The metalwork is believed to date from the sixth to fourth centuries BC, but the coins show a greater range, with some of those believed to belong to the treasure coming from around 200 BC. The most likely origin for the treasure is that it belonged to a temple, how it came to be deposited is unknown. As a group, the treasure is the most important survival of what was once a production of Achaemenid work in precious metal. The British Museum now has all the surviving metalwork, with one of the pair of griffin-headed bracelets on loan from the Victoria and Albert Museum. The group arrived at the museum by different routes, with many items bequeathed to the nation by Augustus Wollaston Franks, the coins are more widely dispersed, and more difficult to firmly connect with the treasure. A group believed to come from it is in the Hermitage Museum in Saint Peterburg, although continuing influences from these sources can often be detected the Achaemenids formed a distinct style of their own. The griffin-headed bracelets from the hoard are typical of the 5th to 4th century BC court style of Achaemenid Persia.
Bracelets of a form to ones from the treasure can be seen on reliefs from Persepolis being given as tribute. Glass, enamel or semi-precious stone inlays within the hollow spaces have now been lost. The surviving objects, a proportion of the original finds. There are a number of figurines, some of which may have been detached from larger objects. The single male figures appear to show rather than deities. The largest is most unusual for Persian art in showing a youth standing in a formal pose. The statuette shows Greek influence, in the figure and the fact of being nude, two hollow gold heads of young males, rather crudely executed, probably belonged to composite statues with the main body in wood or some other material. One figure in silver and gold has a headdress that suggests he may be a king, the wheels of the complete chariot would originally have turned freely, and it had received at least one repair in antiquity. It is pulled by four horses and carries two figures, a driver and a passenger, both wearing torcs.
The chariot has handrails at the rear to assist getting in and out. A leaping ibex was probably the handle of an amphora-type vase, the two griffin-headed bracelets or armlets are the most spectacular pieces by far, despite lacking their stone inlays
Urartu, known as Kingdom of Van, was an Iron Age kingdom centred on Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands. It corresponds to the biblical Kingdom of Ararat, the language appears in cuneiform inscriptions. It is argued on linguistic evidence that came in contact with Urartian at an early date. That a distinction should be made between the geographical and the entity was already pointed out by König. The landscape corresponds to the plateau between Anatolia, the Iranian Plateau, and the Caucasus Mountains, known as the Armenian Highlands. The kingdom rose to power in the mid-ninth century BC, the heirs of Urartu are the Armenians and their successive kingdoms. The name Urartu comes from Assyrian sources, Shalmaneser I recorded a campaign in which he subdued the entire territory of Uruatri, the Shalmaneser text uses the name Urartu to refer to a geographical region, not a kingdom, and names eight lands contained within Urartu. Urartu is cognate with the Biblical Ararat, Akkadian Urashtu and Armenian Ayrarat, the Urartian toponym Biainili was adopted in the Old Armenian as Van, Վան.
Hence the names Kingdom of Van or Vannic Kingdom, scholars such as Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt believed that the people of Urartu called themselves Khaldini after the god Ḫaldi. Boris Piotrovsky wrote that the Urartians first appear in history in the 13th century BC as a league of tribes or countries which did not yet constitute a unitary state. In the Assyrian annals the term Uruatri as a name for this league was superseded during a period of years by the term land of Nairi. Scholars believe that Urartu is an Akkadian variation of Ararat of the Old Testament, Mount Ararat is located in ancient Urartian territory, approximately 120 kilometres north of its former capital. In addition to referring to the famous Biblical mountain, Ararat appears as the name of a kingdom in Jeremiah 51,27, mentioned together with Minni, in the early sixth century BC, Urartu was replaced by the Armenian Orontid Dynasty. Shupria was part of the Urartu confederation, there is reference to a district in the area called Arme or Urme, which some scholars have linked to the name of Armenia.
