
After going into a rage, Max becomes unconscious and is taken to a hospital. Once there, an arguments erupts between Ed and Sophie, with Sophie insisting that she did what anyone else would have done, but Ed retorts "that's a bunch of crap" and reminds her that neither he nor the kids made her stop painting; the next day, a doctor informs the family that Max needs to get into a treatment program, but stresses the difficulty of doing so. However, while this discussion takes place, Max manages to slip out of the hospital and begins frantically searching for Molly finding her in a sleazy motel room where she has died of a heroin overdose. Out of his mind with grief, Max begs her for money. Enraged, Kate throws Max out of the apartment, but in his stupor, he takes a tumble down the stairwell; the following morning, after his family had searched unsuccessfully for him, Max is brought home in a taxi, Kate by his side. Informing his mother of Molly's death, the two tearfully embrace, as he prepares to leave for his month-long stay in rehab, he and Sophie reach an understanding.
Sophie admits that she never saw Max for who he was and encourages him to be whatever he wants, telling Max that she loves him as the two embrace again. The film ends with Max saying goodbye to Brian and Chloe as he departs for rehab, before he and Ed drive away; the film was released on DVD in the United Kingdom, first in 2004 by Oddysey Video, again in 2007