Central Chile is one of the three natural regions into which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950. It is home to a majority of the Chilean population and includes the three largest metropolitan areas—Santiago, Valparaíso, Concepción, it extends from about 32° south latitude to about 37° south latitude. Central Chile is one of the five main geographical zones; the Chilean Central Valley lies between the Andes Mountains. To the north is the semi-desert region known as El Norte Chico, which lies between 28° and 32° south latitude. To the south lies the cooler and wetter Valdivian temperate rain forests ecoregion, in Los Lagos Region; the Central valley is the agricultural heartland of Chile. The climate is of the temperate Mediterranean type, with the amount of rainfall increasing and progressively from north to south. In the Santiago area, the average monthly temperatures are about 19.5 °C in the summer months of January and February and 7.5 °C in the winter months of June and July. The average monthly precipitation is no more than a trace in January and February and 69.7 millimetres in June and July.
By contrast, in Concepción the average monthly temperatures are somewhat lower in the summer at 17.6 °C but higher in the winter at 9.3 °C, the amount of rain is much greater. In the summer, Concepción receives an average of twenty millimeters of rain per month; the numerous rivers increase their flow as a result of the winter rains and the spring melting of the Andean snows, they contract in the summer. The combination of abundant snow in the Andes and moderate winter temperatures creates excellent conditions for Alpine skiing; the annual mean temperature in Santiago is 57 °F. The temperate action of the ocean prevents temperatures from dropping drastically, if snow falls in the area it does not stay on the ground for more than a few hours. In Santiago the annual rainfall is 13 inches and in Valparaíso, it amounts to 15 inches. Along the Central Valley rainfall increases southward until it reaches 52 inches in Concepción; the topography of central Chile includes a coastal range of mountains running parallel to the Andes.
Lying between the two mountain ranges is the so-called Central Valley, which contains some of the richest agricultural land in the country in its northern portion. The area just north and south of Santiago is a large producer of fruits, including the grapes from which the best Chilean wines are made. Exports of fresh fruit began to rise in the mid-1970s because Chilean growers had the advantage of being able to reach markets in the Northern Hemisphere during that part of the world's winter. Most of these exports, such as grapes and peaches, go by refrigerator ships, but some, such as berries, go by air freight; the southern portion of central Chile contains a mixture of some excellent agricultural lands, many of which were covered with old-growth forests. They were soon exhausted of their organic matter and left to erode. Large tracts of this worn-out land, many of them on hilly terrain, have been reforested for the lumber for the cellulose and paper industries. New investments during the 1980s in these industries transformed the rural economy of the region.
The pre-Andean highlands and some of the taller and more massive mountains in the coastal range still contain large tracts of old-growth forests of remarkable beauty, some of which have been set aside as national parks. Between the coastal mountains and the ocean, many areas of central Chile contain stretches of land that are lower than the Central Valley and are quite flat; the longest beaches can be found in such sections. The following regions are traditionally considered as being part of Chile's central Valley: V Region of Valparaíso The Metropolitan Region of Santiago VI Region of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins VII Region of the Maule VIII Region of the BiobíoHistorically, the Central valley has been the heartland of the country with the highest concentration of population and, in addition, the area where the greater proportion of the economic productivity of the country is concentrated, its economy is characterized by its diversity and the strongest pillars lie in the use of natural resources, through the copper mining, logging and wine producing and manufacturing sector.
The main cities are: Santiago, Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Quilpué, Villa Alemana, Puente Alto, San Antonio, Rancagua, Curicó, Linares, Chillán, Concepción, Talcahuano and Los Ángeles. An aerial Google view of the Chilean Central Valley. Argentina lies to the east of the Andes range
Valdivia is a city and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia. The city is named after its founder Pedro de Valdivia and is located at the confluence of the Calle-Calle and Cau-Cau Rivers 15 km east of the coastal towns of Corral and Niebla. Since October 2007, Valdivia has been the capital of Los Ríos Region and is the capital of Valdivia Province; the national census of 2002 recorded the commune of Valdivia as having 140,559 inhabitants, of whom 127,750 were living in the city. The main economic activities of Valdivia include tourism, wood pulp manufacturing, forestry and beer production; the city is the home of the Austral University of Chile, founded in 1954 and the Centro de Estudios Científicos. The city of Valdivia and the Chiloé Archipelago were once the two southernmost outliers of the Spanish Empire. From 1645 to 1740 the city depended directly on the Viceroyalty of Peru, which financed the building of the Valdivian fort system that turned Valdivia into one of the most fortified cities of the New World.
