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Zither is a class of stringed instruments. The word Zither is a German rendering of the Greek word cithara, from which the modern word "guitar" derives, it has been applied to any instrument of the cittern family, or to an instrument consisting of many strings stretched across a thin, flat body – similar to a psaltery. This article describes the latter variety. Zithers are played by strumming or plucking the strings, either with the fingers, sounding the strings with a bow, or, with varieties of the instrument like the santur or cimbalom, by beating the strings with specially shaped hammers. Like a guitar or lute, a zither's body serves as a resonating chamber, unlike guitars and lutes, a zither lacks a distinctly separate neck assembly; the number of strings varies, from one to more than fifty. In modern common usage the term "zither" refers to three specific instruments: the concert zither, its variant the Alpine zither, the chord zither. Concert and Alpine zithers are traditionally found in Slovenia, Hungary, north-western Croatia, the southern regions of Germany, alpine Europe, the Czech Republic, Russia and Belarus.

Emigration from these areas during the 19th century introduced the concert and Alpine zither to North and South America. Chord zithers similar to the instrument in the photograph became popular in North America during the late 19th and early 20th century; these variants all use metal strings, similar to the cittern. The word'zither' is derived from Latin cythara, used in this form for the title covers on many 16th and 17th century German printed manuscript books for the'cittern' – from the Greek word kithara, an instrument used in Ancient Greece; the German scholar Michael Praetorius mentions an Englishman who came to Germany with a small cittern, einem kleinen Citterlein, in his treatise Syntagma Musicum, published during the early 17th century. It is not understood how'zitter' or'zither' came to be applied to the instruments in this article as well as German varieties of the cittern. Other types of zither existed in Germany drone zithers like the scheitholt or hummel, but these have their own individual regional names and may have been in use before the introduction into the lexicon of'cythara' and its German derivative cognate.

The Hornbostel-Sachs system, an academic instrument classification method uses the term zither to classify all stringed instruments in which the strings do not extend beyond the sounding box. This includes such diverse instruments as the hammered dulcimer, Appalachian dulcimer, guzheng, tromba marina, gusli, kanklės, kannel, valiha, gayageum, đàn tranh, santoor, santur and others. Pedal steel guitars, lap guitars, keyboard instruments like the clavichord and piano fall within this broad categorical use; the word has been used in conjunction with brand varieties of other string instruments, for example the zither banjo. Although there is evidence that a kanun was found in Mycenaean Greece, dating back to 1600BC, the earliest known surviving instrument of the zither family is a Chinese guqin, a fretless instrument, found in the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng dating from 433 BC. Similar instruments along this design were developed over the following centuries, for example: the Japanese silk strung koto, the siter of Indonesian gamelans.

Increasing interest in'world music' has brought wider recognition to these other zither family members, both ancient and modern. Many of these instruments have been sampled electronically, are available in instrument banks for music synthesizers. In Europe and other more northern and western regions, early zithers were more similar to the modern mountain dulcimer, having long rectangular, sound boxes, with one or more melody strings and several unfretted drone strings; some of these employed movable bridges similar to the Japanese koto, used for retuning the drone strings. The Alpine Scheitholt furnishes an example of this older type of European zither. By the late 18th century, two principal varieties of European concert zither had developed, known as the Salzburg zither, the Mittenwald zither. Both styles are still found in concert zithers today, although the Salzburg style has become by far the most common; the zither became a popular folk music instrument in Bavaria and Austria and, at the beginning of the 19th century, was known as a Volkszither.

Viennese zitherist Johann Petzmayer became one of the outstanding virtuosi on these early instruments, is credited with making the zither a household instrument. In 1838, Nikolaus Weigel of Munich conceived the idea of adopting fixed bridges, adding additional strings, tuning them in the cycle of fifths, chromatically fretting the fingerboard – converting a rather crude folk instrument into the concert zither, his ideas were not, however accepted until 1862, when luthier Max Amberger of Munich fabricated a new zither based on Weigel's design. At this point the zither had reached something close to its modern concert form. Within a short time the new design had replaced the old Volkszither

Mantung, South Australia

Mantung is a town and a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located in the state's south-east about 140 kilometres east of the state capital of Adelaide, about 58 kilometres north-east and about 48 kilometres south-west of the municipal seats of Karoonda and Loxton."Mantung" is reported as the Aboriginal name of a waterhole in the area. A school opened there in 1921 and closed in 1944. Mantung was one of the towns along the Waikerie railway line after it opened in 1914; the town was surveyed in 1915. Despite the railway closing around 1990, the town hall has continued to be used by the community; the historic Elizabeth Well Ruins are listed on the South Australian Heritage Register. The 2016 Australian census, conducted in August 2016 reports that Mantung had a population of 21 people. Mantung is located within the federal division of Barker, the state electoral districts of Chaffey and Hammond, the local government areas of the District Council of Karoonda East Murray and the District Council of Loxton Waikerie.

