A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, violent, behavior. Some criminal gang members are "jumped in", or they have to prove their loyalty and right to belong by committing certain acts theft or violence. A member of a gang may be called a gangster, a gang banger, or, less a thug. A number of gangs have gained notoriety throughout history, including the Italian Mafia, the Russian mafia, the Irish mob, the Polish mob, the Jewish mob, the Albanian mafia, the Yakuza in Japan, the Kkangpae in Korea, the Triad in China, the gangs of New England, the Jamaican Shower Posse and Yardies, the African-American Crips and Bloods, Latino gangs such as Latin Kings, MS-13, Sureños, Trinitarios, white supremacist gangs such as the Aryan Brotherhood, Aryan Nations and biker gangs like Hells Angels; the word "gang" derives from the past participle of Old English gan, meaning "to go".
It is cognate with Old Norse gangster, meaning "journey." It means a group of people, may have neutral, positive or negative connotations depending on usage. In discussing the banditry in American history Barrington Moore, Jr. suggests that gangsterism as a "form of self-help which victimizes others" may appear in societies which lack strong "forces of law and order". A wide variety of gangs, such as the Order of Assassins, the Damned Crew, Adam the Leper's gang, Penny Mobs, Indian Thugs, Chinese Triads, Japanese Yakuza, Irish mob, Pancho Villa's Villistas, Dead Rabbits, American Old West outlaw gangs, Bowery Boys, the Italian Mafia, Jewish mafia, Russian mafia crime families have existed for centuries; the 17th century saw London "terrorized by a series of organized gangs", some of them known as the Mims, Hectors and Dead Boys. These gangs came into conflict with each other. Members dressed in the following way: "with colored ribbons to distinguish the different factions."Chicago had over 1,000 gangs in the 1920s.
These early gangs had reputations for many criminal activities, but in most countries could not profit from drug trafficking prior to drugs being made illegal by laws such as the 1912 International Opium Convention and the 1919 Volstead Act. Gang involvement in drug trafficking increased during the 1970s and 1980s, but some gangs continue to have minimal involvement in the trade. In the United States, the history of gangs began on the East Coast in 1783 following the American Revolution; the emergence of the gangs was attributed to the vast rural population immigration to the urban areas. The first street-gang in the United States, the 40 Thieves, began around the late 1820s in New York City; the gangs in Washington D. C. had control of what is now Federal Triangle, in a region known as Murder Bay. In 2007, there were 785,000 active street gang members in the United States, according to the National Youth Gang Center. In 2011, the National Gang Intelligence Center of the Federal Bureau of Investigation asserted that "There are 1.4 million active street and outlaw gang members comprising more than 33,500 gangs in the United States."
230,000 gang members were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2011. According to the Chicago Crime Commission publication, "The Gang Book 2012", Chicago has the highest number of gang members of any city in the United States: 150,000 members. Traditionally Los Angeles County has been considered the Gang Capital of America, with an estimated 120,000 gang members. There were at least 30,000 gangs and 800,000 gang members active across the USA in 2007. About 900,000 gang members lived "within local communities across the country," and about 147,000 were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2009. By 1999, Hispanics accounted for 47% of all gang members, Blacks 31%, Whites 13%, Asians 7%. In December 13, 2009, The New York Times published an article about growing gang violence on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and estimated that there were 39 gangs with 5,000 members on that reservation alone. There are between 50,000 gang members in Central America's El Salvador. More than 1,800 gangs were known to be operating in the UK in 2011.