At its apogee, Urartu stretched from the borders of northern Mesopotamia to the southern Caucasus, including present-day Armenia, archaeological sites within its boundaries include Altintepe, Toprakkale and Haykaberd. Urartu fortresses included Erebuni, Van Fortress, Anzaf, schulz discovered and copied numerous cuneiform inscriptions, partly in Assyrian and partly in a hitherto unknown language. Schulz re-discovered the Kelishin stele, bearing an Assyrian-Urartian bilingual inscription, a summary account of his initial discoveries was published in 1828. Schulz and four of his servants were murdered by Kurds in 1829 near Başkale and his notes were recovered and published in Paris in 1840
Luristan bronzes are small cast objects decorated with bronze sculptures from the Early Iron Age which have been found in large numbers in Lorestān Province and Kermanshah in west-central Iran. They include a number of ornaments, weapons, horse-fittings and a smaller number of vessels including situlae. The ethnicity of the people who created them remains unclear, though they may well have been Persian and they probably date to between about 1000 and 650 BC. The bronzes tend to be flat and use openwork, like the related metalwork of Scythian art, representations of animals are common, especially goats or sheep with large horns, and the forms and styles are distinctive and inventive. The Master of Animals motif, showing a human positioned between and grasping two confronted animals is common but typically highly stylized, some female mistress of animals are seen. Previous sporadic examples reaching the West had been assigned to various places, there is strong suspicion that the many thousands of pieces sourced from the art trade include some forgeries.
How these cemeteries related to contemporary settlements remains unclear, somewhat curiously, two very characteristic Luristan pieces have been excavated in the Greek world, on Samos and Crete, but none in other parts of Iran or the Near East. The term Luristan bronze is not normally used for earlier bronze artifacts from Lorestān between the fourth millennium BC and the Bronze Age, although they are quite similar. The area had, before the period of the bronzes, been the home of the Kassites. For most of the period of the bronzes it was, at least in theory, as a mountainous rural region, what the rise and fall of these empires meant for the region remains largely uncertain, a climate change before 1000 BC seems to have significantly affected the area. The few pieces attributed to Luristan that carry inscriptions are unrecorded pieces from the antiquities market, archaeologists divide the periods producing the bronzes in Luristan Late Iron I to III. Luristan Late Iron II was less productive, and remains less well understood, the stylistic development of the pieces is now thought to be from naturalistic depictions of humans and animals towards stylization, though it is not yet clear if this was a consistent trend.
This reverses the trend proposed by Michael Rostovtzeff, one of the earliest writers on the bronzes, though there is a wide range of objects, certain types are especially common and hence canonical. These may be described as finials and tubes, Muscarella and other writers use all these terms, unlike some other types of objects, very few of this group have been found by the archaeological explorations. They may have used with perishable elements that have not survived. Many ideas for their function have been suggested, without any general consensus being reached, the numbers surviving suggest that the objects were not rare, and may have been affordable by most families. The bezoar ibex, the wild species of goat or ibex, was already domesticated millennia before. Compared to types, the animals are more naturalistic, especially the ibex group, in some examples the figures are demons, with human features except for their large horns
While the term is of modern coinage, the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning during the Han dynasty. The Han dynasty expanded Central Asian sections of the routes around 114 BCE, largely through missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy. The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products, though silk was certainly the major trade item exported from China, many other goods were traded, as well as religions, syncretic philosophies, and various technologies. Diseases, most notably plague, spread along the Silk Routes, in addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. The main traders during antiquity included the Chinese, Turkmens, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Armenians, Bactrians, in June 2014, UNESCO designated the Changan-Tianshan corridor of the Silk Road as a World Heritage Site. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative Eurasian silk and horse trade, the German terms Seidenstraße and Seidenstraßen were coined by Ferdinand von Richthofen, who made seven expeditions to China from 1868 to 1872.
The term Silk Route is used, although the term was coined in the 19th century, it did not gain widespread acceptance in academia or popularity among the public until the 20th century. The first book entitled The Silk Road was by Swedish geographer Sven Hedin in 1938, the fall of the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain in 1989 led to a surge of public and academic interest in Silk Road sites and studies in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. Use of the term Silk Road is not without its detractors and he notes that traditional authors discussing East-West trade such as Marco Polo and Edward Gibbon never labelled any route as a silk one in particular. From the 2nd millennium BCE, nephrite jade was being traded from mines in the region of Yarkand, some remnants of what was probably Chinese silk dating from 1070 BCE have been found in Ancient Egypt. The Great Oasis cities of Central Asia played a role in the effective functioning of the Silk Road trade. This style is reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made of gold and bronze, with other versions in jade.
