Zhou Enlai known as Zhou Xiangyu, was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China. Zhou was China's head of government, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976. Zhou served under Chairman Mao Zedong and was instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power, in consolidating its control, forming foreign policy, developing the Chinese economy. A skilled and able diplomat, Zhou served as the Chinese foreign minister from 1949 to 1958. Advocating peaceful coexistence with the West after the Korean War, he participated in the 1954 Geneva Conference and the 1955 Bandung Conference, helped orchestrate Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China, he helped devise policies regarding the bitter disputes with the United States, the Soviet Union and Vietnam. Zhou survived the purges of other top officials during the Cultural Revolution. While Mao dedicated most of his years to political struggle and ideological work, Zhou was the main driving force behind the affairs of state during much of the Cultural Revolution.
His attempts at mitigating the Red Guards' damage and his efforts to protect others from their wrath made him immensely popular in the Cultural Revolution's stages. As Mao's health began to decline in 1971 and 1972 and following the death of disgraced Lin Biao, Zhou was elected to the vacant position of First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party by the 10th Central Committee in 1973 and thereby designated as Mao's successor, but still struggled against the Gang of Four internally over leadership of China, his last major public appearance was at the first meeting of the 4th National People's Congress on 13 January 1975, where he presented the government work report. He fell out of the public eye for medical treatment and died one year later; the massive public outpouring of grief in Beijing turned to anger at the Gang of Four, leading to the 1976 Tiananmen Incident. Although Zhou was succeeded by Hua Guofeng as First Vice Chairman and designated successor, Zhou's ally Deng Xiaoping was able to outmaneuver the Gang of Four politically and took Hua's place as paramount leader by 1978.
Zhou Enlai was born in Huai'an, Jiangsu province on 5 March 1898, the first son of his branch of the Zhou family. The Zhou family was from Shaoxing in Zhejiang province. During the late Qing dynasty, Shaoxing was famous as the home of families such as Zhou's, whose members worked as government "clerks" generation after generation. To move up the ladder in civil service, the men in these families had to be transferred, in the late years of the Qing dynasty, Zhou Enlai's branch of the family moved to Huai'an. After the move, the family continued to view Shaoxing as its ancestral home. Zhou's grandfather, Zhou Panlong, his granduncle, Zhou Jun'ang, were the first members of the family to move to Huai'an. Panlong passed the provincial examinations, Zhou Enlai claimed that Panlong served as magistrate governing Huai'an county. Zhou's father, Zhou Yineng, was the second of Zhou Panlong's four sons. Zhou's birth mother, surnamed Wan, was the daughter of a prominent Jiangsu official. Like many others, the economic fortunes of Zhou's large family of scholar-officials were decimated by a great economic recession that China suffered in the late 19th century.
Zhou Yineng had a reputation for honesty, gentleness and concern for others, but was considered "weak" and "lacking in discipline and determination". He was unsuccessful in his personal life, drifted across China doing various occupations, working in Beijing, Anhui, Inner Mongolia and Sichuan. Zhou Enlai remembered his father as being always away from home and unable to support his family. Soon after birth, Zhou Enlai was adopted by his father's youngest brother, Zhou Yigan, ill with tuberculosis; the adoption was arranged because the family feared Yigan would die without an heir. Zhou Yigan died soon after the adoption, Zhou Enlai was raised by Yigan's widow, whose surname was Chen. Madame Chen was from a scholarly family and received a traditional literary education. According to Zhou's own account, he was close to his adoptive mother and acquired his lasting interest in Chinese literature and opera from her. Madame Chen taught Zhou to read and write at an early age, Zhou claimed to have read the famous vernacular novel Journey to the West at the age of six.
By the age of eight, he was reading other traditional Chinese novels, including the Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Dream of the Red Chamber. Zhou's birth mother Wan died in 1907 when Zhou was 9, his adoptive mother Chen in 1908 when Zhou was 10. Zhou's father was working in Hubei, far from Jiangsu, so Zhou and his two younger brothers returned to Huai'an and lived with his father's remaining younger brother Yikui for the next two years. In 1910, Zhou's uncle Yigeng, his father's older brother, offered to care for Zhou; the family in Huai'an agreed, Zhou was sent to stay with his uncle in Manchuria at Shenyang, where Zhou Yigeng worked in a government office. In Shenyang, Zhou attended a modern-style school, his previous education consisted of homeschooling. In addition to new subjects such as English and science, Zhou was exposed to the writings of reformers and radicals such as Liang Qichao, Kang Youwei, Chen Tianhua, Zou Rong and Zhang Binglin. At the age of fourteen, Zhou declared that his motivation for pursuing education was to "become a great man who will take up the heavy responsibilities of the country in the future."
