The Zhuang people are a Tai-speaking ethnic group who live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. Some live in the Yunnan, Guangdong and Hunan provinces, they form one of the 56 ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of China. With the Buyi, Tay–Nùng and other northern Tai speakers, they are sometimes known as the Rau, or Rao, their population, estimated at 18 million people, makes them the largest minority in China. The Chinese character used for the Zhuang people has changed several times, their autonym, "Cuengh" in Standard Zhuang, was written with the graphic pejorative Zhuàng 獞. Chinese characters combine a semantic element or radical and a phonetic element. John DeFrancis calls Zhuàng 獞, with the "dog radical" 犭 and a tóng 童 phonetic, an ethnic slur and describes how the People's Republic of China removed it. In 1949, after the Chinese civil war, the logograph 獞 was replaced with a different graphic pejorative, Zhuàng 僮, with the "human radical" 亻and the same phonetic.
During the standardization of simplified Chinese characters, Zhuàng 僮 was changed to a different character Zhuàng 壮. The Zhuang languages are a group of mutually unintelligible languages of the Tai family influenced by nearby varieties of Chinese; the Standard Zhuang language is based on a northern dialect. Therefore, Zhuang people from different dialect areas use Chinese to communicate with each other. According to a 1980s survey, 42% of Zhuang people were monolingual in Zhuang, while 55% were bilingual in Zhuang and Chinese. Whilst according to some semi-official sources "In Guangxi, compulsory education is bilingual in Zhuang and Chinese, with a focus on early Zhuang literacy," only a small percentage of schools teach written Zhuang. Zhuang has been written using logograms based on Chinese characters for over 1,000 years. Standard Zhuang, the official alphabetical script, was introduced in 1957, in 1982 the Cyrillic letters were changed to Latin letters. However, the traditional character-based script is more used in less formal domains and in June 2017 just over one thousand of these characters were added in Unicode 10.0.
The Zhuang have their own scriptures written in poetic form such as the Baeu Rodo. The literate Zhuang had their own writing system, recording folk songs, poems, letters and court documents; the works include both indigenous works and translations from Chinese and fiction, religious texts and secular texts. While most Zhuang people have adopted standard Han Chinese names, some have distinct surnames only found amongst those of Zhuang descent such as "覃". Most Zhuang follow a traditional animist faith known as Shigongism or Moism, which include elements of ancestor worship; the Mo have their own sutra and professional priests known as bu mo who traditionally use chicken bones for divination. In Moism, the creator is known as Bu Luotuo and the universe is tripartite, with all things composed from the three elements of heaven and water. There are a number of Buddhists and Christians among the Zhuang. Zhuang cuisine includes many salty and sour dishes such as pickled cabbage, pickled vegetables and pork, dried fish.
A common Zhuang drink is "oil tea", tea leaves fried in oil with rice grains brewed and drunk with peanuts or a rice cake. While Chinese scholarship continues to place the Zhuang–Dong languages among the Sino-Tibetan family, other linguists treat the Tai languages as a separate family, they have been linked with the Austronesian languages, which dispersed from Taiwan after a migration from the mainland. However, the Austro-Tai hypothesis uniting these families is now supported by only a few scholars. Genetic evidence points out Zhuang possesses a high frequency of Haplogroup O2 with most of them being subclade O2a making it the most dominant marker, one that they share with Austro-Asiatic; the other portion of O2 belongs to subclade O2a1. Zhuangs have prevalent frequencies of O1 which links them with Austronesian, but O1 is at much lower rate compared to O2a and only higher than O2a1. Haplogroup O2 in Taiwan aborigines is completely non-existent, but they exhibit high frequencies of O1; this suggests that in the event that the Austro-Tai hypothesis is correct, Tai-Kadai speakers would have assimilated Austro-Asiatic people into their population after the separation of Tai and Austronesian.
The Zhuang are the indigenous peoples of Guangxi, according to Huang Xianfan. The Zhuang's origins can be traced back to the paleolithic ancient human, as demonstrated by a large amount of contemporary archaeological evidence; the earliest historical records of the Zhuang so far discovered are among the Rock Paintings of Hua Mountain, dating from to the Warring States period. Chinese historical documents are minimal referring to the lands south of the Yangtze as the "Hundred Yue". Qin Shihuang's southern invasions are detailed in Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian; the initial thrust south of the Nanling proved disastrous, with the general Tu Sui falling in battle around 218 BC, but his engineer Shi Lu completed the construction of the Ling Canal, which linked the Xiang and Li rivers. By 214, Zhao Tuo and Ren Xiao had returned and pacified the Western Valley Yue, opening up Guangxi and the south to the immigration of hundreds of thousands of his subjects. At the fall of the Qin Dynasty a decade Zhao Tuo, using his position as the commander of the Nanhai Commandery, formed a state centered on Panyu called Southern Yue (
Colm Keegan is a singer and teacher from Dublin, Ireland. He was a principal singer with Irish music group, Celtic Thunder, as well as performing with the likes of Celtic Woman, The Priests, Irish tenor Peter Corry, he released his first solo album "I'll Never Be Alone" in the fall of 2016. He is touring with his wife, Laura, on various solo tours, he married Celtic Thunder cellist Laura Durrant on 26 July 2016. The couple had a baby boy, Oisín, in February 2017. On 13, November 2018, the couple welcomed baby girl Isla. Keegan announced her birth on Instagram the next day Coming from a family of five brothers, all singers, a father whose family was brought up singing, playing piano and guitar, Colm's musicality was engrained deep in his heritage. During his early school days, Colm studied under vocal coach Ken Shellard, won several acclaimed awards at the Dublin Feis Ceoil singing competition. During this time he was a lead soloist with the Palestrina Choir under the direction of Ite O'Donovan.