The tomb of a Scythian prince near Stuttgart, dated to the 6th century BCE, was excavated and found to have not only Greek bronzes but Chinese silks. Scythians accompanied the Assyrian Esarhaddon on his invasion of Egypt, soghdian Scythian merchants played a vital role in periods in the development of the Silk Road. By the time of Herodotus, the Royal Road of the Persian Empire ran some 2,857 km from the city of Susa on the Karun to the port of Smyrna on the Aegean Sea. It was maintained and protected by the Achaemenid Empire and had postal stations, by having fresh horses and riders ready at each relay, royal couriers could carry messages the entire distance in nine days, while normal travellers took about three months. The next major step in the development of the Silk Road was the expansion of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great into Central Asia and this became a major staging point on the northern Silk Route. They continued to expand eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus, there are indications that he may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan, leading to the first known contacts between [China and the West around 200 BCE
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area, in the Classical era, part of the present-day city of Tehran was occupied by a Median city that in the Avesta occurs as Rhaga. It was destroyed by the Mongols in the early 13th century, the capital has been moved several times throughout the history, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran. The city was the seat of the Qajars and Pahlavis, the two last imperial dynasties of Iran. It is home to historical collections, such as the royal complexes of Golestan, Sadabad. Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran has been a destination for the migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century. Tabiat Bridge, which was completed in 2014, is considered the third symbol of the city. There have been plans to relocate Irans capital from Tehran to another area, due mainly to air pollution, to date, no definitive plans have been approved. A2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of living, according to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations.
The origin of the name Tehran is uncertain, the settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years. The present-day city of Tehran was a suburb of an important Median city that was known as Rhaga in Old Persian, in the Avestas Videvdat, Rhaga is mentioned as the twelfth sacred place created by the Ohrmazd. In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhaga appears as a province and it was a major area for the Iranian tribes of Medes and Achaemenids. From Rhaga, Darius the Great sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, in some Middle Persian texts, Rhaga is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians generally place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Derived into Modern Persian as Rey, it now as a city located towards the southern end of the modern-day city of Tehran. Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, which is located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsis Shahname, the long Iranian epic poem that is based on the ancient epics of Iran. It appears in the epics as the birthplace of Manuchehr, the residence of Keyumars, the place where Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aži Dahāka, during the Sassanid era, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rey, before fleeing to Khorasan.
Rey was dominated by the Parthian Mihran family, and Siyavakhsh—the son of Mihran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the Muslim Invasion, because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rey, they ordered the town to be destroyed and ordered Farrukhzad to rebuild the town anew. In the 9th century, Tehran was a well known village, but less known than the city of Rey, the medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rey about 500,000 before the Mongol Invasion
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially the Met, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the edge of Central Park along Manhattans Museum Mile, is by area one of the worlds largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains a collection of art, architecture. On March 18,2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side, it extends the museums modern, the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, Byzantine and Islamic art. The museum is home to collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870.
The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day and it opened on February 20,1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, the museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts traveling shows throughout the year. The director of the museum is Thomas P. Campbell, a long-time curator and it was announced on February 28th,2017 that Campbell will be stepping down as the Mets director and CEO, effective June. On March 1st,2017 the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss shall be the acting CEO until a replacement is found, Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few tablets and seals, the Mets collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. The highlights of the include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures. The Mets Department of Arms and Armor is one of the museums most popular collections. Among the collections 14,000 objects are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, Rockefeller donated his more than 3, 000-piece collection to the museum. The Mets Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, the collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum, many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections
The Gudea cylinders are a pair of terracotta cylinders dating to circa 2125 BC, on which is written in cuneiform a Sumerian myth called the Building of Ningursus temple. The cylinders were made by Gudea, the ruler of Lagash and they are the largest cuneiform cylinders yet discovered and contain the longest known text written in the Sumerian language. The Agaren was described on the pillar as a place of judgement, or mercy seat and they are thought to have fallen into the drain during the destruction of Girsu generations later. The two cylinders were labelled A and B, with A being 61 cm high with a diameter of 32 cm, the cylinders were hollow with perforations in the centre for mounting. These were originally found with clay plugs filling the holes, the clay shells of the cylinders are approximately 2.5 to 3 cm thick. Both cylinders were cracked and in need of restoration and the Louvre still holds 12 cylinder fragments, Cylinder A contains thirty columns and cylinder B twenty four. These columns are divided into between sixteen and thirty-five cases per column containing between one and six lines per case, script differences in the shapes of certain signs indicate that the cylinders were written by different scribes.
