Sir Charles Leonard Woolley was a British archaeologist best known for his excavations at Ur in Mesopotamia. He is recognized as one of the first "modern" archaeologists, who excavated in a methodical way, keeping careful records, using them to reconstruct ancient life and history. Woolley was knighted in 1935 for his contributions to the discipline of archaeology.. He married the British archaeologist Katharine Woolley. Woolley was the son of a clergyman, was brother to Geoffrey Harold Woolley, VC, George Cathcart Woolley, he was born at 13 Southwold Road, Upper Clapton, in the modern London Borough of Hackney and educated at St John's School and New College, Oxford. He was interested in excavations from a young age. In 1905, Woolley became assistant of the Ashmolean Oxford. Volunteered by Arthur Evans to run the excavations on the Roman site at Corbridge for Francis Haverfield, Woolley began his excavation career there in 1906 admitting in Spadework that "I had never studied archaeological methods from books... and I had not any idea how to make a survey or a ground-plan".
The Corbridge Lion was found under his supervision. Woolley next traveled to Nubia where he worked with David Randall-MacIver on a project for the University of Pennsylvania, they excavated Karanog between 1907 and 1910. In 1912–1914, with T. E. Lawrence as his assistant, he excavated the Hittite city of Carchemish. Lawrence and Woolley were working for British Naval Intelligence and monitoring the construction of Germany's Berlin-to-Baghdad railway. During World War I, with Lawrence, was posted to Cairo, where he met Gertrude Bell, he moved to Alexandria, where he was assigned to work on naval espionage. Turkey captured a ship he was on, held him for two years in a comfortable prisoner-of-war camp, he received the Croix de Guerre from France at the war's end. In the following years, Woolley returned to Carchemish, worked at Amarna in Egypt. Woolley led a joint expedition of the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania to Ur, beginning in 1922, which included his wife, the British archaeologist Katharine Woolley.
There, they made important discoveries, including the Copper Bull. in the course of excavating the royal cemetery and the pair of Ram in a Thicket figurines. Agatha Christie's novel, Murder in Mesopotamia, was inspired by the discovery of the royal tombs. Christie married Woolley's young assistant, Max Mallowan. Ur was the burial site of; the Woolleys discovered tombs of great material wealth, containing large paintings of ancient Sumerian culture at its zenith, along with gold and silver jewellery and other furnishings. The most extravagant tomb was that of "Queen" Pu-Abi. Amazingly enough, Queen Pu-Abi's tomb was untouched by looters. Inside the tomb, many well-preserved items were found, including a cylindrical seal bearing her name in Sumerian, her body was found buried along with those of two attendants, poisoned to continue to serve her after death. Woolley was able to reconstruct Pu-Abi's funeral ceremony from objects found in her tomb. In 1936, after the discoveries at Ur, Woolley was interested in finding ties between the ancient Aegean and Mesopotamian civilisations.
This led him to the Syrian city of Al Mina. From 1937 to 1939, he was in Tell Atchana. Woolley was one of the first archaeologists to propose that the flood described in the Book of Genesis was local after identifying a flood-stratum at Ur: "...400 miles long and 100 miles wide. His archaeological career was interrupted by the United Kingdom's entry into World War II, he became part of the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section of the Allied armies. After the war, he returned to Alalakh, where he continued to work from 1946 until 1949. Woolley married Katharine Elizabeth Keeling, born in England to German parents and had been married to Lieut. Col. Bertram Francis Eardley Keeling, he had hired Keeling in 1924 as expedition draughtswoman. Woolley died on 20 February 1960 at age 79. Dead Towns and Living Men. Being Pages From An Antiquary's Notebook, Jonathan Cape, 1920 Ur of the Chaldees, Ernest Benn Limited, 1938 republished by Penguin Books, revised 1950, 1952 The Excavations at Ur and the Hebrew Records, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1929 Digging Up The Past, 1930, based on talks broadcast by the BBC Abraham: Recent Discoveries and Hebrew Origins and Faber London, 1936 Ur: The first phases, Penguin Books Harmondsworth, 1946 A Forgotten Kingdom, Penguin Books, 1953 Spadework: Adventures in Archaeology, 1953 Excavations at Ur: A Record of 12 Years’ Work, 1954 Alalakh, An Account of the Excavations at Tell, Oxford University Press, 1955 History of Mankind, 1963 The Sumerians, 1965 Crawford, Harriet.
