Brahin is a town in Belarus and an administrative center of Brahin Rajon. It stands on the banks of Braginka river,28 km from the nearest railway, the settlement is first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex in 1147 as the important town of the Kiyv princedom. A significant part of Brahins population traditionally was of Jewish descent, by the end of 19th century,2254 of 4311 inhabitants were Jewish. After that, Jews were led out in groups to the edge of the village, as a result of the Chernobyl disaster, areas of the Brahin district was radioactively contaminated. 52 settlements were resettled,9 of which are buried, from Brahin itself 1,651 families were resettled. Media related to Brahin at Wikimedia Commons Brahin at Belarus. by
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Chachersk is a city in the Gomel Region of Belarus, an administrative center of the Chachersk district. It is located in an area which is highly contaminated due to the fallout of the Chernobyl disaster, the town was founded in the late 10th century on the Sozh River. It was first mentioned in chronicles in 1159 as the city Radimichi Chachersk, sometime a castle was built in the area. In 1772 it became part of Russia, as the center of the county in the province Rogachev and parish center of Rogachev district. In 1774 Catherine II of Russia in collaboration with a local governor helped build the hall, churches, a theater,2 hospitals. Redevelopment of the city took place, with the destruction of the castle and the fortifications, there are two surviving unique sights of the 18th century - the Holy Transfiguration Church and Town Hall in Chachersk. The Holy Transfiguration Church was built in classicism style 1783 and has international architectural worth, during Operation Barbarossa in 1941, Nazi Germany captured the town and established a ghetto for Chachersks Jewish population.
The Jews of Chachersk, as well as neighboring Romani, were exterminated in December 1941. Since 1919, Chachersk has been part of Gomel province in the RSFSR and it officially became a town in 1971. Since 1629 the town has had the privilege of a weekly trade, now the economy of the city is based on the enterprises of the food industry and is a center for arts and crafts. Media related to Chachersk at Wikimedia Commons Photos on Radzima. org
Kalinkavičy is a town in the Gomel Region of south-eastern Belarus. Kalinkavičy is located beside the Pripyat River, opposite the town of Mazyr and it has a population of 37,876. It has suffered radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl disaster, archaeological excavations have found traces of human settlement dating back to 26, 000-24,000 years ago, the oldest yet discovered in Belarus. The earliest historical mention of the town of Kalinkavičy dates to 1560, the town grew to prominence at the end of the nineteenth century with the coming of the railways. Food processing is the largest industry, the extraction of peat is economically important. The mean January temperature is 6.2 °C, July 18.7 °C, precipitation totals 575 mm per annum. Kalinkavičy is known for the annual Avtyuki comedy festival, held every June, in 1998 the town was united with the surrounding rural area to form a single administrative unit, Kalinkavičy Rajon, covering 2,756 km2, with a total population of 71,500. One of the most notable figures born in Kalinkavicy was Solomon Simon and his autobiography, My Jewish Roots, describes his early childhood years in Kalinkavicy.
Katherine Locke, a stage and supporting actress of the 1930s and 40s was born in Kalinkavicy. Media related to Kalinkavichy at Wikimedia Commons
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Mazyr is a city in Gomel Region of Belarus on the Pripyat River about 210 kilometres east of Pinsk and 100 kilometres northwest of Chernobyl and is located at approximately 52°03′N 29°15′E. The total urban area including Kalinkavichy across the river has a population of 150,000, Mozyr is known as a center of oil refining, machine building, and food processing in Belarus. It is home to one of the largest oil refineries in Belarus, the Druzhba pipeline carries crude oil from Russia splitting in two at Mazyr. One pipeline branch is directed into Poland and the one to Ukraine. The right bank of the Pripyat River, where the city is located, is elevated above the bank at substantial heights. The overfall of surface of that scale is assumed to be a consequence of a glaciation, since both banks of the river are sandy, the right bank is cut through by a number of great ravines. The city is located on the ravines, so its streets look much like streets of a mountain town. One of the ravines is proclaimed a reserve, some of the nearby ravines are currently equipped with ski lifts and transformed into skiing winter resorts.
Mazyr once had a sizable Jewish population, during World War II, many Jews were executed by the Nazis in Mazyr. There are several memorials devoted to this in the modern city, as with other Soviet cities, during approximately the last 15 years of the Communist control, a large proportion of the remaining Jews have relocated abroad, mostly to Israel and United States. In 1986, the city suffered from radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Mazyr is one of the oldest cities of historical Ruthenia, first mentioned in the mid-12th century as part of Duchy of Vladimir, and the Duchy of Kiev. In the 13th century it was conquered by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, initially a small settlement, in the 15th century it was donated to Duke Michael Glinski, who converted it into a town. The city received town rights first from king Stefan Batory in 1577, despite having been destroyed by Russian forces twice, the city continued to grow and following the Union of Lublin it became a major administrative and trade centre, as well as a seat of a powiat.