In the second half of the 19th century, Valdivia was the port of entry for German immigrants who settled in the city and surrounding areas. In 1960 Valdivia was damaged by the Great Chilean earthquake, the most powerful earthquake recorded at magnitude 9.5. Debris and destroyed buildings from the earthquake can still be found in the suburban areas. In addition, land subsidence and sediments have resulted in complex navigation challenges on the local rivers and in some areas, ruins of buildings are visible from the water; the area around Valdivia may have been populated since 12,000 – 11,800 BC, according to archaeological discoveries in Monte Verde, which would place it about a thousand years before the Clovis culture in North America. This challenges the "Clovis First" model of migration to the New World. Researchers speculate that the first inhabitants of Valdivia and Chile travelled to America by watercraft and not across a land-bridge in the Bering Strait. During at least the Middle Archaic, southern Chile was populated by indigenous groups who shared a common lithic culture called the Chan-Chan Complex, named for the archaeological site of Chan-Chan located some 35 km north of Valdivia along the coast.
By the time of the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores, Valdivia was inhabited by the Huilliche. The Huilliche and Mapuche were both referred to by the Spaniards as Araucanos, their main language was a variant of the Mapuche language. A large village called; the Huilliche called Ainilebu. Ainil seemed to have been an important trade center. Ainil may be described as "a kind of little Venice," as it had large areas of canals. Since that period, most of these waterways and wetlands have been filled; the market in Ainil received shellfish and fish from the coast, legumes from Punucapa, other foods from San José de la Mariquina, an agricultural zone northeast of Valdivia. A remnant of this ancient trade is the modern Feria Fluvial on the banks of Valdivia River; the surroundings of Valdivia were described as extensive plains having a large population that cultivated potatoes, maize and legumes, among other crops. The population has been estimated by some historians as 30 to 40 thousand inhabitants as of 1548, based on descriptions made by the conquistadors.
Pedro Mariño de Lobera, an early conquistador and chronicler, wrote that there were half a million Indians living within ten leagues from the city. Other historians consider these numbers too high and argue that early Spaniards exaggerated in their descriptions; the British naturalist Charles Darwin observed that "there is not much cleared land near Valdivia." This suggests that pre-Hispanic agriculture in Valdivia was far more extensive than the agriculture practiced in the early 19th century at the time of his visit. The first European to visit Valdivia River's estuary was the Genoese captain Juan Bautista Pastene, who took possession of it in 1544 in the name of the Spanish king, Charles V, he named the river after the Governor of Chile Pedro de Valdivia. Pedro de Valdivia travelled by land to the river described by Pastene, founded the city of Valdivia in 1552 as Santa María la Blanca de Valdivia, it was the southernmost Spanish settlement in the Americas at the time of the founding. Following the establishment of the church of Santa María la Blanca in Valdivia, more buildings were constructed.
