Lu Zhishen is a fictional character in Water Margin, one of the Four Great Classical Novels in Chinese literature. He is the lead character in the first segment of the novel. Nicknamed "Flowery Monk", he ranks 13th among the 36 Heavenly Spirits, the first third of the 108 Stars of Destiny. One folk tale says that he is a sworn brother of the martial artist Zhou Tong, who trained the Song dynasty general Yue Fei in archery. Lu Zhishen is named Lu Da; the novel describes him as a big-sized man with a round face, big ears, a straight nose, a squarish mouth, a beard which nearly covers his whole face. He serves as a garrison major in Weizhou, where he befriends Shi Jin and Li Zhong. While the three men are drinking in a tavern, they overhear the singer Jin Cuilian crying over her plight. A wealthy butcher, known as Butcher Zheng, had tried to exploit Jin Cuilian and her father by offering to pay for her deceased mother's funeral expenses in exchange for her becoming his concubine. However, after Zheng's wife gets upset at her husband taking a concubine and pressures him to force Jin Cuilian out of their home.
After that, Zheng feels that he has made a huge loss so he forces Jin Cuilian and her father to pay him back at an exorbitant interest rate, refuses to allow them to leave Weizhou until they paid the debt. After hearing Jin Cuilian's story, Lu Da gives her and her father some money and helps them get out of Weizhou safely, he goes to Zheng's stall to confront him and teach him a lesson. He tries to provoke Zheng by making unreasonable orders until the butcher loses patience and attacks him with a cleaver. Lu Da knocks him down and unintentionally kills him with three powerful punches to the face. After seeing that the butcher is dead, Lu Da flees from Weizhou to evade arrest. Along the way, he encounters Jin Cuilian's father, who tells him that his daughter has married a certain Squire Zhao; the squire offers Lu Da temporary shelter in his manor and recommends him to be a Buddhist monk at Manjusri Monastery on Mount Wutai. The abbot accepts Lu Da and gives him the name "Zhishen", which means "sagacious".
He earns himself the nickname "Flowery Monk" because his upper body is adorned with flower tattoos. Lu Zhishen soon gets tired of monastic life, so one day he breaks his vows by consuming alcohol; when he returns to the monastery in his drunken state, the monks try to stop him from entering but he beats them up in a drunken rage. After he becomes sober, the abbot admonishes him for his conduct but promises to give him another chance. After spending some time in the monastery, Lu Zhishen gets bored again so he goes to the nearby town and asks a blacksmith to forge a monk's spade weighing 62 jin and a dagger for him, he goes into the tavern and has a good time feasting on meat and consuming alcohol until he gets drunk. When the monks see that Lu Zhishen has gotten himself drunk again, they shut the doors on him. However, in his drunken rage, he manages to force his way in and wreak havoc in the monastery by smashing a jingang statue and beating up the monks who try to stop him; this time, the abbot has no choice but to send Lu Zhishen away to the Great Minister's Temple in the imperial capital, Dongjing.
Along the way, he picks up the weapons. On his journey to Dongjing, Lu Zhishen passes by Plum Blossom Village and stays overnight at Squire Liu's manor; the squire tells him that Zhou Tong, a bandit leader from the nearby Mount Plum Blossom, wants to marry his daughter though he does not agree to it. Lu Zhishen lies to the squire that he can use Buddhist teachings to persuade the bandit to give up on marrying his daughter; when Zhou Tong shows up and enters the bride's room in the dark, Lu Zhishen ambushes him and gives him a good beating. Zhou Tong asks his co-leader Li Zhong to help him take revenge against the monk. Li Zhong is surprised to see that the monk is Lu Da, whom he befriended earlier in Weizhou. After making peace and convincing Zhou Tong to give up on marrying Squire Liu's daughter, Lu Zhishen spends a few days at Zhou Tong and Li Zhong's bandit stronghold before leaving and continuing on his journey, he meets Shi Jin again during his journey and teams up with him to defeat two villains disguised as a Buddhist monk and Taoist priest respectively.