Hundred of Mantung

Martin Emerich

Martin Emerich was a U. S. Representative from Illinois. Born in Baltimore, Emerich attended the public schools, he engaged in the importing business. He was appointed ward commissioner of the poor of Baltimore in 1870, he served as member of the Maryland House of Delegates 1881-1883. He served as aide-de-camp to Governor William T. Hamilton 1880-1884, to Governor Elihu E. Jackson 1884-1887, he moved to Chicago, Illinois in 1887 and engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1896, when he engaged in the manufacture of bricks. He served as member of the Board of Commissioners of Cook County 1892-1894, he served as assessor of South Chicago 1897. Emerich was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-eighth Congress, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1904. He retired in 1907, he died while on a visit in New York City on September 25, 1922, at age 76, was interred in Rosehill Cemetery in Chicago. List of Jewish members of the United States Congress United States Congress. "Martin Emerich". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

Martin Emerich at Find a Grave Martin Emerich at The Political Graveyard This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

Lorene Ramsey

Lorene Ramsey, a pioneer in women's sports, is one of the most successful college coaches of all time. In 1968, Ramsey joined the staff of Illinois Central College, a community college in East Peoria, Illinois. There, before the passing of Title IX, she started the women's athletic program, she coached the softball team for 28 years, compiling an overall record of 840-309 and two NJCAA National Softball Championships. She coached the women's basketball team for 33 seasons amassing a record of 887-197 while winning four NJCAA Women's Basketball Championships, she has been inducted into 10 halls of fame including the National Softball Hall of Fame and the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame. She was a founding officer of the National Fastpitch Coaches Association and, as a player, was inducted into the ASA Hall of Fame in 1987. Lorene Ramsey was born July 1936 in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1955, she moved from St. Louis to central Illinois to pitch for the Pekin Lettes. A successful athlete in her own right, she pitched for 18 years there and had an overall record of 401-90.

In 1965 she pitched 98​1⁄3 scoreless innings. She was a four-time ASA All-American. In 1968, she left the teaching staff of Pekin High School to join the staff of Illinois Central College, where she helped develop an intramural sports program for both men and women; this program turned into Illinois Central College's current intercollegiate athletic program. Throughout the history of Illinois Central College women's sports, hundreds of women have gone on to receive NCAA Division I and II athletic scholarships to four-year colleges and universities. Ramsey was the assistant coach of the team representing the US at the World University Games held in Bucharest, Romania in July 1981; the team started with a game against Finland and won 68–49. They trailed at halftime in their next game against China, but came back to win a close game 76–74. After beating Poland, they played Czechoslovakia in a game, close at the half, but the USA team went on to win 86–67. In the following game against Canada, the USA team was again behind at the half, but played a close match in the second half and pulled ahead to win 79–76.

Despite being undefeated, they needed. They had only a one-point lead at halftime, but went on to win 75–64 to meet the undefeated USSR for the gold medal; the USA fell behind by sixteen and could not close the gap—the USSR team won 98–79 to claim the gold medal, leaving the US with the silver. Denise Curry was the leading scorer for the USA team with 18.1 points per game. Anne Donovan led the team in rebounds with 6.7 per game. National Fastpitch Coaches Association Hall of Fame Illinois Central College Amateur Softball Association National Fastpitch Coaches Association NCAA at the Wayback Machine

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1551

United Nations Security Council resolution 1551, adopted unanimously on 9 July 2004, after recalling previous resolutions on the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, including resolutions 1031, 1088, 1423 and 1491, the Council extended the mandate of the Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina for a further period of six months and welcomed the deployment of EUFOR Althea at the end of the SFOR's mandate. The Security Council emphasised the importance of the implementation of the Dayton Agreement and welcomed contributions from SFOR, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and other international organisations; the situation continued to constitute a threat to peace and security and the Council was determined to promote a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Furthermore, it noted that the European Union was intending to launch a follow-on mission with a military component from December 2004. Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council reminded the parties to the Dayton Agreement of their responsibility to implement the agreement.

It emphasised the role of the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina to monitor its implementation. It attached importance to co-operation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia; the Security Council commended the countries participating in SFOR and authorised them to continue their operations for an additional six months. It authorised the use of necessary measures, including that of the use of force and self-defense, to ensure compliance with the agreements and the safety and freedom of movement of SFOR personnel. All agreements would apply to the follow-on mission; the resolution further welcomed the deployment of the European Union's Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 1 January 2003, which had replaced the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It requested the Secretary-General Kofi Annan to report on progress the parties had made towards the implementation of their peace agreements. Bosnian War Dayton Agreement List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1501 to 1600 Yugoslav Wars Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1551 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at

André Soares (fighter)

André "Gigueto" Soares is a Brazilian jiu-jitsu and mixed martial arts fighter. He competes in the flyweight division, is an instructor. Shares started training in martial arts at 9 years old practicing Judo. At the age of 15 he fell in love with Brazilian jiu-jitsu; when he was a purple belt he was invited to try out for the Carlson Gracie Competition Team. To make the team there was a tournament style training session in the middle of Carlson Gracie’s gym, he became a Team A competitor. His skills grew and he won the Brazilian Nationals in 1998, he trained with Carlson Gracie for five years until Carlson moved to the US and the team split up. Soares followed his teammates over to BTT where he competed and received his black belt in 2001, he came in second in the 2002 World Championships. In 2004, he moved to Florida to reunite with ATT founder Ricardo Liborio and his master Marcus Aurelio. Soares competed in jiu-jitsu in America, he won Hawaii Shooto 2005, took first in the Arnold Schwarzenegger/Gracie World Submission championships.

Professional MMA record for André Soares from Sherdog