Zhou dynasty

The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history; the military control of China by the royal house, surnamed Ji, lasted from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into Eastern Zhou for another 500 years. During the Zhou dynasty, centralized power decreased throughout the Spring and Autumn period until the Warring States period in the last two centuries of the dynasty. In this period, the Zhou court had little control over its constituent states that were at war with each other until the Qin state consolidated power and formed the Qin dynasty in 221 BC; the Zhou dynasty had formally collapsed only 35 years earlier, although the dynasty had only nominal power at that point. This period of Chinese history produced; the Zhou dynasty spans the period in which the written script evolved into its almost-modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period.

According to Chinese mythology, the Zhou lineage began when Jiang Yuan, a consort of the legendary Emperor Ku, miraculously conceived a child, Qi "the Abandoned One", after stepping into the divine footprint of Shangdi. Qi was a culture hero credited with surviving three abandonments by his mother and with improving Xia agriculture, to the point where he was granted lordship over Tai and the surname Ji by his own Xia king and a posthumous name, Houji "Lord of Millet", by the Tang of Shang, he received sacrifice as a harvest god. The term Hòujì was a hereditary title attached to a lineage. Qi's son, or rather that of the Hòujì, Buzhu is said to have abandoned his position as Agrarian Master in old age and either he or his son Ju abandoned agriculture living a nomadic life in the manner of the Xirong and Rongdi. Ju's son Liu, led his people to prosperity by restoring agriculture and settling them at a place called Bin, which his descendants ruled for generations. Tai led the clan from Bin to Zhou, an area in the Wei River valley of modern-day Qishan County.

The duke passed over his two elder sons Taibo and Zhongyong to favor the younger Jili, a warrior in his own right and who conquered several Xirong tribes as a vassal of the Shang kings Wu Yi and Wen Ding before being treacherously killed. Taibo and Zhongyong had already fled to the Yangtze delta, where they established the state of Wu among the tribes there. Jili's son Wen moved the Zhou capital to Feng. Around 1046 BC, Wen's son Wu and his ally Jiang Ziya led an army of 45,000 men and 300 chariots across the Yellow River and defeated King Zhou of Shang at the Battle of Muye, marking the beginning of the Zhou dynasty; the Zhou enfeoffed a member of the defeated Shang royal family as the Duke of Song, held by descendants of the Shang royal family until its end. This practice was referred to Three Reverences. According to Nicholas Bodman, the Zhou appear to have spoken a language not different in vocabulary and syntax from that of the Shang. A recent study by David McCraw, using lexical statistics, reached the same conclusion.

The Zhou emulated extensively Shang cultural practices to legitimize their own rule, became the successors to Shang culture. At the same time, the Zhou may have been connected to the Xirong, a broadly defined cultural group to the west of the Shang, which the Shang regarded as tributaries. According to the historian Li Feng, the term "Rong" during the Western Zhou period was used to designate political and military adversaries rather than cultural and ethnic'others.' King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao. Although Wu's early death left a young and inexperienced heir, the Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal power. Wary of the Duke of Zhou's increasing power, the "Three Guards", Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain, rose in rebellion against his regency. Though they garnered the support of independent-minded nobles, Shang partisans and several Dongyi tribes, the Duke of Zhou quelled the rebellion, further expanded the Zhou Kingdom into the east.

To maintain Zhou authority over its expanded territory and prevent other revolts, he set up the fengjian system. Furthermore, he countered Zhou's crisis of legitimacy by expounding the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven while accommodating important Shang rituals at Wangcheng and Chengzhou. Over time, this decentralized system became strained as the familial relationships between the Zhou kings and the regional dynasties thinned over the generations. Peripheral territories developed local prestige on par with that of the Zhou; when King You demoted and exiled his Jiang queen in favor of the beautiful commoner Bao Si, the disgraced queen's father the Marquis of Shen joined with Zeng and the Quanrong barbarians to sack Hao in 771 BC. Some modern scholars have surmised that the sack of Haojing might have been connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward expansion. With King You dead, a conclave of nobles declared the Marquis's grandson King Ping; the capital was moved eastward to Wangcheng, marking the end of the "Western Zhou" and the beginning of the "Eastern Zhou" dynasty.

The Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of royal authority, although the king's ritual importance


Salival is a live and video album, released as a limited edition box set in CD/VHS and CD/DVD formats in 2000 by American rock band Tool. It includes a 56-page book of stills from their music videos; the live track "You Lied" is a cover of a song by bass player Justin Chancellor's previous band Peach. The cover of Led Zeppelin's "No Quarter" was planned to be used for the soundtrack of Private Parts, but Tool subsequently decided against allowing it to be used, leading to criticism from Howard Stern, who had endorsed the band. Salival is the second and final official Tool release to feature a substantial amount of live material; the tracks were recorded from several different shows prior to Salival's release in 2000. Candidates for most of the recordings are the 1998 summer tour, though the San Diego recording could be "Third Eye," "Pushit" or "Merkaba" from spring 1997. Live versions of the Ænima tracks "Pushit" and "Third Eye" appear on this album plus a live version of the Opiate song "Part of Me".

The live instrumental song "Merkaba" was an intro for "Sober" when played live, however no tracks from Undertow properly appear here in live form. The name "Merkaba" or Merkabah translating to "Mer-Light", "Ka-Spirit", "Ba-Body" is the divine light vehicle used by ascended masters to connect with and reach those in tune with the higher realms. A reference to the Merkabah school of Jewish mysticism as it relates to new age meditation. "Message to Harry Manback II", "No Quarter", "LAMC" were recorded during the sessions for Ænima though they were re-recorded before being released on Salival. As with other releases, there were rumors during the Salival period. Most notably, the band was said to be breaking up. Maynard James Keenan said, "we mentioned some song titles and some dickhead went out and reserved all of names." The album is packaged in a black box sized 8.25x6.75x2" featuring the "Salival man" with outstretched arms. It is contained within a translucent slipcase; the front of the book included with the package has a small glossy square on its front.

Upon initial release, the package came with two stickers on the cover. The other sticker, a Parental Advisory, would be the fourth and last one to appear on a Tool release; the audio CD portion of the album is contained within a disc tray at the back of the 56-page book, which has similar dimensions to and is only larger than a standard CD jewel case. The first pressings of Salival contain typographical errors, as well as the VHS edition having red tape. Editions do not have these typos; the following typos are found in the CD booklet. Aloke Dutta and Paul D'Amour's names are misspelled as Paul D'Mour. "Stinkfist" is listed as "Stink Fist." "Message to Harry Manback II" is spelled "Messege to Harry Manback II." The playing order of the videos on the VHS are listed in reverse chronological order. The track ordering of "Merkaba" and "You Lied" is incorrect. A typographical error made it into VHS Version 61422-31158-2R. All tracks are written by Maynard James Keenan, Adam Jones, Danny Carey and Justin Chancellor, unless otherwise noted.

Maynard James Keenan – vocals Adam Jones – guitar Justin Chancellor – bass guitar, backing vocals Danny Carey – drums Buzz Osborne – additional guitar David Bottrillkeyboards Vince DeFrancosynthesizer Aloke Dutta – acoustic tabla Salival at Metacritic Salival at Discogs Salival at MusicBrainz

Walter Stewart (journalist)

Walter Douglas Stewart was an outspoken Canadian writer and journalism educator, a veteran of newspapers and magazines and author of more than twenty books, several of them bestsellers. The Globe and Mail reported news of his death with the headline: "He was Canada's conscience." Born in Toronto, the son of Miller Stewart and Margaret Stewart, both atheists, Co-operative Commonwealth Federation activists and writers and CBC Radio broadcasters on nature, he was a class of 1949 graduate of London South Collegiate Institute in London, Ontario. In grade 11, he and a classmate became unpaid high school reporters for the London Echo community newspaper, where they co-wrote "The Lads Who Know," a muckraking column that criticized teaching methods. After the Echo folded, they shifted their attentions to the high school newspaper, alternating as editor-in-chief. Stewart became an honours student in history at the University of Toronto, but dropped out in 1953 after three years, he took a taxi to the Toronto Telegram, where an editor offered him twenty-nine minutes until deadline to write up a piece on why he'd dropped out.