After Lu Zhishen reaches the Great Minister's Temple in Dongjing, the abbot assigns him to look after a vegetable plot in the temple. During this time, Lu Zhishen defeats and subdues a group of hooligans trying to steal vegetables from the plot and earns their respect, he becomes famous after uprooting a willow tree with his brute strength. One day, Lu Zhishen becomes sworn brothers with him; when Lin Chong is framed and exiled to Cangzhou, Lu Zhishen secretly follows him and saves him when his escorts are about to murder him in Wild Boar Forest. He ensures that Lin Chong makes it safely to Cangzhou before smashing down a tree with a single strike to warn the escorts to not try anything funny on Lin Chong, he returns to Dongjing. Lu Zhishen has no choice but to leave Dongjing because by saving Lin Chong, he had offended Grand Marshal Gao Qiu, who bribed the escorts to murder Lin Chong, he passes by Cross Slope, where he meets and befriends the couple Sun Erniang and Zhang Qing, who suggest to him to join the outlaw band on Mount Twin Dragons.
Deng Long, the outlaw chief, denies Lu Zhishen entry and barricades the only way into the stronghold. Lu Zhishen encounters Yang Zhi and Cao Zheng and team up with them to trick Deng Long into letting them enter the stronghold; the three men seize control of the stronghold. W
Sun Erniang is a fictional character in Water Margin, one of the Four Great Classical Novels in Chinese literature. Nicknamed "Female Yaksha", she ranks 103rd among the 108 Stars of Destiny and 67th among the 72 Earthly Fiends; the novel describes Sun Erniang as a fierce woman with a murderous look on her face. She has strong legs that resemble clubs; as she dresses oddly and uses heavy cosmetics, she resembles a yaksha in appearance and thus earns herself the nickname "Female Yaksha". She is well-trained in martial arts by her father. One day, while passing by Cross Slope, Sun Erniang's father encounters Zhang Qing, who tries to rob him. After defeating Zhang Qing in a fight, Sun Erniang's father recognises his potential and decides to accept him as his martial arts apprentice. Zhang Qing marries his master's daughter. Sun Erniang and Zhang Qing operate a tavern at Cross Slope, where they target unwary travellers and serve them food and wine spiked with drugs that will make them unconscious. Once their victims are out cold, the couple rob them, kill them and sometimes use their flesh to make fillings for baozi, which they serve to other unsuspecting customers.
While Zhang Qing spends most of his time farming, Sun Erniang runs the tavern with a few assistants. When Lu Zhishen passes by Cross Slope after seeing Lin Chong safely to Cangzhou, he stops at the tavern for a break and unsuspectingly consumes the drugged wine. Just when Sun Erniang is about to butcher Lu Zhishen, Zhang Qing returns to the tavern, recognises Lu Zhishen and stops his wife. After they revive Lu Zhishen, Zhang Qing becomes sworn brothers with him and recommends him to take shelter at Mount Twin Dragons. Lu Zhishen takes over the outlaw stronghold there and becomes one of the leaders of the outlaw band; when Wu Song passes by Cross Slope on his way to exile in Mengzhou, he takes a short break at the tavern. Although he senses there is something fishy about the tavern, he flirts with Sun Erniang and pretends to consume the drugged wine; when his two unwary escorts become unconscious, he pretends to be knocked out too. Just as Sun Erniang and her assistants come to lift him, he gets up and overpowers Sun Erniang in a fight.
Around the same time, Zhang Qing stops the fight. The couple apologise to Wu Song after learning of his true identity, treat him like an honoured guest. Zhang Qing becomes sworn brothers with Wu Song. Wu Song gets into trouble in Mengzhou and goes on the run after killing corrupt officials who tried to murder him. Along the way, he gain their help, they help him disguise himself as an unshaven Buddhist pilgrim and recommend him to join the outlaw band at Mount Twin Dragons. Sun Erniang and Zhang Qing also join the outlaw band at Mount Twin Dragons, they follow Song Jiang and the other outlaws back to Liangshan Marsh after the battle of Qingzhou and join the larger outlaw band there. Sun Erniang becomes one of the scout leaders of Liangshan after the 108 Stars of Destiny come together in what is called in the Grand Assembly, she and her husband are posted at the tavern west of Liangshan. They are tasked with making preparations to receive the imperial envoy after the outlaws secure amnesty from Emperor Huizong.
