Polymer science or macromolecular science is a subfield of materials science concerned with polymers synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers. The field of polymer science includes researchers in multiple disciplines including chemistry and engineering; this science comprises three main sub-disciplines: Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is concerned with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers. Polymer physics is concerned with the bulk properties of polymer materials and engineering applications. Polymer characterization is concerned with the analysis of chemical structure and the determination of physical properties in relation to compositional and structural parameters; the first modern example of polymer science is Henri Braconnot's work in the 1830s. Henri, along with Christian Schönbein and others, developed derivatives of the natural polymer cellulose, producing new, semi-synthetic materials, such as celluloid and cellulose acetate; the term "polymer" was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius, though Berzelius did little that would be considered polymer science in the modern sense.
In the 1840s, Friedrich Ludersdorf and Nathaniel Hayward independently discovered that adding sulfur to raw natural rubber helped prevent the material from becoming sticky. In 1844 Charles Goodyear received a U. S. patent for vulcanizing natural rubber with sulfur and heat. Thomas Hancock had received a patent for the same process in the UK the year before; this process strengthened natural rubber and prevented it from melting with heat without losing flexibility. This made practical products such as waterproofed articles possible, it facilitated practical manufacture of such rubberized materials. Vulcanized rubber represents the first commercially successful product of polymer research. In 1884 Hilaire de Chardonnet started the first artificial fiber plant based on regenerated cellulose, or viscose rayon, as a substitute for silk, but it was flammable. In 1907 Leo Baekeland invented the first synthetic plastic, a thermosetting phenol–formaldehyde resin called Bakelite. Despite significant advances in polymer synthesis, the molecular nature of polymers was not understood until the work of Hermann Staudinger in 1922.
Prior to Staudinger's work, polymers were understood in terms of the association theory or aggregate theory, which originated with Thomas Graham in 1861. Graham proposed that cellulose and other polymers were colloids, aggregates of molecules having small molecular mass connected by an unknown intermolecular force. Hermann Staudinger was the first to propose that polymers consisted of long chains of atoms held together by covalent bonds, it took over a decade for Staudinger's work to gain wide acceptance in the scientific community, work for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1953. The World War II era marked the emergence of a strong commercial polymer industry; the limited or restricted supply of natural materials such as silk and rubber necessitated the increased production of synthetic substitutes, such as nylon and synthetic rubber. In the intervening years, the development of advanced polymers such as Kevlar and Teflon have continued to fuel a strong and growing polymer industry; the growth in industrial applications was mirrored by the establishment of strong academic programs and research institute.
In 1946, Herman Mark established the Polymer Research Institute at Brooklyn Polytechnic, the first research facility in the United States dedicated to polymer research. Mark is recognized as a pioneer in establishing curriculum and pedagogy for the field of polymer science. In 1950, the POLY division of the American Chemical Society was formed, has since grown to the second-largest division in this association with nearly 8,000 members. Fred W. Billmeyer, Jr. a Professor of Analytical Chemistry had once said that "although the scarcity of education in polymer science is diminishing but it is still evident in many areas. What is most unfortunate is that it appears to exist, not because of a lack of awareness but, rather, a lack of interest." 2005 Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock, Yves Chauvin for olefin metathesis.2002 John Bennett Fenn, Koichi Tanaka, Kurt Wüthrich for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules.2000 Alan G. MacDiarmid, Alan J. Heeger, Hideki Shirakawa for work on conductive polymers, contributing to the advent of molecular electronics.1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes for developing a generalized theory of phase transitions with particular applications to describing ordering and phase transitions in polymers.1974 Paul J. Flory for contributions to theoretical polymer chemistry.1963 Giulio Natta and Karl Ziegler for contributions in polymer synthesis..1953 Hermann Staudinger for contributions to the understanding of macromolecular chemistry.