The FBI estimates that the four Italian organized crime groups active in the United States have 25,000 members in total. The Russian, Azerbaijani, Georgian and other former Soviet organized crime groups or "Bratvas" have many members and associates affiliated with their various sorts of organized crime, but no statistics are available; the Yakuza are among one of the largest criminal organizations in the world. As of 2005, there are some 102,400 known members in Japan. Hong Kong's Triads include up to 160,000 members in the 21st century, it was estimated. One of the most infamous criminal gangs are the Sicilian Cosa Nostra and the Italian-American Mafia; the Neapolitan Camorra, the Calabrian'Ndrangheta and the Apulian Sacra Corona Unita are similar Italian organized gangs. Other criminal gangs include the Russian mafia, Colombian Drug Cartels, the Aryan Brotherhood, the Mexican Mafia, the Texas Syndicate, the Black Guerrilla Family, the Nuestra Familia, the Mara Salvatrucha, the Primeiro Comando da Capital, the Irish Mob, the Puerto Rican Mafia, Nuestra familia, the Chinese Triads, the Japanese Yakuza, the Jamaican-British Yardies, the Haitian gang Zoe Pound, other crime syndicates.
Conscription in the United States
Conscription in the United States known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in five conflicts: the American Revolution, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Cold War. The third incarnation of the draft came into being in 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act, it was the country's first peacetime draft. From 1940 until 1973, during both peacetime and periods of conflict, men were drafted to fill vacancies in the United States Armed Forces that could not be filled through voluntary means; the draft came to an end when the United States Armed Forces moved to an all-volunteer military force. However, the Selective Service System remains in place as a contingency plan. United States Federal Law provides for the compulsory conscription of men between the ages of 17 and 45 and certain women for militia service pursuant to Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution and 10 U. S. Code § 246. In colonial times, the Thirteen Colonies used a militia system for defense.
Colonial militia laws—and after independence those of the United States and the various states—required able-bodied males to enroll in the militia, to undergo a minimum of military training, to serve for limited periods of time in war or emergency. This earliest form of conscription involved selective drafts of militiamen for service in particular campaigns. Following this system in its essentials, the Continental Congress in 1778 recommended that the states draft men from their militias for one year's service in the Continental army. For long-term operations, conscription was used when volunteers or paid substitutes were insufficient to raise the needed manpower. During the American Revolutionary War, the states sometimes drafted men for militia duty or to fill state Continental Army units, but the central government did not have the authority to conscript except for purposes of naval impressment. Post Ratification of the Constitution, Article I.8.15, allows for Congress to conscript. Giving it the power to provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions.
Article II.2.1 makes the President the chief of the militia. The second amendment protects the infringement of the militia regulations, being necessary to the security of a free state; the Second Militia act of 1792 defined the first group who could be called forth as all free able-bodied males between the ages of 18 and 45. President James Madison and his Secretary of War James Monroe unsuccessfully attempted to create a national draft of 40,000 men during the War of 1812; this proposal was fiercely criticized on the House floor by antiwar Congressman Daniel Webster of New Hampshire. The United States first employed national conscription during the American Civil War; the vast majority of troops were volunteers. The Confederacy had far fewer inhabitants than the Union, Confederate President Jefferson Davis proposed the first conscription act on March 28, 1862. Resistance was both violent, with comparisons made between conscription and slavery. Both sides permitted conscripts to hire substitutes to serve in their place.
In the Union, many states and cities offered bonuses for enlistment. They arranged to take credit against their draft quota by claiming freed slaves who enlisted in the Union Army. Although both sides resorted to conscription, the system did not work in either; the Confederate Congress on April 16, 1862, passed an act requiring military service for three years from all males aged 18 to 35 not exempt. The U. S. Congress followed with the Militia Act of 1862 authorizing a militia draft within a state when it could not meet its quota with volunteers; this state-administered system failed in practice and in 1863 Congress passed the Enrollment Act, the first genuine national conscription law, setting up under the Union Army an elaborate machinery for enrolling and drafting men between twenty and forty-five years of age. Quotas were assigned in each state, the deficiencies in volunteers required to be met by conscription. Still, men drafted could provide substitutes, until mid-1864 could avoid service by paying commutation money.
