Zlín is a city in southeastern Moravia in the Czech Republic, the seat of the Zlín Region, on the Dřevnice river. The development of the modern city is connected to the Bata Shoes company and its social scheme, developed after the First World War. From 1949 to 1990, the city was renamed Gottwaldov; the first record of Zlín dates back to 1322, when it served as a craft guild center for the surrounding area of Moravian Wallachia. Zlín became a town in 1397. During the thirty years war, the residents of Zlín, along with people from the whole Wallachian region, led an uprising against the Habsburg monarchy; until the late 19th century, the town did not differ much from other settlements in the surrounding area, with the population not surpassing 3,000. Though associated with Moravian Wallachia, Zlín stands at the corner of three historical Moravian cultural regions; the town grew after Tomáš Baťa founded a shoe factory there in 1894 when the population was 3,000 inhabitants. Baťa's factory supplied the Austro-Hungarian army in World War I as the entire Moravia region was part of the empire.

Due to the remarkable economic growth of the company and the increasing prosperity of its workers, Baťa himself was elected mayor of Zlín in 1923. Baťa became the leading manufacturer and marketer of footwear in Czechoslovakia in 1922; the factory in Zlín was modernized and expanded before 1927. Tomáš Baťa created a distinct management system around 1924 and sought convergence of interests of entrepreneurs and employees. Besides producing footwear, the company diversified into engineering, rubber technology and many more areas; the factory hired thousands of workers who moved to Zlín and lived there in large, sprawling garden districts. Between 1923 and 1932, the number of Baťa employees in Zlín grew from 1,800 to 17,000. In those years, the number of trades and crafts increased from 150 to 400. Apart from the Baťa company, there were about five other shoe factories in the city. A network of quality schools, a large hospital, a number of cultural and physical education associations were available to the residents of the town.

In 1929–1932, Tomáš Baťa set up branch offices in more than twenty countries in Europe including United Kingdom, Asia, United States, Canada. Stores and footwear factories in these countries were managed from the headquarters in Zlín. Baťa Company employed a total of 31,000 people in 1932. Factories and adjacent residential districts were built according to the model of Zlín in the following locations: 1931 Ottmuth 1932 Chelmek, Borovo, Möhlin, Hellocourt 1933 Tilbury, Batanagar 1934 Best 1939 Belcamp, Batawa Tomáš Baťa died in a plane crash in July 1932; the company was managed by Jan A. Baťa, Hugo Vavrečka and Dominik Čipera, who became the mayor; the Baťa company and the city of Zlín continued growing. In 1929–1935, a strong economic agglomeration Zlín – OtrokoviceNapajedla has developed. In 1935, the city became the seat of the administrative district and strengthened its position in eastern Moravia. New secondary schools were added to the network of educational establishments; the population increased from 26,400 to 37,400 between 1932 and 1939, the number of employees of the Baťa company grew from 17,000 to 22,000.

The development of Baťa enterprises abroad continued. By 1938, there were stores and factories in 38 countries and the number of employees reached 65,000. During World War II life in the city was under the influence of German occupiers; the management of the large global company had to be split. The Zlín management of the Baťa company affected businesses in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, in certain European countries. Jan A. Baťa lived in the United States and settled in Brazil. Thomas J. Bata exiled to Canada in 1939. Zlín was hit by war in the autumn of 1944, when the city was suffered significant damage. A group of partisans and resistance fighters fought against the Nazis in the vicinity of Zlín in 1944–1945. Zlín was liberated by the Soviet and Romanian armies on May 2, 1945; the communists took over management of Zlín and Baťa factories in May 1945, in October the Bata company in Czechoslovakia was nationalized. Zlín was renamed Gottwaldov in 1949 – after the first communist president of CzechoslovakiaKlement Gottwald.

The city developed its position as administrative, economic and cultural center of Eastern Moravia. The local technology faculty became active in 1969; the appearance of the city was influenced by the construction of housing made from prefabricated concrete-slabs, a typical building method in the Czech socialist era of early'70s and late'80s. A new city theater building, ice hockey stadium and other facilities were built as well. After the Velvet Revolution in 1989, the city's name was changed back to Zlín as of January 1, 1990. Thomas J. Bata came to visit the town and established a branch of his company there in 1991, it became the seat of the newly formed Zlín Region in 2000. Tomas Baťa University, which follows the older traditions of local higher education, was founded in Zlin in 2001; the city's architectural development was a characteristic synthesis of two modernist urban utopian visions: the first inspired by Ebenezer Howard's Garden city movement and the second tracing its lineage to Le Corbusier's vision of urban modernity.

From the beginning

Spiked (magazine)

Spiked is a British Internet magazine focusing on politics and society. The magazine was founded in 2001 with the same editor and many of the same contributors as Living Marxism, which had closed in 2000 after being sued for libel by ITN, it is funded in part by donations from the Charles Koch Foundation. Spiked is edited by Brendan O'Neill, following Mick Hume's departure in January 2007, features regular contributions from James Heartfield, Michael Fitzpatrick, Patrick West, Frank Furedi, among others; the magazine was founded in 2000 after the bankruptcy of its predecessor. LM closed after losing a libel case brought against it by the broadcasting corporation ITN; the case centered around ITN coverage of Fikret Alić and other Bosnian Muslims standing behind a barbed-wire fence at the Trnopolje camp during the Bosnian war. LM claimed to oppose Western intervention on traditional anti-imperialist grounds, published an article titled "The Picture that Fooled the World" which claimed that ITN's coverage was deceptive, the barbed-wire did not enclose the camp and the Muslims were in fact "refugees, many of whom went there seeking safety and could leave again if they wished."