The Telegram took him on as a reporter. He wrote financial features, his time at the Telegram left him cynical about the news trade: "What I learned about journalism there was that it was a suspect craft, dominated by hypocrisy and fakery. At the Tely, we toadied to advertisers, eschewed investigative reporting, slanted our stories gleefully to fit the party line and to appeal to the one man who counted – the publisher, John F. Bassett." He moved on from the Telegram to become picture editor and Ottawa correspondent for Star Weekly, a magazine published by the Toronto Star. From 1968 to 1977, save a one-year interlude at the Star, he worked at Maclean's magazine, posted to Ottawa and Washington and managing editor of the title, his time at Maclean's was marked by conflict with editor Peter C. Newman. From ca. 1988 until 1992, he edited Policy Options, the respected magazine of the nonpartisan Institute for Research on Public Policy. Stewart headed the journalism program at University of King's College in Halifax, Nova Scotia, took the Max Bell chair in journalism at the University of Regina in Regina, Saskatchewan.

In the 1990s, Stewart wrote a left-wing column for the Toronto Sun until it was retired in a newspaper budget cut, was a regular guest host on CBC Radio's As It Happens. Stewart was a prolific author of books, all but two of them non-fiction. Stewart's first book, Shrug: Trudeau in Power, a sharp critique of both prime minister Pierre Trudeau and the Canadian political and media scenes around him, remained on Canadian bestseller lists for more than a year, he continued writing exposés on issues of public interest with Divide and Con: Canadian Politics at Work and Hard to Swallow: Why Food Prices Keep Rising and What Can Be Done About It. But Not in Canada! Smug Canadian Myths Shattered by Harsh Reality was a forceful exposition and attack on racism, anti-immigrant feeling and the far right in Canada which, his Globe obituary recalled nearly three decades "angered many." As They See Us, on American perceptions of Canada, foresaw Talking to Americans, Strike! took an independent-minded look at strikes and labor-management relations.

Paper Juggernaut: Big Government Gone Mad slammed public management of the Pickering airport and Montréal-Mirabel airport projects. Towers of Gold, Feet of Clay: The Canadian Banks was a massive success, staying on Canadian bestseller lists for more than a year. More than seventy thousand copies of his lengthy critique of the Canadian banking system were sold; the title references the Royal Bank tower in Toronto. The book was translated into French as Les géants de la finance: un dossier-choc sur l'entreprise bancaire canadienne, he next released True Blue: The Loyalist Legend, on the United Empire Loyalists, Uneasy Lies the Head: The Truth About Canada's Crown Corporations. With outspoken Quebec politician Eric Kierans, Stewart co-authored The Wrong End of the Rainbow: The Collapse of Free Enterprise in Canada. Stewart edited Canadian Newspapers: The Environment. In the 1990s, Stewart's critical attention turned again to financial exposé, he released The Golden Fleece: Why the Stock Market Costs You Money, Belly Up: The Spoils of Bankruptcy and Bank Heist: How our Financial Giants are Costing You Money.

Too Big to Fail: Olympia & York: The Story Behind the Headlines, an sympathetic treatment of the Reichmann family and the rise and fall of their high-profile international property developer Olympia and York, was Stewart's most read title outside Canada. A 1996 book on charity was Stewart's most controversial. Under threat of a libel suit, Douglas & McIntyre, the Vancouver-based publishers of The Charity Game: Greed and Fraud in Canada's $86-Billion-a-Year Compassion Industry, withdrew their copies from sale and asked their distributors to return all unsold copies within a few months after release. Nonetheless, the book helped spur considerable discussion on the role and governance of chari