Many eligible men pooled their money to cover the cost of any one of them drafted. Families used the substitute provision to select which member should go into the army and which would stay home; the other popular means of procuring a substitute was to pay a soldier whose period of enlistment was about to expire - the advantage of this method was that the Army could retain a trained veteran in place of a raw recruit. Of the 168,649 men procured for the Union Army through the draft, 117,986 were substitutes, leaving only 50,663 who had their personal services conscripted. There was much evasion and overt resistance to the draft, the New York City draft riots were in direct response to the draft and were the first large-scale resistance against the draft in the United S
Stormy Weather (1943 film)
Stormy Weather is a 1943 American musical film produced and released by 20th Century Fox. The film is considered one of the best Hollywood musicals with an African-American cast, the other being MGM's Cabin in the Sky; the film is considered a primary showcase of some of the top African-American performers of the time, during an era when African-American actors and singers appeared in lead roles in mainstream Hollywood productions those of the musical genre. Stormy Weather takes its title from the 1933 song of the same title, performed near the end of the film, it is based upon the life and times of dancer Bill "Bojangles" Robinson. Robinson plays "Bill Williamson", a talented born dancer who returns home in 1918 after serving in World War I and tries to pursue a career as a performer. Along the way, he approaches a beautiful singer named Selina Rogers, played by Lena Horne in one of her few non-MGM film appearances; the character of Selina was invented for the film. Dooley Wilson co-stars as Bill's perpetually-broke friend.
Other performers in the movie were Cab Calloway and Fats Waller, the Nicholas Brothers dancing duo, comedian F. E. Miller, singer Ada Brown, Katherine Dunham with her dance troupe. Despite a running time of only 77 minutes, the film features some 20 musical numbers; this was Robinson's final film. The film's musical highlights include Waller performing his composition "Ain't Misbehavin'", Cab Calloway leading his band in his composition "Jumpin' Jive", a lengthy sequence built around the title song, featuring the vocals of Lena Horne and the dancing of Katherine Dunham. Horne performs in several dance numbers with Robinson; the movie was adapted by Frederick J. Jackson, Ted Koehler and H. S. Kraft from the story by Jerry Horwin and Seymour B. Robinson, it was directed by Andrew L. Stone. In 2001, Stormy Weather was selected for the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant." It was released on DVD in North America in 2005. The soundtrack has been released on CD by 20th Century Fox references 7822-11007, though Sunbeam Records released the soundtrack on vinyl in 1976.
The Soundtrack Factory CD includes Lena Horne singing "Good For Nothin' Joe", a song that did not appear in the movie. Other songs include: "Walkin' the Dog" – Orchestra "There's No Two Ways About Love" – Lena Horne "Cakewalk"/"Camptown Races"/"At a Georgia Meeting" – Orchestra "Moppin' and Boppin'" – Fats Waller "That Ain't Right" – Ada Brown and Fats Waller "Ain't Misbehavin'" – Fats Waller "Diga Diga Doo" – Lena Horne "I Lost My Heart in Salt Lake City" – Mae E. Johnson "Nobody's Sweetheart" – Orchestra "I Can't Give You Anything but Love, Baby" – Lena Horne, Bill Robinson, others "Geechy Joe" – Cab Calloway & his Orchestra "Stormy Weather" – Lena Horne "Stormy Weather Ballet" – danced by Katherine Dunham and her Dance Troupe "There's No Two Ways About Love" – Cab Calloway, Bill Robinson, Lena Horne "My, My Ain't That Somethin'" – Bill Robinson "Jumpin' Jive" – Cab Calloway & his Orchestra, danced by the Nicholas Brothers "My, My Ain't That Somethin'" – Lena Horne, Bill Robinson, Cab Calloway Shane Vogel suggests that Lena Horne and Katherine Dunham's performances of "Stormy Weather" in the film are, like Ethel Waters' performance of the song in The Cotton Club Parade of 1933, African American modernist critiques of American culture.