Mariño de Lobera described it as "the second city in the Kingdom of Chile". Many of Chile's most influential conquistadors and future governors were granted land in Valdivia, such as Jerónimo de Alderete, Rodrigo de Quiroga and Pedro de Villagra, apart from the proper Pedro de Valdivia. Jerónimo de Bibar, a chronicler who witnessed the founding wrote: "Having the governor seen such good comarca and site for populate a city and riverside of such good river, having such good harbour he founded a city and named it ciudad de Valdivia, he assigned Alcaldes and a town council." After Pedro de Valdivia's death, the war with the Mapuches, called the War of Arauco, continued. The Spanish made many attempts to defeat the Mapuche and defend the cities and forts built on their territory. On March 17 of 1575 the city was damaged by a massive earthquake, it has since been likened to the Great Chilean earthquake of 1960 in t
Nothofagus obliqua known as the Patagonian oak', roble,pellín,roble pellín,and hualle in its early state of growth or roble beech, is a deciduous tree from Chile and Argentina. It grows from 33 to 43° south latitude; the northern extent of this tree's range in Chile is considered to be the Vizcachas Mountains and La Campana National Park. N. obliqua was propsed to be renamed Lophozonia obliqua in 2013. Nothofagus obliqua reaches a height of 50 meters. and 2 m diameter. The trunk has greyish-brown to dark brown bark and is forked; the leaves somewhat curled between the veins and the serrated margin. The trees bear separate male and female flowers, both of which are small, surrounded by green bracts, rather inconspicuous. In Chile, young specimens are known as roble hualle, while old trees, which have developed the reddish heartwood characteristic of mature specimens are known as roble pellín; the tree has a good shape and its timber is valued for its durability, being used for furniture-making and in construction.
The tree was introduced to the British Isles in 1849. Material with provenance from different places in its natural environment was tested in cultivation in Scotland. Trees cultivated from material collected from Ñuble, the provenance closest to the Equator, were the most damaged by frosts. Seeds of that provenance were supplied to many commercial growers in the 1970s in the United Kingdom. Seeds sourced from Neuquen in Argentina proved the hardiest. A selection from Malleco, the provenance of the first trees planted in the British Isles gave good hardiness results, it has been planted on the North Pacific Coast of the United States. Experimental plantations established in Wales suffered severe damage during the 1981–1982 cold wave that swept through Britain. There are two recognised subspecies of N. obliqua. These are: N. obliqua subsp. Andina N. obliqua subsp. Valdiviana Heenan & Smissen. Nothofagus macrocarpa was once considered a subspecies, as Fagus obliqua var. macrocarpa. N. obliqua hybridises with Raulí to form the hybrid species Nothofagus ×dodecaphleps.
"Nothofagus obliqua". Encyclopedia of Chilean Flora. Retrieved 2009-06-27. "Nothofagus obliqua". Chilebosque. Retrieved 2009-06-27. "Nothofagus obliqua and images". Chileflora. Retrieved 2009-06-27
Valdivian temperate rain forest
The Valdivian temperate forests is an ecoregion on the west coast of southern South America, in Chile and extending into Argentina. It is part of the Neotropical ecozone; the forests are named after the city of Valdivia. The Valdivian temperate rainforests are characterized by their dense understories of bamboos and for being dominated by evergreen angiosperm trees with some deciduous specimens, though conifer trees are common. Temperate rain forests comprise a narrow coastal strip between the Pacific Ocean to the west, the southern Andes Mountains to the east, from 37° to 48° south latitude. North of 42°, the Chilean coastal range runs along the coast, the north-south running Chilean Central Valley lies between the coastal range and the Andes. South of 42°, the coast range continues as a chain of offshore islands, including Chiloé Island and the Chonos Archipelago, while the "Central Valley" is submerged and continues as the Gulf of Corcovado. Much of the ecoregion was covered by the Patagonian Ice Sheet and other glaciers at the peak of the last ice age, which descended from the Andes mountains, the numerous lakes of the Chilean lakes district in the central part of the ecoregion were glacial valleys, while the southern part of the region has many glacier-carved fjords.
To the north the Valdivian forests give way to the Mediterranean forests and scrub of the Chilean Matorral ecoregion. Some few Valdivian forests grows in northern Chile such as that one in Bosque de Fray Jorge National Park as remains of the last glacial maximum. To the south lies the Magellanic subpolar forests ecoregion; the temperate Valdivian and Magellanic ecoregions are isolated from the subtropical and tropical forests of northern South America by the Atacama desert north of the Matorral, the Andes mountains, dry rain-shadow Argentine grasslands east of the Andes. As a result, the temperate forest regions have evolved in relative isolation, with a high degree of endemic species; the forest of northwestern North America exist in similar settings but differ in not being connected to large inland forest like the boreal forest or the forest of the Rocky Mountains. Compared to the similar North American forest, the Valdivian temperate rain forest is richer in species, a characteristic, found when comparing with similar forest in Tasmania.
