Zionism is the nationalist movement of the Jewish people that espouses the re-establishment of and support for a Jewish state in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel. Modern Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in Central and Eastern Europe as a national revival movement, both in reaction to newer waves of antisemitism and as a response to Haskalah, or Jewish Enlightenment. Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire; until 1948, the primary goals of Zionism were the re-establishment of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel, ingathering of the exiles, liberation of Jews from the antisemitic discrimination and persecution that they experienced during their diaspora. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Zionism continues to advocate on behalf of Israel and to address threats to its continued existence and security. A religious variety of Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity defined as adherence to religious Judaism, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies, has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority nation in their own state.

A variety of Zionism, called cultural Zionism and represented most prominently by Ahad Ha'am, fostered a secular vision of a Jewish "spiritual center" in Israel. Unlike Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, Ahad Ha'am strived for Israel to be "a Jewish state and not a state of Jews". Advocates of Zionism view it as a national liberation movement for the repatriation of a persecuted people residing as minorities in a variety of nations to their ancestral homeland. Critics of Zionism view it as a colonialist and exceptionalist ideology that led advocates to violence during Mandatory Palestine, followed by the exodus of Palestinians, the subsequent denial of their right to return to lands and property lost during the 1948 and 1967 wars; the term "Zionism" is derived from the word Zion. Throughout eastern Europe in the late 19th century, numerous grassroots groups were promoting the national resettlement of the Jews in their homeland, as well as the revitalization and cultivation of the Hebrew language.

These groups were collectively called the "Lovers of Zion" and were seen to encounter a growing Jewish movement toward assimilation. The first use of the term is attributed to the Austrian Nathan Birnbaum, founder of the Kadimah nationalist Jewish students' movement; the common denominator among all Zionists is the claim to Eretz Israel as the national homeland of the Jews and as the legitimate focus for Jewish national self-determination. It is based on historical ties and religious traditions linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel. Zionism does not have a uniform ideology, but has evolved in a dialogue among a plethora of ideologies: General Zionism, Religious Zionism, Labor Zionism, Revisionist Zionism, Green Zionism, etc. After two millennia of the Jewish diaspora residing in various countries without a national state, the Zionist movement was founded in the late 19th century by secular Jews as a response by Ashkenazi Jews to rising antisemitism in Europe, exemplified by the Dreyfus affair in France and the anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire.

The political movement was formally established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in 1897 following the publication of his book Der Judenstaat. At that time, the movement sought to encourage Jewish migration to Ottoman Palestine. Although one of several Jewish political movements offering alternative responses to assimilation and antisemitism, Zionism expanded rapidly. In its early stages, supporters considered setting up a Jewish state in the historic territory of Palestine. After World War II and the destruction of Jewish life in Central and Eastern Europe where these alternative movements were rooted, it became dominant in the thinking about a Jewish national state. Creating an alliance with Great Britain and securing support for some years for Jewish emigration to Palestine, Zionists recruited European Jews to immigrate there Jews who lived in areas of the Russian Empire where anti-semitism was raging; the alliance with Britain was strained as the latter realized the implications of the Jewish movement for Arabs in Palestine, but the Zionists persisted.

The movement was successful in establishing Israel on May 14, 1948, as the homeland for the Jewish people. The proportion of the world's Jews living in Israel has grown since the movement emerged. By the early 21st century, more than 40% of the world's Jews lived in Israel, more than in any other country; these two outcomes represent the historical success of Zionism, are unmatched by any other Jewish political movement in the past 2,000 years. In some academic studies, Zionism has been analyzed both within the larger context of diaspora politics and as an example of modern national liberation movements. Zionism sought assimilation of Jews into the modern world; as a result of the diaspora, many of the Jewish people remained outsiders within their adopted countries and became detached from modern ideas. So-called "assimilationist" Jews desired complete integration into European society, they were willing to downplay their Jewish identity and in some cases to abandon traditional views and opinions in an attempt at mod

Vicente Romero Redondo

Vicente Romero Redondo is a Spanish figurative painter and educator, best known for his pastel depictions of graceful girls at solitary moments in romantic surroundings, adorned in crafty clothing. Having resided on the Costa Brava for years, his oeuvre has been praised for conveying rare beauty and serenity, while taking after the vivid luminosity distinctively seen in the art of native mediterranean masters. Romero's oeuvre has been exhibited with honors across borders in Europe and beyond. Raised in an art loving family, Romero took an early interest in sketching at school. At 19 he enrolled at San Fernando Faculty of Fine Arts in Madrid where he graduated as a "Licenciado" in sculpture in 1982. For several years he worked as a nomad street portraitist along coastal locations on the Spanish peninsula and islands while self-learning and further developing his plastic expression skills, until adopting pastel as his most favoured medium. Romero settled on Calonge, Costa Brava in 1987 where his art matured to his present luminous mediterranean style.

Regarded as a pastelist master, Romero has been distinguished as a special guest at international pastel events in France and Philippines. Besides Spain, his work has been exhibited in many other countries including Italy, the US, Taiwan and China, among others. A retrospective of the artist's artwork was published in "Pratique des Arts" in 2015, is available from the Bibliothèques de la Ville de Paris. Vicpastel, the official newsletter of the Pastel Society of Victoria, Australia devoted his cover to a piece by Vicente Romero, referring to him as a "superb Spanish painter of beauty and light". Romero has been dictating art workshops in many cities worldwide; the artist has acknowledged that his paintings attempt to provide "an illusion of surprise, a stolen moment of intimacy". 2002 Castelló 120, Madrid. 2003 Pizarro, Valencia. 2005 Echeberría, San Sebastián. 2005 Fons d’Art, Olot. 2006 Benedito, Málaga. 2008 Benedito, Málaga. 2008 Petley's, London. 2009 Foz, Sitges. 2009 Castell de Benedormiens, Platja d’Aro.