In 1913, Zhou's uncle was transfer
Dato' Sri Mohamad Shukri bin Abdull, is the fourth and former chief commissioner of the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission. Mohamad Shukri graduated from the National University of Malaysia with a Bachelor of Social Science degree. Mohamad Shukri joined the MACC known as Anti-Corruption Agency, on 1 September 1984. Among the posts he has held since included state MACC director of Perlis and Sabah. Between 1 January 2010 and 31 July 2016 Mohamad Shukri served as the MACC's deputy chief commissioner; the agency announced that Mohamad Shukri would enrol in a course in a local university before retiring in October that same year. This followed allegations that he was among those removed or pressured to step down for being part of a plot to topple the government and soon after MACC's chief commissioner Abu Kassim Mohamed himself resigned. Prior to his sudden departure, it was publicly known that Mohamad Shukri had been spearheading investigations together with Abu Kassim and fellow MACC deputy chief commissioner, Mustafar Ali, into a global money laundering scandal involving Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Razak.
He had completed two investigation papers into the RM2.6 billion "donation" as insisted by Najib and had called over 100 witnesses despite facing many "obstacles and challenges". The MACC saw its top three officials removed from office besides Central Bank of Malaysia governor Zeti Aziz and Attorney General of Malaysia, Abdul Gani Patail, all of whom were involved in investigations into the 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal. Following Pakatan Harapan's victory in the 14th Malaysian general election resulting in the removal of Najib as Prime Minister, his newly-appointed successor Mahathir Mohamad reappointed Mohamad Shukri to the MACC, this time as the chief commissioner beginning 15 May 2018. In an emotional tell-all a week Mohamad Shukri recalled in a press conference how then-AG Abdul Gani was sacked just as he was preparing to arrest Najib and being trailed as he fled to the United States after receiving intel that he was next on the chopping block, he added how he had received death threats in the form of bullets delivered to him whilst investigating the 1MDB scandal and had two of his senior officers transferred from the MACC.
On 4 June 2019, it was announced by the Prime Minister's Department that Mohamad Shukri has tendered his resignation effective 1 June 2019 from the post and will be replaced by Latheefa Beebi Koya. Following the shocking announcement, Mohamad Shukri informed the press that he resigned a year before his contract was due to expire as "his job here was done", he added that he had promised Prime Minister Mahathir that he would step down from the job after a year from when he was appointed and that he had accomplished his mission with cases regarding SRC International and 1Malaysia Development Berhad being brought to court. Malaysia: Companion of the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia Kedah: State of Kedah Distinguished Service Star Knight Companion of the Order of Loyalty to the Royal House of Kedah - Dato' Pahang: Grand Knight of the Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang - Dato' Sri Perlis: Member of the Order of the Crown of Perlis Sabah: Companion of the Order of Kinabalu Commander of the Order of Kinabalu - Datuk
Theodor Borchgrevink was a Norwegian engineer of transport and highways. He worked in the United States during the advent of the Interstate Highway System, returned to Norway in 1963 where he advanced to the upper echelon of the Norwegian Directorate of Public Roads, he grew up in Stabekk. He enrolled at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in 1941, but the studies were interrupted by World War II. Borchgrevink fled from occupied Norway to England via Sweden, was enrolled in the Royal Norwegian Air Force-in-exile where he worked in Belgium and the Netherlands. In the last war phase he was a member of the Norwegian Independent Company 1. After the war he resumed his studies, graduated from the construction department of the Institute of Technology in 1948, he moved to the United States, where he worked with construction of the Interstate Highway System. He lived in Monroe and was active in the local Republican Party. In 1962 he applied for the position as director of the Norwegian Directorate of Public Roads, although he was among the strong candidates, the job was given to Karl Olsen.
Nonetheless, he returned to Norway. From 1963 he headed the office which administered the northern part of the European route E6 in Oslo, a major project at the time. In 1967 he became head of the road department, the third highest position in the Directorate of Public Roads; the name was changed to the administration department in 1971, it absorbed the former planning department from 1972. Borchgrevink stepped down in 1984. From 1984 to 1992 he worked with road projects for the Directorate of Public Roads and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, in Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar, he was married, had four children. He resided at Stabekk for large parts of his life, he died in December 2015