Fred Astaire told the Nicholas Brothers that the "Jumpin' Jive" dance sequence was "the greatest movie musical number he had seen". The musical numbers in the movie contain elements of minstrelsy; the performance of a cakewalk for example, features flower headdresses reminiscent of the Little Black Sambo figures used in historical misrepresentations of Black American males. Stormy Weather and other musicals of the 1940s opened new roles for blacks in Hollywood, breaking through old stereotypes and far surpassing limited roles available in race films produced for all-black audiences. Stormy Weather at the American Film Institute Catalog Stormy Weather on IMDb Review of Stormy Weather at TVGuide.com
Italian Americans are citizens of the United States of America who are of Italian descent. Italian Americans are the fourth largest ethnic group of European Americans behind German Americans, Irish Americans and English Americans. About 5.5 million Italians immigrated to the United States from 1820 to 2004. In 1870, there were fewer than 25,000 Italian immigrants in America, many of them Northern Italian refugees from the wars that accompanied the Risorgimento—the struggle for Italian unification and independence from foreign rule which ended in 1871. Immigration began to increase during the 1870s, when more than twice as many Italians immigrated than during the five previous decades combined; the 1870s were followed by the greatest surge of immigration, which occurred between 1880 and 1914 and brought more than 4 million Italians to the United States, the majority being from Southern Italy and Sicily, with many having agrarian backgrounds. This period of large-scale immigration ended abruptly with the onset of the First World War in 1914 and, except for one year, never resumed.
Further immigration was limited by several laws Congress passed in the 1920s. 84% of the Italian immigrants came from Southern Italy and Sicily, still rural and agricultural, where much of the populace had been impoverished by centuries of foreign misrule, an oppressive taxation system imposed after Italian unification in 1861. After unification, the Italian government encouraged emigration to relieve economic pressures in the South. After the American Civil War, which resulted in over a half million killed or wounded, immigrant workers were recruited from Italy and elsewhere to fill the labor shortage caused by the war. In the United States, most Italians began their new lives as manual laborers in eastern cities, mining camps and farms; the descendants of the Italian immigrants rose from a lower economic class in the first generation to a level comparable to the national average by 1970. The Italian community has been characterized by strong ties to family, the Roman Catholic Church, fraternal organizations, political parties.
Italian navigators and explorers played a key role in the exploration and settlement of the Americas by Europeans. Christopher Columbus, the explorer who first reached the Americas in 1492–1504, was Italian. Another notable Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502, is the source of the name America. England's claims in North America were based on the voyages of the Italian explorer John Cabot and his son Sebastian Cabot in the early 16th century. In 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to map the Atlantic coast of today's United States, to enter New York Bay. A number of Italian navigators and explorers in the employ of Spain and France were involved in exploring and mapping their territories, in establishing settlements. In 1539, Marco da Nizza, explored the territory that became the states of Arizona and New Mexico; the first Italian to reside in America was Pietro Cesare Alberti, a Venetian seaman who, in 1635, settled in what would become New York City.
A small wave of Protestants, known as Waldensians, who were of French and northern Italian heritage, occurred during the 17th century. The first Waldensians began arriving around 1640, with the majority coming between 1654 and 1663, they spread out across what was called New Netherland, what would become New York, New Jersey and the Lower Delaware River regions. The total American Waldensian population that immigrated to New Netherland is unknown. Henri de Tonti, together with the French explorer LaSalle, explored the Great Lakes region. De Tonti founded the first European settlement in Illinois in 1679, in Arkansas in 1683. With LaSalle, he co-founded New Orleans, was governor of the Louisiana Territory for the next 20 years, his brother Alphonse de Tonty, with French explorer Antoine Cadillac, was the co-founder of Detroit in 1701, was its acting colonial governor for 12 years. Spain and France were Catholic countries and sent many missionaries to convert the native American population. Included among these missionaries were numerous Italians.
In 1519-25, Alessandro Geraldini was the first Catholic bishop in the Americas, at Santo Domingo. Father François-Joseph Bressani labored among the Algonquin and Huron Indians in the early 17th century. Between 1687 and 1711, the southwest and California were explored and mapped by Italian Jesuit priest Eusebio Kino; the Taliaferro family from Venice, was one of the first families to settle in Virginia. Francesco Maria de Reggio, an Italian nobleman who served under the French, came to Louisiana in 1751 where he held the title of Captain General of Louisiana until 1763. Another colonial, merchant Francis Ferrari of Genoa, was naturalized as a citizen of Rhode Island in 1752, he died in 1753 and in his will speaks of Genoa, his ownership of three ships, cargo of wine and his wife Mary, who went on to own one of the oldest coffee houses in America, the Merchant Coffee House of New York on Wall Street at Water St. Her Merchant Coffee House moved across Wall Street in 1772, retaining the same patronage.