2009 Benedito, Málaga. 2010 Petley's, London. 2011 Pizarro, Valencia. 2012 Benedito, Málaga. 2012 Festivales Internationales du pastel à Saint-Florent-le-Vieil. Guest of honor. 2012 Salon International du pastel en Périgord. Guest of honor. 2014 Benedito, Málaga. 2015 Ming Gallery, China. 2016 A. C. Art Museum Hotel, China. Artist´s website

Dancing with the Stars (American season 25)

Season twenty-five of Dancing with the Stars premiered on September 18, 2017, on the ABC network. On November 21, 2017, actor and singer Jordan Fisher and Lindsay Arnold were declared the winners, marking Arnold's first win. Violinist and composer Lindsey Stirling and Mark Ballas finished second, while actor and race car driver Frankie Muniz and Witney Carson finished third. Having won at age 23, Fisher is the youngest male winner of the show, surpassing short track speed skating competitor Apolo Anton Ohno. Fisher currently holds the record for most perfect scores by a celebrity in a season, surpassing Bindi Irwin and Laurie Hernandez. Good Morning America announced the professional dancers who would be competing in the upcoming season; the two professionals from the previous season that did not return were Kym Johnson-Herjavec and Sasha Farber. Farber returned to the troupe, Mark Ballas, who last appeared on season 22 returned. Alan Bersten, a troupe member since season 20, was promoted to pro.

On September 4, it was revealed. Drew Scott was announced as the first celebrity competing for the season partnered with Emma Slater. On September 6, the rest of the cast was revealed on Good Morning America. Tom Bergeron and Erin Andrews returned as hosts, while Carrie Ann Inaba, Len Goodman, Bruno Tonioli returned as judges. Julianne Hough did not return as a permanent judge this season, though she did return as a guest judge during the first night of the finals. On October 23, singer Shania Twain joined the panel as a guest judge; the dance troupe members for the season are former pros Sasha Farber and Jenna Johnson, season 24 troupe members Artur Adamski, Brandon Armstrong, Hayley Erbert, Britt Stewart. Red numbers indicate the lowest score for each week Green numbers indicate the highest score for each week the couple eliminated that week the returning couple, the last to be called safe the winning couple the runner-up couple the third-place couple This table only counts dances scored on a 30-point scale.

The best and worst performances in each dance according to the judges' 30-point scale are as follows: Scores are based upon a potential 30-point maximum. Individual judges' scores in the charts below are listed in this order from left to right: Carrie Ann Inaba, Len Goodman, Bruno Tonioli; the couples danced the cha-cha-cha, salsa or tango. Running order The couples had to prepare two new dances to be performed on two consecutive nights. On Monday, the couples performed an unlearned ballroom routine, with one couple being eliminated at the end of the show. On Tuesday, the remaining couples performed an unlearned Latin routine, with another couple being eliminated. Argentine tango, paso doble, rumba, Viennese Waltz, waltz are introduced. Running order Running order The couples performed one unlearned dance to a song that reminded them of their secret indulgences. Charleston and jive are introduced. At the start of the show, a moment of silence was held to honor the victims of the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, which occurred the previous day.

It was announced at the beginning of the show that, due to the tragedy, no elimination would take place. Maksim Chmerkovskiy was unable to perform due to an unspecified personal issue, so eliminated pro Alan Bersten danced with Vanessa Lachey instead. Running order The couples danced one unlearned dance to celebrate the most memorable year of their lives. Contemporary is introduced. Running order The couples performed one unlearned dance to a song from a Disney film to celebrate Walt Disney through the years. All performances were chronological, based on. Running order Individual judges' scores in the chart below are listed in this order from left to right: Carrie Ann Inaba, Len Goodman, Shania Twain, Bruno Tonioli; the couples performed one unlearned dance. Running order The couples performed one unlearned dance and a team dance to Halloween themes and songs. Running order The couples performed a trio dance. Unlike in prior seasons, where the trios involved eliminated pros or troupe members, the trios were instead composed of past celebrity winners or finalists.

They included Kelly Monaco, Rashad Jennings, Laurie Hernandez, Kristi Yamaguchi, Alfonso Ribeiro and Corbin Bleu. Running order The couples performed an unlearned dance using music chosen by the pros, as well as a dance that reinterpreted an iconic routine from a previous season. Running order Individual judges' scores in the chart below are listed in this order from left to right: Carrie Ann Inaba, Len Goodman, Julianne Hough, Bruno Tonioli. On the first night, the couples performed a freestyle. On the second night, the final three couples danced their favorite routine and a fusion dance of two styles. For the first time, a short window of "last chance" audience voting was added for the Eastern and Central time zones after the final scored dance. Running order Running order The celebrities and professional partners danced one of these routines for each corresponding week: Week 1: Cha-cha-cha, salsa, or tango Week 2: One unlearned ballroom dance Week 2: One unlearned Latin dance Week 3: One unlearned dance Week 4: One unlearned dance Week 5: One unlearned dance Week 6: O