Asua, José M.. Polymer Reaction Engineering. Wiley, John & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-4442-1. List of scholarly journals pertaining to polymer science
Nokia Bell Labs is an industrial research and scientific development company owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in New Jersey. Other laboratories are located around the world. Bell Labs has its origins in the complex past of the Bell System. In the late 19th century, the laboratory began as the Western Electric Engineering Department and was located at 463 West Street in New York City. In 1925, after years of conducting research and development under Western Electric, the Engineering Department was reformed into Bell Telephone Laboratories and under the shared ownership of American Telephone & Telegraph Company and Western Electric. Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device, information theory, the Unix operating system, the programming languages C, C++, S. Nine Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories. In 1880, when the French government awarded Alexander Graham Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs (approximately US$10,000 at that time for the invention of the telephone, he used the award to fund the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.
C. in collaboration with Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin Chichester Bell. The laboratory was variously known as the Volta Bureau, the Bell Carriage House, the Bell Laboratory and the Volta Laboratory, it focused on the analysis and transmission of sound. Bell used his considerable profits from the laboratory for further research and education to permit the " diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf": resulting in the founding of the Volta Bureau, located at Bell's father's house at 1527 35th Street N. W. in Washington, D. C, its carriage house became their headquarters in 1889. In 1893, Bell constructed a new building close by at 1537 35th Street N. W. to house the lab. This building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. After the invention of the telephone, Bell maintained a distant role with the Bell System as a whole, but continued to pursue his own personal research interests; the Bell Patent Association was formed by Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Sanders, Gardiner Hubbard when filing the first patents for the telephone in 1876.
Bell Telephone Company, the first telephone company, was formed a year later. It became a part of the American Bell Telephone Company. American Telephone & Telegraph Company and its own subsidiary company, took control of American Bell and the Bell System by 1889. American Bell held a controlling interest in Western Electric whereas AT&T was doing research into the service providers. In 1884, the American Bell Telephone Company created the Mechanical Department from the Electrical and Patent Department formed a year earlier. In 1896, Western Electric bought property at 463 West Street to station their manufacturers and engineers, supplying AT&T with their product; this included everything from telephones, telephone exchange switches, transmission equipment. In 1925, Bell Laboratories was developed to better consolidate the research activities of the Bell System. Ownership was evenly split between Western Electric and AT&T. Throughout the next decade the AT&T Research and Development branch moved into West Street.
Bell Labs carried out consulting work for the Bell Telephone Company, U. S. government work, a few workers were assigned to basic research. The first president of research at Bell Labs was Frank B. Jewett who stayed there until 1940. By the early 1940s, Bell Labs engineers and scientists had begun to move to other locations away from the congestion and environmental distractions of New York City, in 1967 Bell Laboratories headquarters was relocated to Murray Hill, New Jersey. Among the Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Lincroft, Long Branch, Neptune, Piscataway, Red Bank and Whippany. Of these, Murray Hill and Crawford Hill remain in existence; the largest grouping of people in the company was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, in the Chicago area, which had the largest concentration of employees prior to 2001. There were groups of employees in Indianapolis, Indiana. Since 2001, many of the former locations closed; the Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007.
The mirrored-glass building was designed by Eero Saarinen. In August 2013, Somerset Development bought the building, intending to redevelop it into a mixed commercial and residential project. A 2012 article expressed doubt on the success of the newly named Bell Works site however several large tenants had announced plans to move in through 2016 and 2017 Bell Laboratories was, is, regarded by many as the premier research facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, information theory, the operating system Unix, the programming languages C and C++, solar cells, the CCD, floating-gate MOSFET, a whole host of optical and wired communications
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual. In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth name or legal name of the individual; the academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy. In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name, together with a surname —respectively, the Abraham and Lincoln in Abraham Lincoln—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan. Where there are two or more given names only one is used in normal speech. Another naming convention, used in the Arabic culture and in different other areas across Africa and Asia is connecting the person's given name with a chain of names, starting with the name of the person's father and the father's father and so on ending with the family name. However, the legal full name of a person contains the first three names with the family name at the end, to limit the name in government-issued ID.