Since the forest is located at around 40 degrees south, it is influenced by the westerlies. The water vapour held by the westerlies condenses as they arrive at the higher part of the windward slope of the Andes, thus creating rainfalls. At the same time, the northward-flowing oceanic Humboldt Current creates humid and foggy conditions near the coast; the tree line is at about 2,400 m in the northern part of the ecoregion, descends to 1,000 m in the south of the Valdivian region. In the summer the temperature can climb to 16.5 °C, while during winter the temperature can drop below 7 °C. Average annual temperatures are uniform within the area at coastal locations where annual temperature differences between localities never exceed 7 °C; the Valdivian temperate rain forests are mixed forests. The Valdivian and Magellanic temperate rainforests are the only temperate rain forests in South America and one of a small number of temperate rain forests in the world. Together they are the second largest in the world, after the Pacific temperate rain forests of North America.
The Valdivian forests are a refuge for the Antarctic flora, share many plant families with the temperate rainforests of New Zealand and Australia. Half the species of woody plants are endemic to this ecoregion. Chusquea quila is a bamboo that grows in humid areas below 500 m, where Chusquea coleou becomes more dominant above. Chusquea quila can form pure stands called quilantales. Few plants can grow under this species. Other notable species are the nalca or Chilean rhubarb and the ferns Lophosoria quadripinnata and Blechnum chilense. Chile's national flower, the copihue is a pioneer species that grows in disturbed areas of the Valdivian rain forest; the maximum plant species richness is found at latitudes 40 to 43° S. There are four main types of forest ecosystems in the Valdivian ecoregion. At the northern end of the ecoregion are deciduous forests, dominated by two deciduous species of southern beech: rauli and roble; the second type are the Valdivian laurel-leaved forests, characterized by a variety of broadleaf evergreen trees, including Laureliopsis philippiana, Aextoxicon punctatum, Eucryphia cordifolia, Caldcluvia paniculata, Weinmannia trichosperma, with an understory of Myrceugenia planipes, the arrayán and other plants.
The third forest type is the Patagonian Andean forests, which are distributed at higher elevations along the Andes mountain front, are dominated by evergreen conifers, including the pehuén or monkey-puzzle and the alerce. The alerce looks like a giant sequoia, is a rival in longevity to the bristlecone pine, some with growth rings recording 3,625 years of local weather cycles. Closer to the treeline, the conifers give way to Andean scrublands of deciduous Nothofagus; the fourth and last type is the Northern Patagonian forests, which dominate the southern half of the ecoregion, with evergreen species such as the broadleaf Nothofagus dombeyi and Drimys winteri and the coniferous podocarps, including Podocarpus nubigenus. Distribution of plants follow Rapoport's rule with plant species distribution increa
Villarrica is one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rising above the lake and town of the same name, 750 km south of Santiago. It is known as Rucapillán, a Mapuche word meaning "devil's house", it is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend NW-SW obliquely perpendicular to the Andean chain along the Mocha-Villarrica Fault Zone, along with Quetrupillán and the Chilean portion of Lanín, are protected within Villarrica National Park. Guided ascents are popular during summer months. Villarrica, with its lava of basaltic-andesitic composition, is one of a small number worldwide known to have an active lava lake within its crater; the volcano generates strombolian eruptions with ejection of incandescent pyroclasts and lava flows. Rainfall plus melted snow and glacier ice can cause massive lahars, such as during the eruptions of 1964 and 1971. Villarrica is one of 9 volcanoes monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project; the project is collecting data on the carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide emission rates from subaerial volcanoes.
