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Zork is one of the earliest interactive fiction computer games, with roots drawn from the original genre game Colossal Cave Adventure. The first version of Zork was written between 1977 and 1979 using the MDL programming language on a DEC PDP-10 computer; the authors—Tim Anderson, Marc Blank, Bruce Daniels, Dave Lebling—were members of the MIT Dynamic Modelling Group. When Zork was published commercially, it was split up into three games: Zork: The Great Underground Empire – Part I, Zork II: The Wizard of Frobozz, Zork III: The Dungeon Master. Zork distinguished itself in its genre as an rich game, in terms of both the quality of the storytelling and the sophistication of its text parser, not limited to simple verb-noun commands, but recognized some prepositions and conjunctions. Zork is set in "the ruins of an ancient empire lying far underground"; the player is a nameless adventurer "who is venturing into this dangerous land in search of wealth and adventure". The goal is to return from exploring the "Great Underground Empire" alive and with all treasures needed to complete each adventure inheriting the title of Dungeon Master.

The dungeons are stocked with many novel creatures and locations, among them the ferocious but light-fearing grues and Flood Control Dam #3—all of which are referenced by subsequent Infocom text adventures. FrobozzCo International is a fictional monopolistic conglomerate from the game. FrobozzCo products are littered throughout all Zork games to humorous effect. Several treasures and locations in Zork reveal that there used to be a large aristocratic family called the Flatheads, who reigned supreme over the GUE; the instruction manual to the Zork Trilogy tells the reader that there were twelve rulers from this family, referencing the book The Lives of the Twelve Flatheads. Some Flatheads are named after historical figures. For example, in Zork II, one treasure is a portrait of "J. Pierpont Flathead". In each game, there are several light sources the player can pick up and use, among them a battery-powered brass lantern and a pair of candles, which both have a limited lifespan, as well as a torch that never expires.

The player must be carrying at least one light source at all times when exploring the dark areas of the games, or else, if he or she continues navigating through the dark, the player will be caught and devoured by a carnivorous grue, ending the adventure in defeat. The exception to this rule occurs when the player must use a spray can of grue repellent to navigate dark areas requiring an empty inventory in order to traverse; the original MIT version of Zork combines plot elements from all three of the following games, which were made available for commercial sale. The game takes place in the Zork calendar year 948 GUE; the player steps into the deliberately vague role of an "adventurer". The game begins near a white house in a self-contained area. Although the player is given little instruction, the house provides an obvious point of interest; the player begins in the Barrow from Zork I armed only with the trusty brass lantern and the elvish sword of great antiquity from before. The objective of the game is not clear, but the player is pursued throughout by the titular wizard.

The player begins at the bottom of the Endless Stair from Zork II. Zork III is somewhat less of a straightforward treasure hunt than previous installments. Instead, the player—in the role of the same "adventurer" played in Zork I and Zork II—must demonstrate worthiness to assume the role of the Dungeon Master. Steve Meretzky said in 1984 that "the worst bug that got out was in Zork III". "We call things like that our'fatal errors'. In the Zork games, the player is not limited to verb-noun commands, such as "take lamp", "open mailbox", so forth. Instead, the parser supports more sophisticated sentences such as "put the lamp and sword in the case", "look under the rug", "drop all except lantern"; the game understands many common verbs, including "take", "drop", "examine", "attack", "climb", "open", "close", "count", many more. The games support commands to the game directly such as "save" and "restore", "script" and "unscript", "restart", "quit". You could modify the amount of information displayed on screen, in each room, subsequent return to the same room, by commands "brief," "superbrief" and "verbose."

"brief" would give a moderate room or item description on the initial visit, a bare minimum on subsequent visits, "Superbrief" would only give a room title for each and every visit, while "verbose" would supply "Maximum Verbosity" by giving all available information in each room, or item thereof, or revisit thereafter. The first adventure game, Colossal Cave Adventure, was written by Will Crowther in FORTRAN on the DEC PDP-10 at BBN in 1975. Colossal Cave is a basic treasure hunt; the game uses a simple two-word parser that adventure games imitated. PDP users spread Colossal Cave around their community, including a Stanford University computer used by Don Woods in 1976. Woods contacted Crowther and received his permission to make an improved version which spread to many locations, including the PDP-10 systems at MIT. Dave Lebling, a member of the Dynamic Modelling Group at MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science, recalled that after Colossal Cave reached MIT, "For