Sun Erniang follows the Liangshan heroes on their campaigns against the Liao invaders and rebel forces on Song territory after they received amnesty from the emperor. She is slain by an enemy officer, Du Wei, at the battle of Qingxi County during the campaign against Fang La's rebel forces. Emperor Huizong awards her the posthumous title "Lady of Jingde Commandery" to honour her for her service to the Song Empire during the campaigns. Buck, Pearl S.. All Men are Brothers. Moyer Bell. ISBN 9781559213035. Ichisada, Miyazaki. Suikoden: Kyoko no naka no Shijitsu. Chuo Koronsha. ISBN 978-4122020559. Keffer, David. "Outlaws of the Marsh: A Somewhat Less Than Critical Commentary". Poison Pie Publishing House. Retrieved 19 December 2016. Li, Mengxia. 108 Heroes from the Water Margin. EPB Publishers. P. 209. ISBN 9971-0-0252-3. Miyamoto, Yoko. "Water Margin: Chinese Robin Hood and His Bandits". Demystifying Confucianism. Retrieved 19 December 2016. Shibusawa, Bandit Kings of Ancient China, Koei Zhang, Lin Ching. Biographies of Characters in Water Margin.
Writers Publishing House. ISBN 978-7506344784
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or clan names, shi or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous; the colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between clan names or xing and lineage names or shi. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou.
The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan"; the structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing; the difference between xing and shi was blurring for women since the Spring and Autumn period. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames spread to the lower classes. Many shi surnames survive to the present day. According to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24.
These may be names associated with a ruling dynasty such as the various titles and names of rulers and dynasty, or they may be place names of various territories, towns and specific locations, the title of official posts or occupations, or names of objects, or they may be derived from the names of family members or clans, in a few cases, names of contempt given by a ruler. The following are some of the common sources: Xing: These were reserved for the central lineage of the royal family, with collateral lineages taking their own shi; the traditional description was what were known as the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity", namely Jiāng, Jī, Yáo, Yíng, Sì, Yún, Guī and Rèn, though some sources quote Jí as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang. State name: Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity.
These are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Name of a fief or place of origin: Fiefdoms were granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang. There are some two hundred examples of this identified of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor: Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples, 200 of which are two-character surnames. An ancestor's courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the second character of his grandfather's courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames. Seniority within the family: In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family; these were sometimes adopted as surnames. Of these, Meng is the best known.
Occupation From official positions, such as Shǐ, Jí, Líng, Cāng, Kù, Jiàn, Shàngguān, Tàishǐ, Zhōngháng, Yuèzhèng, in the case of Shang's "Five Officials", namely Sīmǎ, Sītú, Sīkōng, Sīshì and Sīkòu.
Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, it has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship; the Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, was established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China with a GDP of CNY¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.
Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" and "east". Shandong could hence be translated as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, became renowned for being the home of Confucius and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi; the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong, "鲁". English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung; the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, the Yellow Sea to the southeast.
With its location on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, Shandong was home to a succession of Neolithic cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture, the Beixin culture, the Dawenkou culture, the Longshan culture, the Yueshi culture. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Dongyi peoples who were considered "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, regional states became powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius; the state was, comparatively small, succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Jimo and Ju; the Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE.
The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Southern Yan the Liu Song dynasty, the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.