Today, the descendants of the Alberti/Burtis, Fonda, Reggio an
L. Wolfe Gilbert
Louis Wolfe Gilbert was a Russian-born American songwriter of Tin Pan Alley. Born in Odessa, Russian Empire, Gilbert moved to the United States as a young man. Gilbert began his career touring with John L. Sullivan and singing in a quartet at small Coney Island café called "College Inn", where he was discovered by English producer Albert Decourville. Decourville brought him to London as part of The Ragtime Octet. Gilbert's first songwriting success came in 1912 when F. A. Mills Music Publishers published his song Waiting For the Robert E. Lee. Gilbert wrote both the words and music to "Down Yonder", a sequel to "Waiting for the Robert E. Lee". "Down Yonder" has become something of a standard as an instrumental, though the lyrics are performed. He joined ASCAP in 1924. Gilbert moved to Hollywood in 1929, began writing for film and radio. During the 1930s, Gilbert worked on Cuban songs; some of these hits for which he wrote English lyrics include The Peanut Vendor, Mama Inez, Maria My Own. Gilbert wrote the theme lyrics for the popular children's Television Western Hopalong Cassidy, which first aired in 1949 on NBC.
He was an innovator in his field, having been one of the first songwriters to begin publishing and promoting a catalog of his own works. He served as the director of ASCAP from 1941 to 1944, again in 1953, he was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970. Known as "Wolfie," Gilbert and his wife Rose lived in Beverly Hills and he and his family were members of Temple Israel of Hollywood, he died in Los Angeles, California on July 12, 1970. His original gravesite was at Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in Culver City but he was reinterred at Forest Lawn Cemetery near Palm Springs, California. 1912 Waiting For The Robert E. Lee 1912 Hitchy-Koo 1912 Ragging The Baby To Sleep 1912 Take Me To That Swanee Shore 1913 Mammy Jinny's Mubilee 1914 By Heck 1914 She's Dancing Her Heart Away 1915 My Sweet Adair 1916 I Miss You Miss America 1916 I've Got the Army Blues 1916 My Hawaiian Sunrise 1917 Are You From Heaven? 1917 Camouflage 1917 Lily Of The Valley 1917 Set Aside Your Tears 1921 Down Yonder 1924 O, Katharina 1925 Don't Wake Me Up, Let Me Dream 1925 I Miss My Swiss 1926 Hello, How Are You?
1928 Are You Thinking Of Me Tonight? 1928 Ramona 1928 Jeannine, I Dream of Lilac Time, recorded by over a hundred artists 1928 Zindele Meins the Yiddish version of "Sonny Boy" sung by Pesach Burstein 1931 Marta r. 1931 Mama Inez 1912 The Girl from Brighton 1912-1913 Broadway to Paris 1916-1917 The Century Girl 1917 Doing Our Bit 1919 Oh, What A Girl! 1931 The Singing Rabbi BibliographyFirmat, Gustavo Pérez. The Havana Habit. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300168761. Shaw, Arnold; the Jazz Age: Popular Music in the 1920's. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195038916. Bierley, Paul E.. The heritage encyclopedia of band music. Composers and their music, Integrity Press 1991. ISBN 0918048087 Bloom, Ken. American song; the complete musical theater companion: 1877-1995. Volume 2: T-Z. Second edition. Schirmer Books 1996. Gilbert, L. Wolfe. Without Rhyme or Reason, Vantage Press 1956. OCLC 1295930 Larkin, Colin; the encyclopedia of popular music, third edition. Macmillan 1998. ISBN 1561592374 "L. Wolfe Gilbert".