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's personal life

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk founded the Republic of Turkey, served as its president from 1923 until his death in 1938. His personal life has been the subject of numerous studies. According to Turkish historian Kemal H. Karpat, Atatürk's recent bibliography included 7,010 different sources. Atatürk's personal life has its controversies, ranging from where he was born to his correct full name; the details of his marriage have always been a subject of debate. His religious beliefs were discussed in Turkish political life as as the Republic Protests during the 2007 presidential election. Mustafa Kemal's personality has been an important subject both for the general public. Much of substantial personal information about him comes from memoirs by his associates, who were at times his rivals, friends; some credible information originates from Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Kâzım Karabekir, Halide Edib Adıvar, Kılıç Ali, Falih Rıfkı Atay, Afet İnan, there is secondary analysis by Patrick Balfour, the 3rd Baron Kinross, most Vamık D. Volkan and Norman Itzkowitz.

In Turkish tradition, names have additional honorary or memorial values besides their grammatical identification function. It is possible to translate a name from Turkish to other languages, but care should be given as names' form varies from one language to another. Atatürk had Mustafa as his name at birth. Mustafa, an epithet of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was a common name at that time. Young Mustafa studied at Salonica Military School, the military junior high school in Salonica, where his mathematics teacher Captain Üsküplü Mustafa Sabri Bey gave him the additional name "Kemal" because of his student's academic excellence. On 27 November 1911, Mustafa Kemal was promoted to the rank of Binbaşı, an Ottoman military rank denoting the commander of "a thousand soldiers," equivalent to the rank of Major in the modern Turkish army. Since, in Ottoman military ranks, "Bey" was a common title given to all ranks for Binbaşı and above, Mustafa Kemal Efendi, was addressed as "Mustafa Kemal Bey". On 1 April 1916, Mustafa Kemal was promoted to the rank of Mirliva, equivalent to Major General today.

In Ottoman military ranks, Pasha was a common title given to all ranks at and above Mirliva, he was from on addressed as "Mustafa Kemal Pasha". Kemal Pasha, disgusted by the capitulations and concessions made by the Sultan to the Allies, by the occupation of Constantinople by the British, resigned from his post on 8 July 1919, he escaped from Istanbul by sea, passing through British Royal Navy patrols and landing on the Black Sea port city of Samsun, to organize the resistance against the Allied Powers' occupation of Anatolia. After his resignation, the Sublime Porte, the Ottoman imperial government, issued a warrant and condemned him to death in absentia. On 19 September 1921, the Turkish Grand National Assembly presented him with the title of Gazi, which denotes, a combat or wounded veteran, with the religious connotation of defeating non-Islamic forces, bestowed upon him the rank of Marshal for his achievements during the War of Independence. Henceforth, he'd be addressed as "Gazi Mustafa Kemal".

On 21 June 1934, the Grand National Assembly recognized the need for registration and use of fixed hereditary surnames. The Surname Law was proposed and put into force. On 24 November 1934, the Assembly enacted a special law to bestow on Mustafa Kemal the surname "Atatürk," which translates as "Father of the Turks," and established "Atatürk" as a unique surname. Birth: Ali Rıza oğlu Mustafa 1911: Mustafa Kemal Bey 1916: Mustafa Kemal Paşa 1921: Gazi Mustafa Kemal Paşa 1934: Kemal Atatürk 1935: Kamâl Atatürk Due to differences between calendars of the period, Atatürk's precise birth date is not known; the Ottoman Empire recognized the Rumi calendar. The Hijri was an Islamic calendar, used to mark the religious holidays, it was lunar, with years of 355 days. The Rumi was a civil calendar, adopted in 1839, it was solar, based on the Julian Calendar. Both counted time from the migration of Muhammad to Medina. Between the two calendars significant differences in elapsed time were present. Various reforms were made to reconcile them but there was always a difference.

Atatürk's birth date was recorded in the public records of Turkish Selanik as Anno Hegirae 1296 with no sign whether this was based on the Rumi or on the Hijri calendar. In view of this confusion Atatürk set his own birthday to coincide with the Turkish Independence Day, which he announced was 19 May 1919, the day of his arrival in Samsun, in a speech given in 1927, his identification with Independence Day implied his selection of the civil calendar, in which AH 1296 lasts from 13 March 1880 to 12 March 1881. The latter dates are in the Gregorian Calendar just adopted for the Republic by Atatürk for purposes of standardization. Atatürk therefore listed his own birthday in all documents official and unofficial as 19 May 1881. Atatürk was told by his mother that he was born on a spring day, but his younger sister Makbule Atadan was told by others that he was born at night during a thunderstorm. Faik Reşit Unat received differing responses from Zübeyde Hanım's neighbors at Salonika; some claimed that he was born on a spring day, but others stated on a winter day during either January or February.