During the court case, evidence given by the camp doctor led LM to abandon its defence. ITN was awarded costs, estimated to be around £ 1 million. Spiked focuses on issues of freedom and state control and technology, culture and literature; the magazine opposes all forms of censorship, by the state or otherwise. Its writers call for a repeal of libel, hate speech and incitement laws, of censorship on university campuses, they have criticised laws targeted at paedophiles as counterproductive to rehabilitation and conducive to mob violence. Spiked regularly critiques risk society, political correctness, environmentalism; as regards the latter, a particular Spiked target has been what they see as "exaggerated" and "hysterical" interpretations of the scientific consensus on global warming, what they argue are double standards advocated by more advanced Western nations for self-serving reasons. Spiked opposed the post-9/11 invasions of Afghanistan and of Iraq and Western interference in developing nations in general.

It seeks to counter what it sees as a recent trend in Western foreign policy: humanitarian intervention. Frank Furedi, interviewed in Spiked, said that the stance of LM and Spiked springs from the tradition of the "anti-Stalinist left", he argued that the reason why many in the left tradition have difficulties in identifying these ideas with the left is that they misunderstand the humanist political position of being progressive in terms of human progress, science and freedom, yet be anti-state:...much of the left in the twentieth century tended to be influenced by Stalinist and Social-Democratic traditions, which means they could not imagine that you could be left-wing and they were confused by us. But, their fault, not ours, it was a product of their own abandonment of liberty in favour of ideas about state control. Environmentalists such as George Monbiot and Peter Melchett have suggested that the group of writers associated with LM, several of whom went on to form the core editorial group at Spiked, continue to constitute a'LM Network' pursuing an ideologically motivated'anti-environmentalist' agenda under the guise of promoting humanism.

Writers who used to write for Living Marxism reject this as a'McCarthyite' conspiracy theory. Monbiot described their views as having, "less in common with the left than with the fanatical right."The Spiked network has been active in campaigning for the UK to leave the European Union, with a number of its activists being involved in Nigel Farage's Brexit Party as candidates or publicists. The Spiked Review of Books is a monthly online literary criticism feature, based at Spiked; the launch in May 2007 coincided with controversy in the United States following the scaling back of newspaper book review sections. The Spiked Review of Books features editorials by Brendan O'Neill and interviews and reviews by a range of writers, many of whom are regular contributors to Spiked, such as Frank Furedi, Jennie Bristow and Josie Appleton; the cover illustrations are by Jan Bowman. A joint investigation between DeSmog UK and The Guardian revealed that Spiked US Inc. has received funding from the Charles Koch Foundation.

The writer George Monbiot suggested that this was due to the online magazine's attacks on left-wing politics, its support of hard right or far right figures, the many articles it publishes by writers supported by the Institute of Economic Affairs and the Koch funded Cato Institute. Official website

The Woman Suffers

The Woman Suffers is a 1918 Australian silent film directed by Raymond Longford. It is a melodrama starring Lottie Lyell. Two-thirds of the movie still survives; the movie consists of eight acts. A woman, Marion Masters, runs away from her drunken husband with her baby son, her husband falls on a knife and dies, their home is destroyed in a fire and she collapses in the bush. By the time she is rescued, she remarries a station owner, Stephen Manton, becomes step mother to his two children and Marjory. The missing child grows up as Philip Stockdale, the adopted child of the owners of Kooringa Station, who have a daughter Joan. Twelve years Ralph Manton is sent to Melbourne by his father, but a flooded river forces him to take refuge at the Stockdale's station, where he seduces Joan, he goes to Melbourne and lives a playboy lifestyle, Joan drowns herself in despair. Her brother Philip vows revenge on Ralph, he decides to seduce Ralph's sister and abandons her after she becomes pregnant. She tries to abort her baby.

Ralph vows revenge on Philip -- but is shamed when he discovers Philip's identity. Mrs Manton realises he is her long-lost son. Philip decides to marry Marjory. Lottie Lyell as Marjory Evelyn Black as Joan Stockdale Roland Conway as Ralph Manton Charles H Francis as Stephen Manton Ida Gresham as Mrs Stockdale Boyd Irwin as Philip Stockdale Connie Martyn as Marion Masters CR Stanford as John Stockdale Herbert Walsh as Rev. Mr. Payne Harry Beaumont as swagman Guy Hastings as clergyman The movie was the first film from the Southern Cross Feature Film Company, who hired Raymond Longford to direct, it was shot in South Australia. The film opened in South Australia to excellent reviews, it ran for seven weeks in New South Wales but on 22 October 1918 was banned by the censor in that state. No reason was given despite pleas from Longford and questions put to the Chief Secretary in the Legislative Assembly; the movie was popular in other states. In Adelaide Southern Cross Features ran a competition for best opinion on the questions "Was Ralph Manton guilty of murder?" and was "Philip Masters justified?" with a prize of £2 for "the best opinion ventured."

The Woman Suffers on IMDb The Woman Suffers at National Film and Sound Archive The Woman Suffers at Australian Screen Online The Woman Suffers at Oz Movies