Composer, author, publisher. Find a Grave. June 6, 2004. Retrieved June 30, 2011
38th Street gang
The 38th Street gang is an American criminal street gang in Los Angeles, composed of Hispanic-Americans. The 38th Street gang is one of the oldest street gangs in Los Angeles and has been occupying its territory since the 1920s, they engage in many criminal activities. The Mexican Mafia controls and uses 38th Street gang members to carry out their orders. Founded in the 1920s, the 38th Street gang dates back to the pachucos and zoot suits and was formed at the border between South Central and the city of Vernon; the 38th Street gang became well known in the 1940s in the Sleepy Lagoon murder trial. Sleepy Lagoon was a popular swimming hole in. A Mexican American juvenile named Jose Diaz was killed there in 1942, members of the 38th Street Mexican American gang were arrested and charged with murder by the Los Angeles Police Department. All five of the gang members were sentenced to prison; these convictions united the Mexican community and changed Mexican gangs. The jail sentences acted as a glue to unite the Mexican and Mexican American community in a common cause, a fight against class distinction based on prejudice and racism, a fight against the establishment.
In prison, 38th Street gang members were held in high esteem. On October 4, 1943, the convictions of the gang members were overturned and the gang members were welcomed back to their communities as heroes. During "Sleepy Lagoon", the media exaggerated the headlines about the gang that wore zoot suits and created wartime hysteria and prejudice against the Mexican-American community. In what was known as the Zoot Suit Riots in May to June 1943, many Mexican-American zoot suiters from the segregated parts of town were attacked by European American servicemen and civilians; the white servicemen and civilians felt Zoot Suiters were not contributing to the war effort and were wasting valuable resources by dressing so flamboyantly. Los Angeles police officers did nothing to halt the angry mobs of white servicemen and their colleagues from rioting, arresting the zoot suiters instead of the attackers. After the riots and because of international criticism, the United States Department of War banned all military personnel from going to Los Angeles on leave.
The Los Angeles City Council adopted a resolution that banned the wearing of zoot suits on Los Angeles streets, although no ordinance was approved by the City Council nor signed into law by the Mayor. 38th Street is credited for starting a new style of dress: during the time the Sleepy Lagoon defendants were incarcerated, their prison-issue clothes were deliberately oversized, with the intention of drawing ridicule from Anglo inmates and prison staff. However, the Sleepy Lagoon defendants maintained their clothing well and ironing it; the 38th Street gang occupies a huge area on the east side of South Los Angeles and some areas in East Los Angeles. These neighborhoods had been known to be some of the most dangerous in the nation, their rivalries expand to most neighborhoods all over Los Angeles County. They have confirmed cliques in, Salt Lake City, West valley and Wisconsin. Since the 1920s, the 38th Street gang has continued its criminal activities and has evolved to become one of California's most violent street gangs.
Members conduct various activities, including drug sales, murder and vandalism. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the city closed many of its roads in the 38th Street vicinity due to high volume of people coming to purchase narcotics in the area. City administrators hoped that the blocked streets would deter nonresidents from purchasing narcotics. By the late 1990s, a federal task force was set up in order to investigate the gang's involvement in illegal drug trade; the authorities confiscated thousands of dollars in drugs and money, as reported by the Los Angeles Times and local news channels. The group has quarreled with various rival gangs for placement and competition, which has resulted in many drive-by shootings and deaths. On August 24, 2004, a law enforcement preliminary injunction terminated the active members of the 38th Street gang, out of the streets, banning them from using firearms, alcohol and other dangerous materials in public. 38th Street, being an old and large gang, has accumulated countless rivalries in Los Angeles county and other cities where they have established.
