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Zeus

Zeus is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter, his mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of Indo-European deities such as Jupiter, Perkūnas, Perun and Thor. Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, though sometimes reckoned the eldest as the others required disgorging from Cronus's stomach. In most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is said to have fathered Ares and Hephaestus. At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, by whom the Iliad states that he fathered Aphrodite. Zeus was infamous for his erotic escapades; these resulted in many divine and heroic offspring, including Athena, Artemis, Persephone, Perseus, Helen of Troy and the Muses. He was respected as an allfather, chief of the gods and assigned roles to the others: "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, all the gods rise in his presence."

He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men". Zeus' symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the ancient Near East, such as the scepter. Zeus is depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty; the god's name in the nominative is Ζεύς. It is inflected as follows: vocative: Ζεῦ. Diogenes Laërtius quotes Pherecydes of Syros as spelling the name, Ζάς. Zeus is the Greek continuation of *Di̯ēus, the name of the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky called *Dyeus ph2tēr; the god is known under this name in the Rigveda, deriving from the root *dyeu-. Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology; the earliest attested forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek, di-we and, di-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script.

Plato, in his Cratylus, gives a folk etymology of Zeus meaning "cause of life always to all things," because of puns between alternate titles of Zeus with the Greek words for life and "because of." This etymology, along with Plato's entire method of deriving etymologies, is not supported by modern scholarship. Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Hera and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overthrown by his son as he had overthrown Uranus, his own father, an oracle that Rhea heard and wished to avert; when Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed. Varying versions of the story exist: According to Hyginus ) Zeus was raised by a nymph named Amalthea. Since Saturn ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth and sky and thus, invisible to his father.

According to Pseudo-Apollodorus ) Zeus was raised by a goat named Amalthea in a cave called Dictaeon Antron. A a company of soldiers called Kouretes danced and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry. After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus's stomach open. Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe; as a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, hidden by Gaia. Together, his brothers and sisters and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy; the defeated Titans were cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans who fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky.

After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, Hades the world of the dead. The ancient Earth, could not be claimed. Gaia resented. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon and Echidna, he left Echidna and her children alive. When Zeus was atop Mount Olympus he was appalled by human sacrifice and other signs of human decaden

Alfred Neumann (architect)

Alfred Neumann was an Austrian-born, Jewish modernist architect, best known for his buildings in Israel. Neumann was born on January 1900 in Vienna to Siegmund Neumann and Hermina Hickl. In 1910, Neumann's family moved to Brno for his father's job at a joinery workshop. Neuman attended German Building Technical College. Following his graduation, Neumann served in the Austro Hungarian Army during World War II. After the war, he returned to his architecture studies, enrolling at the German Technical University in Brno. In 1922, Neumann returned to Vienna, where he attended Meisterschule fur Architektur of Vienna Akademie, studying under Peter Behrens. For the following 6 years, he worked at a number of architecture offices in Paris and Berlin with contemporaries including Auguste Perret. In 1928 and 1929, Neumann worked in Algiers, French Algeria. In February 1945, Neumann was deported from his home in Prague to the Nazi ghetto and concentration camp of Theresienstadt in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.

After WWII, Neumann returned to Brno. In the following years, he worked at the Provincial Study and Planning Institute of Czechoslovakia where he contributed to a number of projects in the country. In 1949, Neumann immigrated to Israel where his practice shifted towards the development of modular structures. Neumann served on the faculty and dean of the Israel Institute of Technology from 1952 to 1966. 1956, he published a pamphlet that called for architecture that better responded to human needs by reinventing systems of proportion and measurement and the design of buildings through the use of smaller modular subdivisions. During his tenure at the Israel Institute of Technology, Neumann worked with architect Zvi Hecker. In 1962, Neumann married a former student of his. Neumann died of lung cancer while teaching in Quebec as a visiting professor at the Université Laval

Red Garland at the Prelude

Red Garland at the Prelude is a live album by American pianist and bandleader Red Garland, recorded in 1959 and released on the Prestige label. The album was recorded at the Prelude Club at the same concert that produced Lil' Darlin' and Red Garland Live!. A expanded version of this album was reissued in 2006 as a 2-CD set, incorporating tracks from the albums Lil' Darlin', Red Garland Live! and Satin Doll as well as four unissued tracks. The Allmusic review by Scott Yanow stated, "Straight-ahead jazz fans should get this one". C. Michael Bailey from All About Jazz stated "There may be an argument that The Red Garland Trio at the Prelude is the last of the great Garland Trio recordings; the pianist performed and recorded sporadically until his death at 61 years old in 1984. But it is these Prelude sides illustrate Red Garland at top form in his craft". All compositions by Red Garland except as indicated "Satin Doll" - 6:21 "Perdido" - 4:36 "There Will Never Be Another You" - 6:43 "Bye Bye Blackbird" - 5:05 "Let Me See" - 5:57 "Prelude Blues" - 5:41 "Just Squeeze Me" - 5:41 "One O'Clock Jump" - 3:24Recorded The Prelude Club in New York City on October 2, 1959 Red Garland - piano Jimmy Rowser - bass Charles "Specs" Wright - drums