Villarica stands just east of the Chilean Central Valley as the westernmost of an alignment of three large stratovolcanoes. The alignment is attributed to the existence of an old fracture in the crust, the North West-South East trending Mocha-Villarrica Fault Zone, the other volcanoes in the chain, Quetrupillán and Lanín, are far less active; the alignment is unusual as it crosses the N-S running Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault, along which several active volcanoes are aligned. Villarrica covers an area of 400 km2 and has an estimated volume of 250 km3, it contains about 26 scoria cones. The constant degassing at the lava lake turns the otherwise quite effusive lava more viscous, heightening its explosive potential. Two large ignimbrite layers are visible. Villarrica emerged during the Middle Pleistocene and grew forming a large stratocone of similar dimensions to the current edifice. 100,000 years ago during the Valdivia Interglacial the ancestral Villarrica collapsed following an eruption and formed a large elliptical caldera of 6.5 and 4.2 km in diameter.
During the Llanquihue glaciation Villarrica produced pyroclastic flow deposits, subglacial andesite lavas and dacite dykes. It collapsed once again 13,700 years ago forming a new smaller caldera, among other pyroclastic flows the Licán Ignimbrite has been related to this event. Beginning with the Licán Ignimbrite, generated just after the last deglaciation, activity continued in similar fashion; the Pucón Ignimbrite was ejected during a minor collapse of the uppermost stratocone 3,700 years ago. The upper part of Villarrica is permanently covered by snow and has some 40 km2 of glaciers, the largest of, the Pichillancahue-Turbio Glacier situated on its southeastern flank. Ash from the eruptions can increase the ablation of ice by absorption of solar radiation; some ash coverings are thicker than 5 cm and insulate the glacier, decreasing ablation instead of enhancing it. Between 1961 and 2003, Villarrica lost 25% of its glaciated surface and the glaciers shrank at an average rate of -0.4 km2 each year.
Villarrica is popular for climbing with guided hikes to the crater from the town of Pucón, but these may be suspended due to cloud or volcanic activity. Helicopter over-flights have been available since 2007. In the winter a ski resort operates on the northern slopes. Youngest person to reach the summit recognized by the Chilean government was Christopher Heussner of Texas at the age of 9 in 1999. Villarrica is one of Chile's most active volcanoes; this city was founded near the site of present-day Pucón. Villarrica volcano had frequent strombolian eruptions in the second half of the 16th century. Peaks of activity occurred in 1558 and 1562; the 1562 eruption in particular deposited thin ash layers as far as 200 km away from the volcano. During its early years the city of Villarrica was an important silver mining centre; however mining activity declined over time. It is thought that this decline could be a consequence of burial of gold placers beneath lahars associated with mid-16th century eruptions of Villarrica.
This burial would have prompted settlers to move the city westward to its modern site, a place less prone to volcanic hazards. There are uncertainties in the eruptive record in the first half of the 17th century due to the Mapuche and Huilliche uprising which led to the surrender or abandonment of Spanish settlements during the destruction of the Seven Cities; the volcano resumed eruptive activity in March 8, 1963. On March 12 flank vent some 250 metres below the summit begun to pour lava that ended up making a 1000 m long and 150-meter broad lava flow; the lava flow had stopped by March 19. Concurrently with this the summit crater continued its strombolian eruption. Explosive eruptions begun once again on May 2, 1963, the eruption had turned effusive by May 21; the last consequences of this cycle of eruptions were lahars that flowed down the volcano in May 24. In the two last weeks of February 1964, Villarrica produced small, violent lava effusions and tremors. On 2 March, at 2:45 am, it began a strombolian eruption, residents of Coñaripe, a wood-logging town, fled to the surrounding hills.
At some point, the inhabitants of Coñaripe decided to return to their houses in search of shelter from the heavy rainfall. At midnight a new lava flow advanced downhill melting ice triggering five lahars. Melting snow and ice from the Pichillancahue-Turbio Glacier combined with heavy rain
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i