SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Zhejiang

Zhejiang, is an eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered by Jiangsu and Shanghai to the north, Anhui to the northwest, Jiangxi to the west, Fujian to the south. To the east is the East China Sea, beyond which lie the Ryukyu Islands of Japan; the population of Zhejiang stands at the 10th highest among China. Other notable cities include Wenzhou, it has been called'the backbone of China' due to being a major driving force in the Chinese economy and being the birthplace of several notable persons, including the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and entrepreneur Jack Ma. The area of Zhejiang was controlled by the Kingdom of Yue during the Autumn period; the Qin Empire annexed it in 222 BC. Under the late Ming dynasty and the Qing dynasty that followed it, Zhejiang's ports became important centers of international trade, it was occupied by the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese war and placed under the control of the Japanese puppet state known as the Reorganized National Government of China.

After Japan's defeat, Zhejiang's economy became stagnant under Mao Zedong's policies. After China's economic reform, Zhejiang has grown to be considered one of China's wealthiest provinces, ranking fourth in GDP nationally and fifth by GDP per capita, with a nominal GDP of CN¥5.62 trilion as of 2018. Zhejiang's economy is based on electromechanical industries, chemical industries and construction materials. Zhejiang consists of hills, which account for about 70% of its total area, with higher altitudes towards the south and the west. Zhejiang has China's longest coastline; the Qiantang River runs through the province. Included in the province are three thousand islands, the most in China; the capital Hangzhou marks the end of the Grand Canal, lies on Hangzhou Bay on the north of Zhejiang, which separates Shanghai and Ningbo. The bay contains. Hangzhou is a important city of China, is considered a World City with a "Beta+" classification according to GaWC, it includes the notable West Lake. Various varieties of Chinese are spoken in the most prominent being Wu Chinese.

The province's name derives from the Zhe River, the former name of the Qiantang River which flows past Hangzhou and whose mouth forms Hangzhou Bay. It is understood as meaning "Crooked" or "Bent River," from the meaning of Chinese 折, but is more a phono-semantic compound formed from adding 氵 to phonetic 折, preserving a proto-Wu name of the local Yue, similar to Yuhang and Jiang. Kuahuqiao culture was an early Neolithic culture that flourished in the Hangzhou area in 6,000-5,000 BC. Zhejiang was the site of the Neolithic cultures of the Liangzhu; the area of modern Zhejiang was outside the major sphere of influence of Shang civilization during the second millennium BC. Instead, this area was populated by peoples collectively known as the Ouyue; the kingdom of Yue began to appear in the chronicles and records written during the Spring and Autumn period. According to the chronicles, the kingdom of Yue was in northern Zhejiang. Shiji claims; the "Song of the Yue Boatman" was transliterated into Chinese and recorded by authors in north China or inland China of Hebei and Henan around 528 BC.

The song shows that the Yue people spoke a language, mutually unintelligible with the dialects spoken in north and inland China. The Sword of Goujian bears bird-worm seal script. Yuenü was a swordswoman from the state of Yue. To check the growth of the kingdom of Wu, Chu pursued a policy of strengthening Yue. Under King Goujian, Yue recovered from its early reverses and annexed the lands of its rival in 473 BC; the Yue kings moved their capital center from their original home around Mount Kuaiji in present-day Shaoxing to the former Wu capital at present-day Suzhou. With no southern power to turn against Yue, Chu opposed it directly and, in 333 BC, succeeded in destroying it. Yue's former lands were annexed by the Qin Empire in 222 BC and organized into a commandery named for Kuaiji in Zhejiang but headquartered in Wu in Jiangsu. Kuaiji Commandery was the initial power base for Xiang Liang and Xiang Yu's rebellion against the Qin Empire which succeeded in restoring the kingdom of Chu but fell to the Han.