Ur: The City of the Moon God. London: Bloomsbury, 2015. ISBN 978-1-47252-419-5 Winstone, H. V. F.. Woolley of Ur. London: Secker and Warburg; the Ancient Near Eastern World Oxford 2005 Works by Leonard Woolley at Faded Page PBS: "The Rape of Europa." 24 November 2008
Shulgi of Ur was the second king of the Third Dynasty of Ur during the Sumerian Renaissance. He reigned for 48 years, from c. 2029 – 1982 BC or. His accomplishments include the completion of construction of the Great Ziggurat of Ur, begun by his father Ur-Nammu. Shulgi was the son of Ur-Nammu king of Ur – according to one text, by a daughter of the former king Utu-hengal of Uruk – and was a member of the Third dynasty of Ur. Year-names are known for all 48 years of his reign, providing a complete contemporary view of the highlights of his career. Shortly after his father's death, Shulgi engaged in a series of punitive wars against the Gutians to avenge his father; the only activity recorded in the year-names for his first few years involved temple construction. Shulgi is best known for his extensive revision of the scribal school's curriculum. Although it is unclear how much he wrote, there are numerous praise poems written by and directed towards this ruler, he proclaimed himself a god in his 23rd regnal year.
Some early chronicles castigate Shulgi for his impiety: The Weidner Chronicle states that "he did not perform his rites to the letter, he defiled his purification rituals". CM 48 charges him with improper tampering with the rites, composing "untruthful stelae, insolent writings" on them; the Chronicle of Early Kings accuses him of "criminal tendencies, the property of Esagila and Babylon he took away as booty." While Der had been one of the cities whose temple affairs Shulgi had directed in the first part of his reign, in his 20th year he claimed that the gods had decided that it now be destroyed as some punishment. The inscriptions state, his 18th year-name was Year Liwir-mitashu, the king's daughter, was elevated to the ladyship in Marhashi, referring to a country east of Elam and her dynastic marriage to its king, Libanukshabash. Following this, Shulgi engaged in a period of expansionism at the expense of highlanders such as the Lullubi, destroyed Simurum and Lulubum nine times between the 26th and 45th years of his reign.
In his 30th year, his daughter was married to the governor of Anshan. He destroyed Kimash and Humurtu in the 45th year of his reign. Shulgi was never able to rule any of these distant peoples. In addition to construction of defensive walls and completion of the Great Ziggurat of Ur, Shulgi spent a great deal of time and resources in expanding and improving roads, he built rest-houses along roads, so that travelers could find a place to rest and drink fresh water or spend a night. For this last feat, Samuel Noah Kramer calls him the builder of the first inn. Shulgi boasted about his ability to maintain high speeds while running long distances, he claimed in his 7th regnal year to have run from Nippur to Ur, a distance of not less than 100 miles. Kramer refers to Shulgi as "The first long distance running champion." Early uncertainties about the reading of cuneiform led to the readings "Shulgi" and "Dungi" being common transliterations before the end of the 19th century. However, over the course of the 20th century, the scholarly consensus gravitated away from dun towards shul as the correct pronunciation of the sign.
The spelling of Shulgi's name by scribes with the diĝir determinative reflects his deification during his reign, a status and spelling claimed by his Akkadian predecessor Naram-Sin. History of Sumer Sumerian king list Self-praise of Shulgi Shulgi's axe sold illegally in Germany from the German Middle East magazine zenith The face of Shulgi. A realistic statue shows us how Shulgi may have looked in real life
A step pyramid or stepped pyramid is an architectural structure that uses flat platforms, or steps, receding from the ground up, to achieve a completed shape similar to a geometric pyramid. Step pyramids are structures which characterized several cultures throughout history, in several locations throughout the world; these pyramids are large and made of several layers of stone. The term refers to pyramids of similar design that emerged separately from one another, as there are no established connections between the different civilizations that built them. Ziggurats were huge religious monuments built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels. There are 32 ziggurats known at, near, Mesopotamia. Twenty-eight of them are in Iraq, four of them are in Iran. Notable Ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur near Nasiriyah, the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, Chogha Zanbil in Khūzestān, the most recent to be discovered – Sialk near Kashan and others.
Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians as monuments to local religions. The probable predecessors of the ziggurat were temples supported on raised platforms or terraces that date from the Ubaid period during the fourth millennium BC, the latest date from the 6th century BC; the earliest ziggurats date from the latter part of the Early Dynastic Period of Sumer. Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside; the facings were glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance. Kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks; the number of tiers ranged from two with a shrine or temple at the summit. Access to the shrine was provided by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit, it was called Hill of Heaven or Mountain of the gods. The earliest Egyptian pyramids were step pyramids.
During the Third Dynasty of Egypt, the architect Imhotep designed Egypt's first step pyramid as a tomb for the pharaoh, Djoser. This structure, the Pyramid of Djoser, was composed of a series of six successively smaller mastabas, one on top of another thus producing seven levels and four sides. Pharaohs, including Sekhemkhet and Khaba, built similar structures, known as the Buried Pyramid and the Layer Pyramid, respectively. In the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, the Egyptians began to build "true pyramids" with smooth sides; the earliest of these pyramids, located at Meidum, began as a step pyramid built for Sneferu. Sneferu made other pyramids, the Bent Pyramid and Red Pyramid at Dahshur, which were the first true pyramids to be built as such from the beginning. With this innovation, the age of Egyptian stepped. One of the unique structures of Igboland was the Nsude Pyramids, at the Nigerian town of Nsude, northern Igboland. Ten pyramidal structures were built of clay/mud; the first base section was 3 ft. in height.
The next stack was 45 ft. in circumference. Circular stacks continued; the structures were temples for the god Ala/Uto, believed to reside at the top. A stick was placed at the top to represent the god's residence; the structures were laid in groups of five parallel to each other. Because it was built of clay/mud like the Deffufa of Nubia, time has taken its toll requiring periodic reconstruction. A step pyramid exists in the archaeological site of Monte d'Accoddi, in Sardinia, dating to the 4th millennium BC.: "a trapezoidal platform on an artificial mound, reached by a sloped causeway. At one time a rectangular structure sat atop the platform... the platform dates from the Copper Age, with some minor subsequent activity in the Early Bronze Age. Near the mound are several standing stones, a large limestone slab, now at the foot of the mound, may have served as an altar." The most prolific builders of these step pyramids were the pre-Columbian civilizations. The remains of step pyramids can be found throughout the Mayan cities of the Yucatán, as well as in Aztec and Toltec architecture.
In many of these cases, successive layers of pyramids were built on top of the pre-existing structures, with which the pyramids expanded in size on a cyclical basis. This is true of the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan. Step pyramids were a part of South American architecture, such as that of the Moche and the Chavín culture. There are a number of earthwork step pyramids within North America. Associated with mounds and other mortuary complexes across the Eastern Woodlands, step pyramids were constructed as ceremonial centres by the Mississippian cultures, are regarded as a facet of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex; the largest earthen work step pyramid of this type in North America is Monk's Mound, located in present-day Cahokia, Illinois. With the base of the structure exceeding 16 acres Monks Mound is one of the largest pyramids by area in the world; as well as menhirs, stone tables, stone statues Austronesian megalithic culture in Indonesia featured earth and stone step pyramid structure, referred to as punden berundak as discovered in Pangguyangan site near Cisolok and in Cipari near Kuningan.
The construction of stone pyramids is based on the native beliefs that mountains and high places are the abode for the spirit of the ancestors. The step pyramid is the basic design
The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC. During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria. A year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Ashurbanipal, in 627 BC, the Assyrian empire spiralled into a series of brutal civil wars. Babylonia rebelled under Nabopolassar. In alliance with the Medes, Persians and Cimmerians, they sacked the city of Nineveh in 612 BC, the seat of empire was transferred to Babylonia for the first time since the death of Hammurabi in the mid-18th century BC; this period witnessed a general improvement in economic life and agricultural production, a great flourishing of architectural projects, the arts and science. The Neo-Babylonian period ended with the reign of Chaldean king Nabonidus in 539 BC. To the east, the Persians had been growing in strength, Cyrus the Great conquered the empire. Babylonia was subject to and dominated by Assyria during the Neo-Assyrian period, as it had been during the Middle Assyrian Empire.