Detailed reproductions of the cylinders were made by de Sarzac in his reports which are still used in modern times. The first translation and transliteration was published by Francois Threau-Dangin in 1905, another edition with a notable concordance was published by Ira Maurice Price in 1927. Further translations were made by M. Lambert and R. Tournay in 1948, Adam Falkenstein in 1953, Giorgio Castellino in 1977, Thorkild Jacobsen in 1987, and Dietz Otto Edzard in 1997. The latest translation by the Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature project was provided by Joachim Krecher with legacy material from Hermann Behrens, samuel Noah Kramer published a detailed commentary in 1966 and in 1988. This proposition was met with limited acceptance, the hero of the story is Gudea, king of the city-state of Lagash at the end of the third millennium BC. A large quantity of sculpted and inscribed artifacts have survived pertaining to his reconstruction and dedication of the Eninnu, the temple of Ningursu and these include foundation nails, building plans and pictorial accounts sculpted on limestone stelae.
The temple, Eninnu was a complex of buildings, likely including the E-pa, Kasurra. There are no architectural remains of Gudeas buildings, so the text is the best record of his achievements. Some fragments of another Gudea inscription were found that could not be pieced together with the two in the Louvre and this has led some scholars to suggest that there was a missing cylinder preceding the texts recovered. It has been argued that the two present a balanced and complete literary with a line at the end of Cylinder A having been suggested by Falkenstein to mark the middle of the composition. This colophon has however been suggested to mark the cylinder itself as the one in a group of three
Reza Abbasi Museum
The Reza Abbasi Museum is a museum in Tehran, Iran. It is located in Seyed Khandan, Reza Abbasi Museum was officially opened in September 1977 under the guidance of Queen Farah Pahlavi, but it was closed in November 1978. It was reopened a year in 1979, with changes in its internal decorations. It was closed again in 1984 due to internal difficulties. It was finally opened for the time, after its renovation on February 4,2000. Currently Reza Abbasi Museum is administrated by Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran, the collections of this museum belong to a period from the 2nd millennium BC to the early 20th century. The displays are set according to time interval, there are over 10,000 Persian, English and German books about Persian art, history and classical paintings in this museum. The publication department has published many books regarding Iranian arts and collections, there are different training courses in the museum such as Drawing, Calligraphy and Oil painting. In May 2015 various documents of the museum which were mostly communications with Queen Farah Dibas office before 1979 Islamic Revolution were burned, the issue was revealed by Mehr News Agency in Tehran and created a lot of criticism in Persian-language media and social networks
Pavillon de Flore
The Pavillon de Flore, part of the Palais du Louvre in Paris, stands at the southwest end of the Louvre, near the Pont Royal. It was originally constructed in 1607–1610, during the reign of Henry IV, the pavilion was entirely redesigned and rebuilt by Hector Lefuel in 1864–1868 in a highly decorated Second Empire Neo-Baroque style. The most famous sculpture on the exterior of the Louvre, Jean-Baptiste Carpeauxs The Triumph of Flora, was added below the pediment of the south facade at this time. The Tuileries Palace was destroyed by fire in 1871, and a north facade, the Pavillon de Flore is part of the Musée du Louvre. The Pavillon de Flore is in central Paris, on the Right Bank and is connected to the Louvre and it is directly adjacent to the Pont Royal on the Quai François Mitterrand, which is between the Passerelle Léopold-Sédar Senghor and the Pont du Carrousel. Its geographic coordinates are 48°51′40″N 2°19′50″E, the Pavillon de Flore was part of a larger plan, devised during the reign of King Henry IV, to connect the Palais du Louvre and Palais des Tuileries via two long wings at their north and south ends.
First, the Petite Galerie, running south from the Palais du Louvre to the River Seine, was connected to the Grande Galerie. The latter was constructed east to west along the Seine until it reached the Tuileries, the cornerstone of the pavilion was laid in 1607. Its design has traditionally been assigned to Jacques Androuet II du Cerceau, the Palais des Tuileries was extended south from the Pavillon Bullant to the Pavillon de Flore via the Petite Galerie des Tuileries. Work on the Grand Design was abandoned following the assassination of Henry IV in 1610, however, by this time, the building of the Grande Galerie, the Petite Galerie des Tuileries, and the Gros Pavillon de la Rivière had been completed. King Louis XIV danced in Isaac de Benserades Ballet royal de Flore in February 1669 at the Tuileries and it has been suggested that this is when the name Pavillon de Flore came into use, although the earliest known written mention is in 1726. Pavillon de Flore is the name used today, although other names have been used in between, for several years, the apartments of Marie Antoinette were located within the structure.