A date that has gained some acceptance is May 19, a date which originated with the historian Reşit Saffet Atabinen. 19 May is the symbolic start of the Turkish Independence War, Atabinen linked Atatürk's birth day to the start of the Independence War – a gesture which Ata

Joey Jordison

Nathan Jonas "Joey" Jordison, is an American musician, record producer and multi-instrumentalist, best known for his work as the former drummer and co-songwriter for the American heavy metal band Slipknot as well as guitarist in the American horror punk band Murderdolls. Jordison played in Slipknot since their formation in 1995 until his departure from the band in December 2013, he was the drummer and founder of the American heavy metal band Scar the Martyr, which formed in 2013 and disbanded in 2016. He grew up in Waukee, Iowa with his parents and two sisters, was given his first drum kit at the age of 8, he performed in several bands until joining in the summer of 1995 with the group The Pale Ones, which would change their name to Slipknot. Of Slipknot's nine-member lineup, which lasted from 1999–2010, Joey was the third to join the band. With Slipknot, Jordison performed on four studio albums, produced the live album 9.0: Live. Outside his major projects, Jordison has performed with other heavy metal groups such as Rob Zombie, Korn, Ministry and Satyricon.

Jordison is known for his session work, which includes performances on many albums for many different artists. Jordison uses several drum brands including ddrum, he plays with the band Sinsaenum. Jordison was born in Iowa on April 26, 1975, to Steve and Jackie Jordison, he has two younger sisters. He grew up in a rural area outside of Waukee where he used to play basketball on the street in front of his house, he embraced music at an early age, which he attributes to his parents' influence: "They always sat me down in front of the radio, rather than the TV." He played guitar until receiving his first drum kit as a gift from his parents at age eight, started his first band while in elementary school. Jordison's parents divorced; the children stayed with their mother. His mother remarried and set up a funeral parlor where Jordison would help. Jordison has stated. During this time, he formed the band Modifidious, he described them as "total speed-metal thrash". The band helped Jordison break new ground, playing live as support to local bands including Atomic Opera, featuring Jim Root, Heads on the Wall, featuring Shawn Crahan.

He played at a bowling center his family owned, on a night called "Rock and Roll Bowl". After a multitude of lineup changes – including Craig Jones and Josh Brainard, who would reappear in Slipknot – the band released two demos in 1993: Visceral and Mud Fuchia. Jordison cites Keith Moon, John Bonham, Peter Criss, Gene Krupa and Buddy Rich as his main influences, said, "I grew up listening to Mötley Crüe's Too Fast for Love and Shout at the Devil."After leaving school, Jordison was hired by a local music store called Musicland. In March 1994, after a recommendation from his new friend, he got a job at a Sinclair garage in Urbandale. Jordison worked the night shift, which he preferred, as it left his weekends free and allowed him to spend time with his friends and listen to music while working. In early 1995, Modifidious disbanded because of a shift in interest from thrash metal to death metal in America. Following this Jordison joined a local band called The Rejects as a guitarist, with whom he only played a couple of shows.

Jordison was involved in a band with Paul Gray and vocalist Don Decker, named Anal Blast. Gray attempted to recruit him for another band, Body Pit, but he declined the invitation to remain in The Rejects. During the forming period of Slipknot, Paul recruited Joey to join a punk band called the Have Nots in the Spring of 1996. Joey would leave the Have Nots in February 1997 to "focus on Slipknot" but instead reformed the Rejects, which would play Des Moines up until Slipknot left to record Slipknot's self-titled album, which Paul played in after the Have Nots broke up. On June 13, 2016, Jordison revealed that he suffers from transverse myelitis, a neurological disease that temporarily cost him the use of his legs and caused him to be unable to play the drums before rehabilitation. On November 28, 1995, Mark Anthony Cadavos approached Jordison while he was working, offering him a position in a new project called The Pale Ones. Intrigued and at a point where he was "lost", Jordison attended rehearsals at Anders Colsefni's basement and wanted to be part of this new band.