Note that the wife's name does not change after marriage, it follows the naming convention described above. Some cultures, including Western ones add patronymics or matronymics. For instance, as a middle name as with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, or as a last name as with Björk Guðmundsdóttir or Heiðar Helguson. Similar concepts are present in Eastern cultures. However, in some areas of the world, many people are known by a single name, so are said to be mononymous. Still other cultures lack the concept of specific, fixed names designating people, either individually or collectively. Certain isolated tribes, such as the Machiguenga of the Amazon, do not use personal names. A person's full name identifies that person for legal and administrative purposes, although it may not be the name by which the person is known, it is nearly universal for people to have names. Common components of names given at birth include: Personal name: The given name can precede a family name, or it can come after the family name, or be used without a family name.
Patronymic: A surname based on the given name of the father. Matronymic: A surname based on the given name of the mother. Family name: A name used by all members of a family. In China, surnames came into common use beginning in the 3rd century BC. In some areas of East Asia, surnames developed in the next several centuries, while in other areas, surnames did not become prevalent until the 19th century. In Europe, after the loss of the Roman system, the common use of family names started quite early in some areas, but it did not happen until much in areas that used a patronymic naming custom, such as the Scandinavian countries and some areas of Germany, as well as Russia and Ukraine; the compulsory use of surnames varied greatly. France required a priest to write surnames in baptismal records in 1539. On the other hand, surnames were not compulsory in the Scandinavian countries until the 19th or 20th century in Norway, Iceland still does not use surnames for its native inhabitants. In Spain and most Latin American countries, two surnames are used, one being the father's family name and the other being the mother's family name.
Whereas Spain used to put the father's family name before the mother's family name and Brazil keep the inverse order but use the father's family name as the principal one. A Portuguese man named António de Oliveira Guterres would therefore be known as António Guterres. In Spain, the second surname is used if the first one is too common to allow an easy identification. For example, Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero is called Zapatero. In most of the cultures of the Middle East and South Asia, surnames were not used until European influence took hold in the 19th century. In many families, single or multiple middle names are alternative names, names honoring an ancestor or relative, or, for married women, sometimes their maiden names. In some traditions, the roles of the first and middle given names are reversed, with the first given name being used to honor a family member and the middle name being used as the usual method to address someone informally. Many Catholic families choose a saint's name as their child's middle name or this can be left until the child's confirmation when they choose a saint's name for themselves.
Cultures that use patronymics or matronymics will give middle names to distinguish between two named people: e.g. Einar Karl Stefánsson and Einar Guðmundur Stefánsson; this is done in Iceland where people are known and referred to exclusively by their given name/s. Some people choose to be anonymous, that is, to hide their true names, for fear of governmental prosecution or social ridicule
Lucent Technologies, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in the United States. It was established on September 30, 1996, through the divestiture of the former AT&T Technologies business unit of AT&T Corporation, which included Western Electric and Bell Labs. Lucent was merged with Alcatel SA of France in a merger of equals on December 1, 2006, forming Alcatel-Lucent. Alcatel-Lucent was absorbed by Nokia in January 2016. Lucent means "they shine" in Latin; the name was applied in 1996 at the time of the split from AT&T. The name was criticised, as the logo was to be, both internally and externally. Corporate communications and business cards included the strapline'Bell Labs Innovations' in a bid to retain the prestige of the internationally famous research lab, within a new business under an as-yet unknown name; this same linguistic root gives Lucifer, "the light bearer", a character in Dante's epic poem Inferno. Shortly after the Lucent renaming in 1996, Lucent's Plan 9 project released a development of their work as the Inferno OS in 1997.