The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, the Tang dynasty presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits. On China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of all based in the north; the Song dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel Water Margin was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find; the statues included early examples of painted figures, are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of Buddhism. The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit – the first use of its current name; the modern provinc
Li Ying (Water Margin)
Li Ying is a fictional character in Water Margin, one of the Four Great Classical Novels in Chinese literature. Nicknamed "Striking Hawk", he ranks 11th among the 36 Heavenly Spirits, the first third of the 108 Stars of Destiny; the novel describes Li Ying as a unique-looking man with eyes like those of a hawk, a head like a tiger's, arms like an ape's and a waist like a wolf's. He wields a steel spear when he goes to battle, he is best known for his skill in throwing daggers, which he flings with accuracy from a considerable distance. He is nicknamed "Striking Hawk" chiefly for this skill. Li Ying is from Yunzhou, Zhongshan Prefecture, around present-day Dongping County, Shandong, he is the master of one of the three villages on Lone Dragon Ridge. The other two are the Hu family villages. A wealthy squire with many servants and a small militia, he is gregarious in personality, generous in helping the needy. After Shi Qian is captured by the Zhu Family Village for causing trouble there, his companions Yang Xiong and Shi Xiu flee to the neighbouring Li Family Village.
They run into Du Xing, who owes Yang Xiong a favour for helping him before. Du Xing brings them to his master Li Ying, he writes a letter to the Zhus and politely asks them to give him face by accepting his apology and releasing Shi Qian. However, the Zhus not only refuse to release Shi Qian, but hurl insults at Li Ying. An infuriated Li Ying leads some men to the Zhu Village to challenge the Zhus. Zhu Biao fires an arrow which causes him to fall off horseback. Yang Xiong and Shi Xiu manage to save Li Ying. Yang Xiong and Shi Xiu travel to Liangshan Marsh to seek help from the outlaw band there. Liangshan's chief Chao Gai sends Song Jiang to lead Liangshan forces to attack the Zhu Family Village, it is a tough battle that takes the outlaws three offensives to defeat the Zhu forces and take the village. Li Ying does not participate in the fighting because he does not want to be associated with the Liangshan outlaws so he gives the excuse that he needs to rest at home and nurse his injured arm. Song Jiang, wants Li Ying to join the Liangshan outlaw band.
He instructs Xiao Rang and others to impersonate law enforcers, go to the Li Family Village, pretend to arrest Li Ying and Du Xing for collaborating with outlaws. Along the way, the Liangshan outlaws "rescue" Li Ying and Du Xing. Although Li Ying feels grateful to the outlaws for rescuing him, he turns furious when he realises that it was a ruse to get him to join the outlaws. Song Jiang manages to convince him to put aside his wealth and prestige, join the outlaw band to "deliver justice on Heaven's behalf". Li Ying is appointed one of the two chief accountants in charge of Liangshan's income and stocks after the 108 Stars of Destiny come together in what is called the "Grand Assembly", he follows the Liangshan heroes on their campaigns against the Liao invaders and rebel forces on Song territory after they received amnesty from Emperor Huizong. He is one of the few Liangshan heroes; the emperor appoints Li Ying as an official in recognition of his contributions. After holding office for six months, Li Ying hears that Chai Jin has resigned and returned home, so he feigns illness and resigns too.
He and Du Xing go back to their village at Lone Dragon Ridge and spend the rest of their lives in luxury and comfort. Buck, Pearl S.. All Men are Brothers. Moyer Bell. ISBN 9781559213035. Ichisada, Miyazaki. Suikoden: Kyoko no naka no Shijitsu. Chuo Koronsha. ISBN 978-4122020559. Keffer, David. "Outlaws of the Marsh: A Somewhat Less Than Critical Commentary". Poison Pie Publishing House. Retrieved 19 December 2016. Li, Mengxia. 108 Heroes from the Water Margin. EPB Publishers. P. 23. ISBN 9971-0-0252-3. Miyamoto, Yoko. "Water Margin: Chinese Robin Hood and His Bandits". Demystifying Confucianism. Retrieved 19 December 2016. Shibusawa, Bandit Kings of Ancient China, Koei, pp. 68–70 Zhang, Lin Ching. Biographies of Characters in Water Margin. Writers Publishing House. ISBN 978-7506344784
Bandit Kings of Ancient China
Bandit Kings of Ancient China known as Suikoden: Tenmei no Chikai in Japan, is a turn-based strategy video game developed and published by Koei, released in 1989 for MS-DOS, Amiga and the Macintosh and in 1990 for the Nintendo Entertainment System. In 1996, Koei issued a remake for the Japanese Sega Saturn and Sony PlayStation featuring vastly improved graphics and new arrangements of the original songs. Based on the Great Classical Novel Water Margin, the game takes place in ancient China during the reign of Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty; the Bandit Kings of Ancient China—a band of ten bandits—engage in war against China's Minister of War Gao Qiu, an evil person with unlimited power. The objective of the game is to build and command an army of troops to capture Gao Qiu before the Jurchen invasion in January 1127. Players hold certain attributes such as strength and wisdom. Players must deal with other situations such as taxes, care for the troops and replacement of weapons and equipment, forces of nature, troop unrest and desertion.