The Assyrians of Upper Mesopotamia had been able to pacify their southern relations through military might, installing puppet kings, or granting increased privileges. After Babylonia regained its independence, Neo-Babylonian rulers were conscious of the antiquity of their kingdom and pursued an archtraditionalist policy, reviving much of the ancient Sumero-Akkadian culture. Though Aramaic had become the everyday tongue, Akkadian was retained as the language of administration and culture. Archaic expressions from 1500 years earlier were reintroduced in Akkadian inscriptions, along with words in the long-unspoken Sumerian language. Neo-Babylonian cuneiform script was modified to make it look like the old 3rd-millennium BC script of Akkad. Ancient artworks from the heyday of Babylonia's imperial glory were treated with near-religious reverence and were painstakingly preserved. For example, when a statue of Sargon the Great was found during construction work, a temple was built for it, it was given offerings.
The story is told of how Nebuchadnezzar II, in his efforts to restore the Temple at Sippar, had to make repeated excavations until he found the foundation deposit of Naram-Sin of Akkad. The discovery allowed him to rebuild the temple properly. Neo-Babylonians revived the ancient Sargonid practice of appointing a royal daughter to serve as priestess of the moon-god Sîn. Much more is known about Mesopotamian culture and economic life under the Neo-Babylonians than about the structure and mechanics of imperial administration, it is clear. Large tracts of land were opened to cultivation. Peace and imperial power made resources available to expand the irrigation systems and to build an extensive canal system; the Babylonian countryside was dominated by large estates, which were given to government officials as a form of pay. The estates were managed by local entrepreneurs, who took a cut of the profits. Rural folk rents to their landowners. Urban life flourished under the Neo-Babylonians. Cities received special privileges from the kings.
Centered on their temples, the cities had their own law courts, cases were decided in assemblies. Temples dominated urban social structure, just as they did the legal system, a person's social status and political rights were determined by where they stood in relation to the religious hierarchy. Free laborers like craftsmen enjoyed high status and a sort of guild system came into existence, which gave them collective bargaining power; the period witnessed a general improvement in economic life, agricultural production, a significant increase in architectural projects, the arts and science. Dynasty XI of Babylon Nabu-apla-usur 626–605 BC Nabu-kudurri-usur II 605–562 BC Amel-Marduk 562–560 BC Neriglissar 560–556 BC Labaši- Marduk 556 BC Nabonidus 556–539 BC After the death of Ashurbanipal in 627 BC, the Assyrian Empire began to disintegrate, riven by internal strife. Ashur-etil-ilani co-ruled with Ashurbanipal from 630 BC, while an Assyrian governor named Kandalanu sat on the throne of Babylon on behalf of his king.
Babylonia seemed secure until both Ashurbanipal and Kandalanu died in 627 BC, Assyria spiralled into a series of internal civil wars which would lead to its destruction. An Assyrian general, Sin-shumu-lishir, revolted in 626 BC and declared himself king of Assyria and Babylon, but was promptly ousted by the Assyrian Army loyal to king Ashur-etil-ilani in 625 BC. Babylon was taken by another son of Ashurbanipal Sin-shar-ishkun, who proclaimed himself king, his rule did not last long and the Babylonians revolted. Nabopolassar seized the throne amid the confusion, the Neo-Babylonian dynasty was born. Babylonia as a whole became a battleground between king Ashur-etil-ilani and his brother Sin-shar-ishkun who fought to and fro over the region; this anarchic situation allowed Nabopolassar to stay on the throne of the city of Babylon itself, spending the next three years undisturbed, consolidating his position in the city. However, in 623 BC, Sin-shar-ishkun killed his brother the king in battle at Nippur in Babylonia, seized the throne of Assyria, set about retaking Babylon from Nabopolassar.