This extended the'Lucifer' and Dante references as a series of punning names for the components of Inferno - Dis, Limbo and Styx. When the rights to Inferno were sold in 2000, the company Vita Nuova Holdings was formed to represent them; this continues the Dante theme, although moving away from his Divine Comedy to the poem La Vita Nuova. The Lucent logo, the Innovation Ring, was designed by Landor Associates, a prominent San Francisco-based branding consultancy. One source inside Lucent says that the logo is a Zen Buddhist symbol for "eternal truth", the Enso, turned 90 degrees and modified. Another source says it represents a snake holding its tail in its mouth. Lucent's logo has been said to represent constant re-creating and re-thinking. Carly Fiorina picked the logo because her mother was a painter and she rejected the sterile geometric logos of most high tech companies. After the logo was compared in the media to the ring a coffee mug leaves on paper, a Dilbert comic strip showed Dogbert as an overpaid consultant designing a new company logo.
A telecommunication commentator referred to the logo as "a big red zero" and predicted financial losses. One of the primary reasons AT&T Corporation chose to spin off its equipment manufacturing business was to permit it to profit from sales to competing telecommunications providers. Bell Labs brought prestige to the new company, as well as the revenue from thousands of patents. At the time of its spinoff, Lucent was placed under the leadership of Henry Schacht, brought in to oversee its transition from an arm of AT&T into an independent corporation. Richard McGinn, serving as President and COO, succeeded Schacht as CEO in 1997 while Schacht remained chairman of the board. Lucent became a "darling" stock of the investment community in the late 1990s, its split-adjusted spinoff price of $7.56/share rose to a high of $84. Its market capitalization reached a high of $258 billion, it was at the time the most held company with 5.3 million shareholders. In 1997, Lucent acquired Milpitas-based voicemail market leader Octel Communications Corporation for $2.1 billion, a move which rendered the Business Systems Group profitable.
By 1999 Lucent stock continued to soar and in that year Lucent acquired Ascend Communications, an Alameda, California–based manufacturer of communications equipment for US$24 billion. Lucent decided instead to build its own routers. In 1997, Lucent acquired Livingston Enterprises Inc. for $650 million in stock. Livingston was known most for the creation of the RADIUS protocol and their PortMaster product, used by dial-up internet service providers. In 1995, Carly Fiorina led corporate operations. In that capacity, she reported to Lucent chief executive Henry B. Schacht, she played a key role in planning and implementing the 1996 initial public offering of a successful stock and company launch strategy. Under her guidance, the spin-off raised US$3 billion. In 1996, Fiorina was appointed president of Lucent's consumer products sector, reporting to president and chief operating officer Rich McGinn. In 1997, she was named group president for Lucent's US$19 billion global service-provider business, overseeing marketing and sales for the company's largest customer segment.
That year, Fiorina chaired a US$2.5 billion joint venture between Lucent's consumer communications and Royal Philips Electronics, under the name Philips Consumer Communications. The focus of the venture was to bring both companies to the top three in technology and brand recognition; the project struggled and dissolved a year after it garnered only 2% market share in mobile phones. Losses were at $500 million on sales of $2.5 billion. As a result of the failed joint venture, Philips announced the closure of one-quarter of the company's 230 factories worldwide, Lucent closed down its wireless handset portion of the venture. Analysts suggested that the joint venture's failure was due to a combination of technology and management problems. Upon the end of the joint venture, PCC sent 5,000 employees back to Philips, many of which were laid off, 8,400 employees back to Lucent. Under Fiorina, the company added 22,000 jobs and revenues seemed to grow from US$19 billion to US$38 billion. However, the real cause of Lucent spurring sales under Fiorina was by lending money to their own customers.
Jiangsu is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres along the Yellow Sea, the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province. Since the Sui and Tang dynasties, Jiangsu has been a national economic and commercial center due to the construction of Grand Canal. Cities such as Nanjing, Wuxi and Shanghai are all major Chinese economic hubs. Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, Jiangsu has become a focal point for economic development, it is regarded as China's most developed province measured by its Human Development Index.