Speaking of this moment he said, "I remember trying so hard not to smile, so I didn't look like I wanted to join, I remained poker-faced, but I thought they ruled." A lot of Slipknot's early development was discussed by band members while Jordison worked night shifts at Sinclair's garage. Of the eventual nine members, Joey was the third to join the band. Slipknot would become pioneers to the New Wave of American Heavy Metal. Jordison is accompanied by two custom percussionists, giving their music a feel that Rolling Stone touted as "suffocating"; each member of Slipknot is assigned a number. Joey has produced one album with Slipknot: 2005 live album 9.0: Live. In August 2008, Jordison broke his Slipknot had to cancel some of its English tour dates. On August 22, 2009, Jordison was taken to the emergency room for a burst appendix, less than an hour before he was to take the stage for Auburn, Washington's KISW Pain in the Grass concert; as a result, Slipknot canceled following shows in August and September, to give Jordison time to recover.

On December 12, 2013, Slipknot announced through their official website that Jordison had left the band, citing personal reasons for his departure. In response, Jordison released a statement insisting that he had in fact been fired from the band and stated that Slipknot "has been my life for the last 18 y

Teenager (Fujifabric album)

Teenager is the third studio album by Fujifabric, released on January 23, 2008, on the Capitol Records label. The majority of the songs featured on the album are written by Masahiko Shimura, with the exception of "Kinen Shashin", "B. O. I. P." and "Mabataki", which are written by guitarist Sōichirō Yamauchi. The song "Chocolate Panic" is co-written by Roger Joseph Manning Jr., featured on the track. "Hoshifuru Yoru ni Nattara" is co-written by keyboard player Daisuke Kanazawa. "Pedal" "Kinen Shashin" "B. O. I. P." "Wakamono no Subete" "Chocolate Panic" "Strawberry Shortcakes" "Surfer King" "Romane" "Passion Fruit" "Tōkyō Enjō" "Mabataki" "Hoshifuru Yoru ni Nattara" "Teenager"

Marcell Coetzee

Marcell Cornelius Coetzee is a South African rugby union player for the South Africa national team and Ulster in the Pro14. He plays as a flanker. Coetzee made his debut in Super Rugby for the Sharks against the Brumbies on Saturday 7 May 2011, he has offloading skills. Heyneke Meyer, Springbok coach, included him in the national squad to face England in a test series where Coetzee made his Springbok test debut on 9 June 2012 in Durban. Coetzee joined Japanese Top League side Honda Heat for the 2015–2016 season. In February 2016, it was announced that he would join Irish Pro12 side Ulster on a three-year deal starting in the 2016–2017 season. Coetzee featured sparingly in his first two seasons with Ulster, due to recurring knee injury problems. Pld = Games Played, W = Games Won, D = Games Drawn, L = Games Lost, Tri = Tries Scored, Con = Conversions, Pen = Penalties, DG = Drop Goals, Pts = Points Scored Ulster Profile Sharks Profile "SA Rugby Player Profile – Marcell Coetzee". South African Rugby Union.

Retrieved 1 June 2016. Coetzee's profile on

Bernt Heiberg

Johan Bernt Krohg Heiberg was a Norwegian architect. He was born in Norway, he was the son of his wife Ragnhild Krohg. He had two brothers: Edvard Heiberg. In 1935, Heiberg married Halldis Rollang. Heiberg took examen artium in 1927, he thereafter moved to Trondheim. In 1936, he was hired as an assistant by Frithjof Stoud Platou. Four years he started his own architectural firm in Oslo. In the 1950s, Heiberg designed many buildings for the housing cooperative Oslo Bolig- og Sparelag and Christiania Bank, he designed many buildings with Ola Mørk Sandvik until 1968, among them the head office of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Oslo, the restaurant Annen Etage and the Hotel Continental. Heiberg's buildings were designed in functionalist style, which he considered "architecture for living people"; when it came to politics, Heiberg was a leftist. However, despite his being a supporter of the communist league Mot Dag in the 1930s, Heiberg opposed the May 1968 revolts, stating that he "with shame had to admit, tired of the whole thing".

From 1961 to 1971, Heiberg headed the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Norwegian Monuments. He headed the board of the National Museum of Art and Design from 1978 to 1981. In 1950, he was decorated as a Commander of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, he died on 29 September 2001