In 1648 there was a conflict during the Khmelnytsky Uprising, between 1723 and 1726 the Jesuits created a school in Mozyr under auspice of the Academy of Vilna. Following the suppression of the order in 1773 the school was secularised and continued to exist as a gymnasium, among its most famous graduates are Edward Piekarski and Władysław Mazurkiewicz. In 1793, following the Partitions of Poland, the town was annexed by Russia, in the 19th century the town grew rapidly, mostly because of the Russian Pale of Settlement policy that allowed Jews to settle only in the lands once held by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Because of that Mozyr grew to over 10 thousand inhabitants by the end of the century, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the town was captured by the Polish Army in the so-called Mozyr Operation
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Lianyungang is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Jiangsu province, China. It borders Yancheng to its southeast and Suqian to its south, Xuzhou to its southwest, Lianyungang was known in the West as Haichow. Haichow was voluntarily opened to trade by the Qing imperial government in 1905. Lianyungang is between 118°24 and 119°48 east longitude and 34°11 and 35°07 north latitude, Lianyungang covers an area of 7,777 km2. The temperature in Lianyungang can reach highs of 30 °C in the summer. The vast majority of precipitation occurs between June and August, where it can measure up to 278mm of rainfall on average, winter precipitation is quite low, making snowfall rare and short-lived. Lianyungang is the end of the Longhai Railway, connecting it with Lanzhou in central China. It is now the terminus of the New Eurasian Land Bridge. The government counts it among the first 14 Chinese coastal cities opening to the world and a rising center of industry, foreign trade. This port is in the center of the coast, linking eastern sea routes with western land routes and the Republic of Korea in the east can be reached economically and conveniently from Liangyungang, which is part of the worldwide network of sea transport.
On Chinas 21st Century Agenda, Lianyungang is to be developed into an international seaport linking countries on the Pacific rim with those in Central Asia, in the National Ocean Development Plan it is listed as one of three special development zones. Near the Lianyun-Ports, the Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant is one of the biggest nuclear power plants in China, Lianyungang Economic & Technological Development Zone was approved by the State Council as one of the first batch of state-level development zones in December 1984. It is in the eastern new seashore urban area of Liangyungang City, the distance to nearest airport, Liangyungang Airport is 10–20 km and the distance to nearest highway G310 is 10–20 km. Lianyungang Export Processing Zone is in Lianyungang Economic & Technological Development Zone, there are two main beach and swimming areas, several places to eat, as well as hotels. Lian Island is home to a music extravaganza featuring some of Chinas most famous pop stars. Lianyungang is famous for its Huaguoshan Shuiliandong attraction, Shuiliandong literally means the Water Curtain Hole, according to legend, the hole was hidden behind a waterfall, therefore resembling a curtain of water.
The hole is famous because according to legend it is the home of Sun Wukong, in this hole, underneath the mountain is where he and his monkey subjects lived. After learning Tao, the Monkey King traveled back to the hole so that he and his subjects could eat, the Jade Emperor sent heavenly armies to battle him at this spot because of his misdeeds
Pietrykaŭ, is a town in Gomel Region, Belarus. It is the seat of Pietrykaŭ District. At the 2009 census, its population was 10,591, Pietrykaŭ is located on the left bank of the Pripyat River,89 kilometres west of Mazyr and 190 kilometres west of the city of Gomel, the regional capital. The names by which it has been known include Petrikov, Petrikovo, Petrykaw, Pietrykaŭ, Pyetrykav, before 1500, the history of Pietrykaŭ is that of the Principality of Turov and Pinsk. In 1502 and 1521 the area was attacked by Tatars from the newly independent Crimean Khanate, the first written mention of Pietrykaŭ goes back to the year 1523, where the community was under the Olelkovich familys Duchy of Slutsk–Kapyl, part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The town became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, Pietrykaŭ was administratively placed in the Mazyr District of Minsk Governorate. By the 19th century, it had come under the control of the Chodkiewicz noble Russian family. In 1900, Pietrykaŭ was located in the area of the Russian Empire that allowed resident Jews and had a Jewish community of 2,151,38.
8% of the total population, the town was occupied by the Germans in World War I. It was occupied by the Poles in 1920-1921, during the Polish-Soviet War, Pietrykaŭ received its status as a town in 1923. During World War II, the town was occupied by the Germans, more than 3,000 casualties were suffered by the Soviet troops during the battle for Pietrykaŭ. Pietrykaŭ is located in the affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Among the first industries in Pietrykaŭ were the construction of barges for the river traffic, during the Soviet era the shipyard was expanded and various small manufacturing plants were built, including a bread factory. The town depends upon both river traffic and road traffic for much of its livelihood, there are good road connections with Gomel and Mazyr. There is no bridge across the Pripyat, but there is ferry service. The regional newspaper Петрыкаўскія навіны is published there