Jiangsu is home to many of the world's leading exporters of electronic equipment and textiles. It has been China's largest recipient of foreign direct investment since 2006, its 2014 nominal GDP was more than 1 trillion US dollars, the sixth-highest of all country subdivisions. Jiangsu's name is a compound of the first elements of the names of the two cities of Jiangning and Suzhou; the abbreviation for this province is "苏", the second character of its name. During the earliest Chinese dynasties, the area, now Jiangsu was far away from the center of Chinese civilization, in the northwest Henan. During the Zhou dynasty more contact was made, the state of Wu appeared as a vassal to the Zhou dynasty in south Jiangsu, one of the many hundreds of states that existed across northern and central China at that time. Near the end of the Spring and Autumn period, Wu became a great power under King Helu of Wu, defeated in 484 BC the state of Qi, a major power in the north in modern-day Shandong province, contest for the position of overlord over all states of China.
The state of Wu was subjugated in 473 BC by the state of Yue, another state that had emerged to the south in modern-day Zhejiang province. Yue was in turn subjugated by the powerful state of Chu from the west in 333 BC; the state of Qin swept away all the other states, unified China in 221 BC. Under the reign of the Han dynasty, Jiangsu was removed from the centers of civilization in the North China Plain, was administered under two zhou: Xuzhou Province in the north, Yangzhou Province in the south. During the Three Kingdoms period, southern Jiangsu became the base of the Eastern Wu, whose capital, Jianye, is modern Nanking; when nomadic invasions overran northern China in the 4th century, the imperial court of the Jin dynasty moved to Jiankang. Cities in southern and central Jiangsu swelled with the influx of migrants from the north. Jiankang remained as the capital for four successive Southern dynasties and became the largest commercial and cultural center in China. After the Sui dynasty united the country in 581, the political center of the country shifted back to the north, but the Grand Canal was built through Jiangsu to link the Central Plain with the prosperous Yangtze Delta.
The Tang dynasty relied on southern Jiangsu for annual deliveries of grain. It was during the Song dynasty, which saw the development of a wealthy mercantile class and emergent market economy in China, that south Jiangsu emerged as a center of trade. From onwards, south Jiangsu major cities like Suzhou or Yangzhou, would be synonymous with opulence and luxury in China. Today south Jiangsu remains one of the richest parts of China, Shanghai, arguably the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan of mainland China cities, is a direct extension of south Jiangsu culture; the Jurchen Jin dynasty gained control of North China in 1127 during the Jin-Song wars, Huai River, which used to cut through north Jiangsu to reach the Yellow Sea, was the border between the north, under the Jin, the south, under the Southern Song dynasty. The Mongols took control of China in the thirteenth century; the Ming dynasty, established in 1368 after driving out the Mongols who had occupied China put its capital in Nanjing. Following a coup by Zhu Di, the capital was moved to Beijing, far to the north.
The entirety of modern-day Jiangsu as well as neighbouring Anhui province kept their special status, however, as territory-governed directly by the central government, were called Nanzhili. Meanwhile, South Jiangsu continued to be an important center of trade in China; the Qing dynasty changed this situation by establishing Nanzhili as Jiangnan province. "In 1727 the to-min or "idle people" of Cheh Kiang province, the yoh-hu or "music people" of Shan Si provi
Chemical & Engineering News
Chemical & Engineering News is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering. It includes information on recent news and research in these fields and employment information and industry news and policy news, funding in these fields, special reports; the magazine is available to all members of the American Chemical Society. In addition, the front part of the magazine is available online for free for anyone to view, but a subscription is required to see further content; the magazine was established in 1923, has been on the internet since 1998. The editor-in-chief is Bibiana Campos Seijo; the magazine is abstracted and indexed in Chemical Abstracts Service, Science Citation Index, Scopus. Official website