During the 1980s, 38th Street became involved in drug sales and trafficking became a specialty crime that some gang members perfected. Today 38th Street relies exclusively on narcotics sales and distribution as its only source of revenue. In February 2011 the FBI arrested 37 suspects connected to the 38th Street, they were arrested on narcotics and firearms charges. The 38th Street gang is the subject of a 130-page grand jury indictment alleging violations of the federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations statute; some 53 defendants are charged with violating the federal law by acting on behalf of the gang and participating in murders, murder plots, attempted murders, narcotics trafficking, robberies and witness intimidation. History of the Mexican Americans in Los Angeles
Filipino Americans are Americans of Filipino descent. The term Filipino American is sometimes shortened to Pinoy; the earliest appearance of the term Pinoy, was in a 1926 issue of the Filipino Student Bulletin. Some Filipinos believe that the term Pinoy was coined by Filipinos who came to the United States to distinguish themselves from Filipinos living in the Philippines. Filipinos in North America were first documented in the 16th century, other small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did not begin until the early 20th century, when the Philippines was ceded from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. Filipino sailors were the first Asians in North America; the first recorded presence of Filipinos in what is now the United States dates back to October 1587 around Morro Bay, with the first permanent settlement in Louisiana in 1763, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration began in the early 20th century when, for a period following the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the Philippines was a territory of the United States.
During the 1920s, a majority of Filipino immigrating to the United States were not skilled. Philippine independence was recognized by the United States on July 4, 1946. After independence in 1946, Filipino American numbers continued to grow. Immigration was reduced during the 1930s, except for those who served in the United States Navy, increased following immigration reform in the 1960s; the majority of Filipinos who immigrated after the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 were skilled professionals and technicians. The 2010 Census counted 3.4 million Filipino Americans. S. population. They are the country's second largest self-reported Asian ancestry group after Chinese Americans according to 2010 American Community Survey, they are the largest population of Overseas Filipinos. Significant populations of Filipino Americans can be found in California, the New York metropolitan area and Illinois; the history of Spanish and American rule and contact with merchants and traders culminated in a unique blend of Eastern and Western cultures in the Philippines.
Filipino American cultural identity has been described as fluid, adopting aspects from various cultures. Fashion, music and arts have all had roles in building Filipino American cultural identities and communities. In areas of sparse Filipino population, they form loosely-knit social organizations aimed at maintaining a "sense of family", a key feature of Filipino culture; these organizations arrange social events of a charitable nature, keep members up-to-date with local events. Organizations are organized into regional associations; the associations are a small part of Filipino American life. Filipino Americans formed close-knit neighborhoods, notably in Hawaii. A few communities have "Little Manilas", civic and business districts tailored for the Filipino American community; some Filipinos retain Philippine surnames, such as Bacdayan or Macapagal, while others derive from Japanese and Chinese and reflect centuries of trade with these merchants preceding European and American rule. Reflecting its 333 years of Spanish rule, many Filipinos adopted Hispanic surnames, celebrate fiestas.
Due to the legacy of colonization, Filipinos are considered Latinos of Asia. Despite being from Asia, Filipinos are sometimes called "Latinos" due to their historical relationship to Spanish colonialism. Similar to Puerto Rico, Filipinos have been subjected to both Spanish and American colonial structures and territory status; this shared history may contribute to why some Filipinos choose to identify as Hispanic or Latino, while others may not and identify more as Asian Americans. Only a small percentage of Filipino Americans identify as Latino. Due to history, the Philippines and the United States are connected culturally. In 2016, there was $16.5 billion dollars worth of trade between the two countries, with the United States being the largest foreign investor in the Philippines, more than 40% of remittances came from the United States. In 2004, the amount of remittances coming from the United States was $5 billion; some Filipino Americans have chosen to retire in the Philippines. Filipino Americans, continue to travel back and forth between the United States and the Philippines, making up more than a tenth of all foreign travelers to the Philippines in 2010.
Filipino and English are constitutionally established as official languages in the Philippines, Filipino is designated as the national language, with English in wide use. Many Filipinos speak American English due to American colonial influence in the country's education system and due to limited Spanish education. Among Asian Americans in 1990, Filipino Americans had the smallest percentage of individuals who had problems with English. In 2000, among U. S.-born Filipino Americans, three quarters responded. In 2003, Tagalog was the fifth most-spoken language in the United States, with 1.262 million speakers. Tagalog usage is significant in California and Washington, while Ilocano usage is significant in Hawaii. Many of Cal