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Heunischenburg

The Heunischenburg is a stone fortification of the late Urnfield period near the Upper Franconian town of Kronach in Germany. Its heyday was in the 9th century BC, making it the oldest stone fortification north of the Alps, known and archaeologically investigated; the fort is located on a 486-metre-high hill spur of the Wolfsberg, between the Kronach quarter of Gehülz and the village of Burgstall. The fort guarded a copper and tin trading route in the Fichtel Mountains. While a mighty, 110-metre-long rampart protected the vulnerable eastern flank of the military camp, on the other sides the steeply sloping sides of the spur offer a natural protection, reinforced by a wooden palisade; the typical features of a pincer gate and sally port suggest a late Mycenaean influence, so that contacts to the Mediterranean civilisation can be assumed. The strong, but small fort and the many weapons found distinguish the Heunischenburg from the great centres of settlement of the late Bronze Age. Two meanings have been proposed: the term Heunen could refer to a grey, legendary thing from an earlier time.

The root word Heunen could refer to legendary giant builders of the fortification imagined by the people of the Middle Ages. Excavations indicate three periods of settlement: In the first period the Heunischenburg was constructed as a palisaded fortification. In the second period the defences were reinforced with a sandstone wall that burned down during a battle. In the third period the Heunischenburg was expanded into a strong hillfort; the northeastern flank was guarded by a 2.6-metre-wide, 3.5-metre-high and 110-metre long wall made of sandstone. This was in turn protected by a 3.5-metre-wide berm and a shallow ditch The wall on the inner side of the pincer gateway is only of single-leaf construction. The outer wall either side of the gateway approach on the hillside, was 2 metres wide and continued as a 55-metre-long wooden defensive breastwork; this enclosed the entire site. The gateway had a 1-metre-wide portal at the rear with a projecting wooden tower; the archaeological dating of the site is based on numerous bronze finds, about 70 per cent of which are weapons.

There are needles, razors, decorative discs, fragments of wrought lead, pieces of swords, lance points and arrowheads. Because many arrowheads were found that had not been deburred, it is suspected that there were times when there was an high consumption of munitions in the garrison. A helmet of the Urnfield period was found at nearby Thonberg. In 1986 and 2000, based on clear evidence, a reconstruction was carried out of a section of wall of the final fortification phase with a berm in front, the gateway with its wooden tower and the gateway cul-de-sac which extended for some way into the interior of the fort. Björn-Uwe Abels: The Heunischenburg near Kronach. Eine späturnenfelderzeitliche Befestigung. Univ.-Verl. Regensburg, 2002, ISBN 3-930480-28-X. Documentation of the excavations with many explanatory sketches 360° Panorama of the Heunischenburg in 31 October 2010

Stephen R. Lyons

General Stephen R. Lyons is a general officer in the United States Army, he is the Commander of the United States Transportation Command. He served as the Commanding General, United States Army Combined Arms Support Command/Sustainment Center of Excellence as well as the Senior Mission Commander for Fort Lee, from 2014 to 2015. Lyons is a 1979 graduate of the LaSalle Institute, an all-male private Catholic college preparatory school in Troy, New York, he earned an associate's degree in criminal justice from Hudson Valley Community College. In 1983, he graduated from the Rochester Institute of Technology and commissioned through ROTC as a second lieutenant in the Ordnance Corps. Lyons received a Master of Science degree in logistics management from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1993 and a Master of Science in national resource strategy from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in 2005. Lyons served as battalion executive officer for the Division Support Command and as the executive officer and Division Material Management Center Chief in the 1st Armored Division in Germany.

Lyons was the Plans Officer for the J-4 United States Central Command. His battalion command was with the 703rd Main Support Battalion and he served as the G-4 of the 3rd Infantry Division, he commanded the 82nd Airborne Division Support Command and commanded the 82nd Sustainment Brigade. He served as the executive officer to United States Army Materiel Command, he has served with the International Security Assistance Force as C/J-4. He was the Director, Logistics Operations, Force Integration and Strategy at Headquarters, Department of the Army G-4. Lyons commanded of the 8th Theater Sustainment Command at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii from 2012 to 2014; the 8th TSC is responsible for logistics and sustainment of the army in the Pacific. The command spans 9,000 miles and controls units providing supplies, transport, engineer and military police from Alaska to Korea. From August 22, 2014 to August 7, 2015, Lyons commanded the Combined Arms Support Command/Sustainment Center of Excellence at Fort Lee, Virginia.

Lyons deployed for two tours to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. He was involved in Hurricane Katrina Relief Operations in New Orleans, Louisiana in 2005, he served in 1996 in Bosnia-Herzegovina during Operation Joint Endeavor as part of the Implementation Force and deployed in 1989 for Operation Just Cause in Panama. After serving as the Deputy Commanding General for United States Transportation Command at Scott Air Force Base, Lyons was assigned as the Director for Logistics on the Joint Staff. In April 2018, Lyons was nominated for promotion to general and assignment as commander of United States Transportation Command, he was confirmed by the United States Senate and took command of United States Transportation Command on August 24, 2018. Lyons is the first non-Air Force officer to lead Transportation Command