Battlefields take place on hexagonal grids, where players move their armies across various terrain in order to strategically engage and defeat the enemy army. Troops have the capability of fighting with either melee weapons and arrows, magic, or dueling swords; when a player defeats an enemy army, they have the option of recruiting, exiling, or executing the captured enemy troops. The attacker has 30 days to win all castles or defeat all deployed enemy commanders or be automatically defeated; the game ends in defeat for Player when the game calendar hit January 1127. The game map shows the empire composed of 48 prefectures. Any prefecture may be invaded from an adjacent territory - the only exception is the Imperial Capital Kaifeng where the player must have built up sufficient popularity to gain the attention of the emperor who will confer an Imperial decree permitting the player to march into the capital. Reviewing the NES version of Bandit Kings of Ancient China, Nintendo Power suggested some players might find the game's pace slow compared to action-oriented games, while others would enjoy the game's "depth and attention to detail."
Compute! magazine praised the game as "one of the most complete and entertaining role-playing simulations available", gave it an honorable mention in the War/Strategy category of the 1991 Compute Choice Awards. A reviewer in the Austin American-Statesman suggested the game's depth was overwhelming, calling the game "the richest, most complex role-playing game published" but saying he "had trouble figuring out... What was supposed to be doing and to whom." PC Magazine reviewed the game positively, concluding that Bandit Kings of Ancient China "is an addictive game, brought alive by a mixture of computer-driven personalities, the romance of a departed culture, a large battery of options, the unpredictability of game play." Computer Gaming World gave the game three out of five stars in 1990, two stars in 1993. The Amiga version received positive reviews in Amiga magazines; the game was reviewed in 1994 in Dragon # 211 by Dee in the "Eye of the Monitor" column. Both reviewers gave the game 3½ out of 5 stars.
Computer Gaming World named Bandit Kings of Ancient China antagonist Gao Qiu as the twelfth most memorable game villain. Bandit Kings of Ancient China at MobyGames Official website
Qingzhou or Qing Province was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China dating back to c. 2070 BCE that became one of the thirteen provinces of the Han dynasty. The Nine Provinces were first described in the Tribute of Yu chapter of the classic Book of Documents, with Qingzhou lying to the east of Yuzhou and north of Yangzhou. Qingzhou's primary territory included most of modern Shandong province except the southwest corner; the territory takes its name from the Tribute of Yu wherein Yu the Great wrote: "Between the sea and Mount Tai there is only Qingzhou". In around 5,000 BCE the area was the cradle of Dongyi culture. During the Xia and Shang dynasties, it was home to the Shuangjiu and Pangboling clans and the state of Pugu. Following the Duke of Zhou's c. 1040 BCE successful campaign against the Dongyi states allied with the revolting Three Guards and the rebellious Shang prince Wu Geng, the captured territory of Pugu was granted to Jiang Ziya as the marchland of Qi. In 106 BCE, Emperor Wu formally divided the Han Empire into 13 provinces and appointed a Regional Coordinator in Qingzhou.
With the coming of the Eastern Han dynasty in 25 CE, the seat of a local administration moved from Qingzhou to the former Qi capital of Linzi. During the Tang dynasty, Qingzhou held jurisdiction over the seven counties of Yidu, Linqu, Qiancheng and Shouguang with the administrative centre based in Yidu County; the administrative centre of Qingzhou remained in Yidu County during the Northern Song dynasty with the number of counties reduced to six by the removal of Beihai County. This article is based on a translation of 青州 in the Chinese Wikipedia