Under the Later Han, control of the area returned to the settlement below Mount Kuaiji but authority over the Minyue hinterland was nominal at best and its Yue inhabitants retained their own political and social structures. At the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era, Zhejiang was home to the warlords Yan Baihu and Wang Lang prior to their defeat by Sun Ce and Sun Quan, who established the Kingdom of Wu. Despite the removal of their court from Kuaiji to Jianye, they continued development of the region and benefitted from influxes of refugees fleeing the turmoil in northern China. Industrial kilns were established and trade reached as far as Manchuria and Funan. Zhejiang was part of the Wu during the Three Kingdoms. Wu known as Eastern Wu or Sun Wu, had been the economically most developed state among the Three Kingdoms; the historical novel

Al-Hasan ibn Qahtaba

Al-Hasan ibn Qahtaba ibn Shabib al-Ta'i in Arabic الحَسَن بن قَحْطَبَة بن شبيب الطائي was a senior military leader in the early Abbasid Caliphate. He was the son of Qahtaba ibn Shabib al-Ta'i, who along with Abu Muslim led the Abbasid Revolution that toppled the Umayyad Caliphate. Along with his brother Humayd, Hasan was active in the Abbasid cause in Khurasan during the years before the Revolution, serving as a deputy naqib. During the Revolution itself, together with his father he was one of the principal commanders in the campaign that brought the Abbasid armies from Khurasan into Iraq. After the Revolution, Hasan served the future Caliph al-Mansur as deputy governor in Armenia, which he helped pacify, sided with Mansur against the rebellion of Abdallah ibn Ali in Syria in 754. After this, he was appointed to the frontier with the Byzantine Empire, where he led the summer raids into Asia Minor in 766, 779 and 780, he is also to be identified as the Mouchesias of Byzantine sources, which indicate that on the orders of Caliph al-Mahdi he was engaged in persecutions and forced conversions of Christians in Syria.

Although distinguished as a member of the abna al-dawla, the Abbasid regime's Khurasani elite, wealthy—like most Abbasid commanders, he received portions of the newly built capital, Baghdad, as a grant—Hasan played scarcely any political role at court. He died in 797 at the age of 84, his sons, Ali, Sa'id held gubernatorial positions in various provinces. In the Fourth Fitna, they all sided with al-Amin against al-Ma'mun; as with most of the old Abbasid families, they lost power, although not their wealth, after the triumph of al-Ma'mun in the civil war. Crone, Patricia. Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52940-9. Kennedy, Hugh; the Early Abbasid Caliphate: A Political History. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-7099-3115-8. Lilie, Ralph-Johannes. "al-Ḥasan ibn Qaḥṭaba". Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit: 1. Abteilung, Band 2: Georgios – Leon. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter. P. 120. ISBN 978-3-11-016672-9. Zarrinkub, Abd al-Husain. "The Arab conquest of Iran and its aftermath Cambridge History of Iran".

In Frye, Richard N.. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 1–56. ISBN 0-521-20093-8

Nastasen

Nastasen was a king of the African civilisation of Kush. According to a stela from Dongola his mother was named Queen Pelkha and his father may have been King Harsiotef, his successor was Aryamani. He is known from three types of objects. There is a stela with a long historical inscription, a silver handle of a mirror and several shabti-figures; the mirror handle and the shabti were found in a pyramid at Nuri, his burial place. He was the last Kushite king to be buried in the royal cemetery at Napata; the 1.63 m high granite stela was found at New Dongola and is now in the Berlin Museum Inv. no. 2268. It was most placed in the Amun temple of Jebel Barkal. In the upper part appear the pictures and name of his mother and his wife, next to the king; the tomb of Nastasen is among several in Nuri that are slated for excavation by archaeologists using underwater archaeological methods. That is necessary because of rising ground waters in; these tombs have flooded. Initial excavation reports of his tomb indicate that it may be undisturbed by robbers.

Expectations exist that artifacts not adversely affected by the water, will be found so more will be known about Nastasen from what is discovered along with tantalizing evidence found, of artifacts damaged or lost due to the action of the water. During his reign, Nastasen defeated an invasion of Kush from Upper Egypt. Nastasen's monument calls the leader of this invasion Kambasuten, a local variation of Khabbash. Khabbash was a local ruler of Upper Egypt who had campaigned against the Persians around 338 BC, his invasion of Kush was a failure, Nastasen claimed to have taken many fine boats and other booty during his victory. Fage, J. D. & Roland Oliver. The Cambridge History of Africa Volume 2: From C.500 BC to AD1050. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 858 Pages. ISBN 0-521-21592-7. Laszlo Török, in: Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, Vol. II, Bergen 1996, 467-501, ISBN 82-91626-01-4 The hieroglyphic text of the stela Homestead Nastasen Stela