Some venue highlights from this time include performances at Dublin's Pro-Cathedral, New York's St Patrick's Cathedral and St Peter's Basilica in Rome where the Pope was in attendance, along with regular recitals at Dublin's National Concert Hall. Colm joined the Piccolo Lasso Choir and Habemus Chamber Choir, with whom he recorded several CDs, partook in an extensive European tour and performed as a lead soloist in Spain and The Czech Republic. In 2005, Colm's oldest brother John established a chamber choir consisting of alumni Choral Scholars of University College Dublin and singers from Dublin's Palestrina Choir, giving them the name Habemus Chamber Choir; the word Habemus stems from the Latin "we have". This was Colm's return to choral music for the first time; the Chamber group has won the recognition of many agents around Ireland, Radio and TV Stations, as well as having the opportunity to perform in numerous concerts not just nationwide, but internationally as well. Habemus performed across Europe, including trips to Barcelona and Prague all before Colm had turned 17.
Today, the a cappella musical group consists of 16 talented and energetic singers selected from a variety of Dublin-based chamber choirs, choral foundations and university scholarship programmes. The primary focus for the choir is to utilize its musical talents to help promote awareness through charity fundraising concerts. Since its foundation, Habemus have raised in excess of 20,000 euro for a dozen local and international charities and continue to have the desire to help others through music. In 2008-2009 and again in 2010-2011, following a competitive selection process, Colm was awarded a singing scholarship with the Choral Scholars of University College Dublin under the direction of Dr Desmond Earley; this group is Ireland's leading collegiate choral ensemble. With a large repertoire ranging from art to popular music, stretching from the medieval to the contemporary in style, this choir gives many concerts throughout the academic year, both in Ireland and abroad. Colm was offered a Scholarship position with Dublin Choral Foundation's Lassus Scholars.
Here Colm returned to singing with his former choir director of Dublin's Palestrina Choir, Ite O'Donovan, the lady who introduced Colm to both singing and Music as a young 4 year old and the person Colm refers to as the biggest influence on his Musical life. Colm spent his weekends in University teaching singing in the Habemus Performing Arts School, a school designed to encourage and promote students in the disciplines of Singing and Dancing through classes and workshops. During this time, he was appearing as guest assistant Musical Director for a number of amateur musical productions including West Side Story, HMS Pinafore and Pirates of Penzance. Colm's name was spreading around the city and was asked to put on a number of projects including putting together a night of music for the children in Dublin's Central Remedial Clinic; these busy few years of Music outside the classroom, as well as obtaining an honors degree in Music and Irish in 2011, allowed Colm to realize his love for not only Music and Irish, but for teaching.
Whilst still in College, Colm was invited to join the Aontas Choral Ensemble, the touring choir of Irish music group Celtic Woman. Colm recorded as a member of the choir for the "Songs From The Heart" CD and DVD Public Television special. Upon graduating from University College Dublin, he completed two European tours, a tour of Asia, the making of "Believe" CD and DVD, a five-month North American tour with the production. Colm spent a year with the group before leaving to join Celtic Thunder. In May 2012, Colm was invited by producer Sharon Browne to join Celtic Thunder and first performed with the group in June of that year at Harrah's Resort and Casino in Atlantic City, New Jersey; that year, he filmed "Mythology", his debut DVD and CD as a principal member. He has subsequently toured the United States and Canada numerous times as a principal member of the group, including a special one-off'unplugged' concert in New York during December 2012, which raised $50,000 in aid of the victims of Hurricane Sandy.
In 2014, Colm toured in Australia for the first time. In early 2016, Keegan announced that he would be taking a year's break from Celtic Thunder to finish attending university. Mid 2014, Colm teamed up with Celtic Thunder musician Laura Durrant to release a debut single of the Tony Arata song "The Dance"; the song soon went to #1 on iTunes World Music Charts, #1 bestseller on Amazon and #1 on Hot New Releases on CD Baby. Upon retu
Estadio Municipal Pérez Zeledón is a multi-use stadium in Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica. It is used for football matches and is the home stadium of the Costa Rican FPD teams Municipal Pérez Zeledón and AS Puma Generaleña, it was inaugurated in 1953 as Estadio Municipal Otto Ureña Fallas because of the former Costa Rican player and owner of the A. D. Municipal Pérez Zeledón who use to play for the now extinct A. D. Municipal Generaleña. In 1991 with the ascension of A. D. Municipal Pérez Zeledón to the first division, it became their venue for home games, since there was a conflict between the two teams of the area because back there can only be one team per area, they merge into one and the stadium became their home venue In 2014, the Municipality of Pérez Zeledón intended the stadium as "Estadio Municipal Keylor Navas Gamboa", named after costa rican and Real Madrid's, goalkeeper Keylor Navas, due to his outstanding performance with the Costa Rica national football team at the 2014 FIFA World Cup who get all the way over to the quarter finals just by losing to Netherlands in a penalty shootout.
However, the renaming procedure has been deemed as illegal by the Costa Rican National Committee of Nomenclature, arguing that a stadium can only be named after somebody just as a posthumous tribute. This law enforcement was controversial since many of the stadiums active for many of the First Division team are named in honor of former domestic football players who aren't posthumous honors, like the "Cuty" Monge Stadium in Desamparados or the "Colleya" Fonseca in Guadalupe or the Allen Riggioni in Alajuela