During the French Revolution, the Pavillon de Flore was renamed Pavillon de lÉgalité, under its new name, it became the meeting point for several of the Committees of the period. Many other committees of the Revolutionary Government occupied the Palais des Tuileries during the time of the National Convention, notable occupiers included the Monetary Committee, the Account and Liquidation Examination Committee. However, the most famous was the Committee of Public Safety, the Committee of Public Safety was the principal and most renowned body of the Revolutionary Government, forming the de facto executive branch of France during the Reign of Terror. Run by the Jacobins under Robespierre, the group of twelve centralized denunciations, the committee was responsible for the deaths of thousands, mostly by guillotine. The executive body was installed in the apartments of Marie-Antoinette, situated on the first floor. The governing body met twice a day and the executions themselves were carried out across the gardens
Animal style art is an approach to decoration found from China to Northern Europe in the early Iron Age, and the barbarian art of the Migration Period, characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs. The zoomorphic style of decoration was used to small objects by warrior-herdsmen, whose economy was based entirely on animals. Scythian art makes use of energetic animal motifs, one component of the Scythian triad of weapons, horse-harness. These cultures were extremely influential in spreading many local versions of the style, steppe jewellery features various animals including stags, birds, bears and mythical beasts. The gold figures of stags in a position with legs tucked beneath its body, head upright. The looped antlers of most figures are a feature, not found in Chinese images of deer. The species represented has seemed to many scholars to be the reindeer, the largest of these were the central ornaments for shields, while others were smaller plaques probably attached to clothing. The stag appears to have had a significance for the steppes peoples.
Another characteristic form is the openwork plaque including a tree over the scene at one side. Later large Greek-made pieces often include a zone showing Scythian men apparently going about their daily business, some scholars have attempted to attach narrative meanings to such scenes, but this remains speculative. Although gold was used by the ruling elite of the various Scythian tribes. The bulk of items were used to decorate horse harness. In some cases these bronze animal figures when sewn onto stiff leather jerkins & belts, the use of the animal form went further than just ornament, these seemingly imbuing the owner of the item with similar prowess and powers of the animal which was depicted. Thus the use of these forms extended onto the accoutrements of warfare, be they swords, scabbards, or axes. A distinct Permian style of bronze or copper alloy objects from around the 5th - 10th centuries CE are found near the Ural mountains, the study of Germanic zoomorphic decoration was pioneered by Bernhard Salin in a work published in 1904.
Salin classified animal art from roughly 400 to 900 CE into three phases, Styles I and II are found widely across Europe in the art of the barbarian peoples during the Migration Period. First appearing in northwest Europe, first expressed with the introduction of the chip carving technique applied to bronze and it is characterized by animals whose bodies are divided into sections, and typically appear at the fringes of designs whose main emphasis is on abstract patterns. After about 560-570 Style I, began to be supplanted, the animals become subsumed into ornamental patterns, typically interlace
Code of Hammurabi
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world, the sixth Babylonian king, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a seven and a half foot stone stele and various clay tablets. The code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting an eye for an eye, nearly one-half of the code deals with matters of contract, for example, the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, establishing the liability of a builder for a house collapses, for example. A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family such as inheritance, paternity. Only one provision appears to impose obligations on an official, this establishes that a judge who reaches an incorrect decision is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently. A few provisions address issues related to military service, the code was discovered by modern archaeologists in 1901, and its editio princeps translation published in 1902 by Jean-Vincent Scheil.
This nearly complete example of the code is carved into a basalt stele in the shape of an index finger,2.25 m tall. The code is inscribed in the Akkadian language, using cuneiform script carved into the stele, Hammurabi ruled for nearly 42 years, from about 1792 to 1749 BC according to the Middle chronology. On the stone slab are 44 columns and 28 paragraphs that contained 282 laws, some of these laws follow along the rules of an eye for an eye. It had been taken as plunder by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte in the 12th century BC and was taken to Susa in Elam where it was no longer available to the Babylonian people. The Code of Hammurabi was one of several sets of laws in the ancient Near East, the code of laws was arranged in orderly groups, so that all who read the laws would know what was required of them. These codes come from similar cultures in a small geographical area. The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period, the code has been seen as an early example of a fundamental law, regulating a government — i. e. a primitive constitution.
The code is one of the earliest examples of the idea of presumption of innocence. However, its copying in subsequent generations indicates that it was used as a model of legal and judicial reasoning, the Code issues justice following the three classes of Babylonian society, property owners, freed men, and slaves. For example, if a doctor killed a patient, he would have his hands cut off. Various copies of portions of the Code of Hammurabi have been found on baked clay tablets, the Prologue of the Code of Hammurabi is on such a tablet, at the Louvre