Zhuang Zhou known as Zhuangzi, was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States period, a period corresponding to the summit of Chinese philosophy, the Hundred Schools of Thought. He is credited with writing—in part or in whole—a work known by his name, the Zhuangzi, one of the foundational texts of Taoism; the only account of the life of Zhuangzi is a brief sketch in chapter 63 of Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, most of the information it contains seems to have been drawn from anecdotes in the Zhuangzi itself. In Sima's biography, he is described as a minor official from the town of Meng in the state of Song, living in the time of King Hui of Liang and King Xuan of Qi. Sima Qian writes: Chuang-Tze had made himself well acquainted with all the literature of his time, but preferred the views of Lao-Tze, he made "The Old Fisherman," "The Robber Chih," and "The Cutting open Satchels," to satirize and expose the disciples of Confucius, exhibit the sentiments of Lao.
Such names and characters as "Wei-lei Hsu" and "Khang-sang Tze" are fictitious, the pieces where they occur are not to be understood as narratives of real events. But Chuang was an admirable writer and skillful composer, by his instances and truthful descriptions hit and exposed the Mohists and Literati; the ablest scholars of his day could not escape his satire nor reply to it, while he allowed and enjoyed himself with his sparkling, dashing style. King Wei of Chu, having heard of the ability of Chuang Chau, sent messengers with large gifts to bring him to his court, promising that he would make him his chief minister. Chuang-Tze, only laughed and said to them, "A thousand ounces of silver are a great gain to me, but have you not seen the victim-ox for the border sacrifice? It is fed for several years, robed with rich embroidery that it may be fit to enter the Grand Temple; when the time comes for it to do so, it would prefer to be a little pig, but it can not get to be so. Go away and do not soil me with your presence.
I had rather amuse and enjoy myself in the midst of a filthy ditch than be subject to the rules and restrictions in the court of a sovereign. I have determined never to take office, but prefer the enjoyment of my own free will."The validity of his existence has been questioned by Russell Kirkland, who writes: According to modern understandings of Chinese tradition, the text known as the Chuang-tzu was the production of a'Taoist' thinker of ancient China named Chuang Chou/Zhuang Zhou. In reality, it was nothing of the sort; the Chuang-tzu known to us today was the production of a thinker of the third century CE named Kuo Hsiang. Though Kuo was long called a'commentator,' he was in reality much more: he arranged the texts and compiled the present 33-chapter edition. Regarding the identity of the original person named Chuang Chou/Zhuangzi, there is no reliable historical data at all. However, Sima Qian's biography of Zhuangzi pre-dates Guo Xiang by centuries. Furthermore, the Han Shu "Yiwenzhi" lists a text Zhuangzi, showing that a text with this title existed no than the early 1st century AD, again pre-dating Guo Xiang by centuries.
Zhuangzi is traditionally credited as the author of at least part of the work bearing his name, the Zhuangzi. This work, in its current shape consisting of 33 chapters, is traditionally divided into three parts: the first, known as the "Inner Chapters", consists of the first seven chapters; the meaning of these three names is disputed: according to Guo Xiang, the "Inner Chapters" were written by Zhuangzi, the "Outer Chapters" written by his disciples, the "Mixed Chapters" by other hands. Further study of the text does not provide a clear choice between these alternatives. On the one side, as Martin Palmer points out in the introduction to his translation, two of the three chapters Sima Qian cited in his biography of Zhuangzi, come from the "Outer Chapters" and the third from the "Mixed Chapters". "Neither of these are allowed as authentic Chuang Tzu chapters by certain purists, yet they breathe the spirit of Chuang Tzu just as much as, for example, the famous'butterfly passage' of chapter 2."On the other hand, chapter 33 has been considered as intrusive, being a survey of the major movements during the "Hundred Schools of Thought" with an emphasis on the philosophy of Hui Shi.
Further, A. C. Graham and other critics have subjected the text to a stylistic analysis and identified four strains of thought in the book: a) the ideas of Zhuangzi or his disciples. In
For the executive officer with the same name, see Jean-Pierre Hansen. Jean-Pierre Hansen FRS is a Luxembourgian chemist and an emeritus professor of the University of Cambridge. Hansen gained a PhD from Paris-Sud 11 University in 1969, the same year working as a staff scientist for the French National Centre for Scientific Research. In 1970, Hansen he moved to the United States to do postdoctoral work at Cornell University before moving back to France in 1973 to work as an associate professor at Pierre and Marie Curie University, he became a full professor in 1977, in 1980 moved to Grenoble to work as a visiting scientist at Institut Laue-Langevin. In 1986 he became research director at École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, in 1987 founded the physics laboratory there. In 1990 the French Academy of Sciences awarded him the Grand Prix de l'Etat for his work, between 1994 and 1997 he worked as a visiting professor at the physical chemistry department of the University of Oxford; the Société Française de Physique awarded him their Prix Special in 1998, in 2002 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
The European Physical Society awarded him their first Liquid Matter Prize in 2005, in 2006 the Royal Society awarded him the Rumford Medal. In 2013, together with Herman Berendsen he was awarded the Berni J. Alder Prize by the Centre européen de calcul atomique et moléculaire
Okhla railway station is a railway station in Okhla, a residential and commercial neighborhood of East Delhi area of Delhi. Its code is OKA; the station is part of Delhi Suburban Railway. The station consists of seven platforms; the platforms are not well sheltered. It lacks many facilities including sanitation. Station is located just behind the Okhla subzi mandi and play a vital role of transportation for vendors who trade vegetable and fruits. Accessibility may be limited for passengers with disabilities; some of the trains that runs from Okhla are: Agra Cantt. - New Delhi Intercity Express Agra Cantt. - Nizamuddin MEMU Agra Cantt. - Old Delhi Passenger Andaman Express Hazrat Nizamuddin - Kosi Kalan Passenger Hazrat Nizamuddin - Palwal MEMU Mandsor - Meerut City Link Express Bandra Terminus- Dehradun Express Firozpur Janta Express Udyan Abha Toofan Express Hazrat Nizamuddin railway station New Delhi Railway Station Delhi Junction Railway station Anand Vihar Railway Terminal Sarai Rohilla Railway Station Delhi Metro Delhi travel guide from Wikivoyage