Nabopolassar was forced to endure Assyrian armies encamped in Babylonia over the next seven years. However, he resisted, aided by the continuing civil war in Assyria itself, which hampered Sin-shar-ishkun's attempts to retake the parts of Babylonia held by Nabopolassar. Nabopolassar took Nippur i
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Bar-Ilan University is a public research university in the city of Ramat Gan in the Tel Aviv District, Israel. Established in 1955, Bar Ilan is Israel's second-largest academic institution, it has 1,350 faculty members. The university aims to "blend tradition with modern technologies and scholarship, teach the compelling ethics of Jewish heritage to all … to synthesize the ancient and modern, the sacred and the material, the spiritual and the scientific". Bar-Ilan University has Jewish-American roots: It was conceived in Atlanta in a meeting of the American Mizrahi organization in 1950, was founded by Professor Pinkhos Churgin, an American Orthodox rabbi and educator; when it was opened in 1955, it was described by The New York Times "as Cultural Link Between the Republic and America". The university was named for Rabbi Meir Bar-Ilan, a Religious Zionist leader who served as the inspiration for its establishment. Although he was trained in Orthodox seminaries in Berlin, he believed there was a need for an institution providing a dual curriculum of secular academic studies and religious Torah studies.
The founders of the university hoped to produce alumni committed to Jewish religious tradition, Zionist ideology, science. In 1965, the professors and lecturers were all religious Jews. Yosef Burg, one of the prominent leaders of the religious Zionist movement, warned that admission of too many non-religious into the university could undermine its character: "If you spill too much water into a wine bottle, you will have no wine." Today, the student population includes secular and non-Jewish students, including Arabs. Seven courses in Jewish studies are required for graduation. In hiring senior academic staff, the university gives preference to religious Jews, although the faculty includes many secular members. Bar-Ilan operates a midrasha for women; the kollel offers traditional yeshiva studies with an emphasis on Talmud, while the midrasha offers courses in Torah and Jewish philosophy. These programs are open to all students free of charge. Yitzhak Rabin's convicted assassin, Yigal Amir, was a student of law and computer science at Bar-Ilan, prompting charges that the university had become a hotbed of political extremism.
One of the steps taken by the university following the assassination was to encourage dialogue between left-wing and right-wing students. Under previous university president Moshe Kaveh, Bar-Ilan underwent a major expansion, with new buildings added on the northern side of the campus. New science programs have been introduced, including an multidisciplinary brain research center and a center for nanotechnology; the university has placed archaeology as one of its priorities, this includes excavations such as the Tell es-Safi/Gath archaeological excavations and the opened Bar-Ilan University/Weizmann Institute of Science joint program in Archaeological Sciences. Bar-Ilan's Faculty of Law made headlines in 2008 by achieving the highest average Israeli Bar Exam grade of 81.9 by its graduates. In 2016, the university became the center of controversy over women's rights; the university announced it would allow women to read passages of text and play musical instruments at its Holocaust Remembrance Day, but would bar women from singing in order not to offend Orthodox Jewish males.
Other organizations, such as Ne'emanei Torah V'Avodah, protested that it is an Israeli custom to sing at national ceremonies, that "extreme" Jewish religious law should not be imposed on the general public. Bar-Ilan University has eight faculties: Exact Sciences, Life Sciences, Social Sciences, Jewish Studies, Medicine and Law. There are interdisciplinary studies; the center's mission is to cultivate a new generation of interdisciplinary scientists who integrate knowledge from different fields. The center offers several graduate level tracks, including a direct Ph. D. program, an M. Sc. program and a combined program. Candidates are accepted from a variety of backgrounds, including biology, mathematics and computer science. Accepted students are exempt from tuition and receive a full scholarship during the course of their studies, allowing to concentrate on the research; the Ph. D. training program builds on six single-semester required core courses, a set of preparatory courses, a variety of elective courses.
Students have to complete 8 credits in advanced courses. Additionally, students participate in a number of multidisciplinary activities including a weekly research seminar and two hands-on short-term research projects. Several advanced optional courses are available, allowing students to specialize in one of the three sub-fields: 1. Computational Neuroscience 2. Neurobiology and Behavior 3. Language and Cognition The center offers an undergraduate interdisciplinary program in neuroscience, providing a solid knowledge base in wide range of neuroscience related disciplines, such as life sciences, linguistics and computer sciences, physics, with a specialization in the field of choice; the center takes part in the summer science research internship program, where undergraduate science majors from American universities perform research internships in Bar-Ilan labs under the mentorship of faculty members. Bar-Ilan offers an International B. A. Program, taught in English, is the first university in Israel to offer a full undergraduate program taught in English.
Students can choose between a B. A. degree in interdisciplinary social sciences, where students can choose between a macro track in economics, political sciences, sociolo