A fedora is a hat with a soft brim and indented crown. It is creased lengthwise down the crown and "pinched" near the front on both sides. Fedoras can be creased with teardrop crowns, diamond crowns, center dents, others, the positioning of pinches can vary; the typical crown height is 4.5 inches. The fedora hat's brim is wide 2.5 inches wide, but may be wider, can be left "raw edged", finished with a sewn overwelt or underwelt, or bound with a trim-ribbon. "Stitched edge" means that there is one, two or more rows of stitching radiating inward toward the crown. The "Cavanagh Edge" is a welted edge with invisible stitching to hold it in place and is a expensive treatment that can no longer be performed by modern hat factories. Fedora hats are not to be confused with small brimmed hats called trilbies; the term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg. Fedoras can be made of wool, rabbit or beaver felt; these felts can be blended to each other with mink or chinchilla and with vicuña, cervelt, or mohair.
They can be made of straw, waxed or oiled cotton, linen or leather. A special variation is the foldaway or crushable fedora with a certain or open crown. Special fedoras have a ventilated crown with grommets, mesh inlets or penetrations for a better air circulation. Fedoras can have a leather or cloth or ribbon sweatband. Small feathers are sometimes added as decoration. Fedoras can be equipped with a chinstrap; the term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg; the word fedora comes from the title of an 1882 play by dramatist Victorien Sardou, Fédora, written for Sarah Bernhardt. The play was first performed in the United States in 1889. Bernhardt played the heroine of the play. During the play, Bernhardt -- a noted cross-dresser -- wore a soft brimmed hat; the hat was fashionable for women, the women's rights movement adopted it as a symbol. After Edward, Prince of Wales started wearing them in 1924, it became popular among men for its stylishness and its ability to protect the wearer's head from the wind and weather.
Since the early part of the 20th century, many Haredi and other Orthodox Jews have made black fedoras normal to their daily wear. During the early twentieth century, a hat was a staple of men’s fashion and would be worn in all public places. However, as a social custom and common courtesy, men would remove their hats when at home or when engaged in conversation with women. In addition, the ability to own a hat was culturally considered a sign of wealth due to fashion being recognized as a “status symbol.” Only those with few economic resources would venture the streets without a hat. The introduction of a new line of felt hats made from nutria, an animal similar to the beaver, helped establish the fedora as a durable product. Prices, in the first decade of the twentieth century, for a nutria fedora ranged from ninety-eight cents to two dollars and twenty-five cents. Starting in the 1920s, fedoras began to rise in popularity after the Prince of Wales adopted the felt hat as his favored headwear.
As a result, “the soft felt hat replaced the stiff hat as the best seller in the decade.” The fedora soon took its place as a choice hat and joined other popular styles that included the derby and panama. In America during the 1940s, the brims of fedoras started to increase in width, while the British maintained a smaller brim size; the colors of fedoras traditionally included shades of black and gray. However, this palette would grow at the onset of the second world war to include military themed colors such as khaki and green. One of the most prominent companies to sell fedoras was the department store, Sears and Company. In addition, famous hat manufactures which still exist today include Bailey and Stetson. In the 1880s, French stage actress Sarah Bernhardt popularized the fedora for the female audience, it soon became a common fashion accessory for many women among activists fighting for gender equality during the late nineteenth century. The fedora was adopted as a defining symbol of the women’s rights movement.
It would not be until 1924 when, in Britain, the fashion minded Prince Edward started wearing the felt hat. This event shifted the popularity of the fedora over to men’s fashion, making the hat one of the few androgynous clothing pieces. To this day, fedoras continue to be worn by women, not quite to the same extent as they once were in the early twentieth century. Women’s fedoras vary in form and color. In addition, these fedoras come in every color from basic black to bright red and in the occasional animal print. Along with men’s felt hats, women’s fedoras are making a comeback in current fashion trends. Baseball caps, which have in recent years been the staple of headwear, are experiencing a decline in popularity amidst this “fedora renaissance.” Fedoras became associated with gangsters and Prohibition, a connection coinciding with the height of the hat's popularity between the 1920s and the early 1950s. In the second half of the 1950s, the fedora fell out of favor in a shift towards more informal clothing styles.
Coach Tom Landry wore the hat while he was the head coach of the Dallas Cowboys. It would become his trademark image. A cenotaph dedicated to Landry with a depiction of his fedora was placed in the official Texas State Cemeter
An effigy is a representation of a specific person in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium. The use of the term is restricted to certain contexts in a somewhat arbitrary way: recumbent effigies on tombs are so called, but standing statues of individuals, or busts, are not. Likenesses of religious figures in sculpture are not called effigies. Effigies are common elements of funerary art as a recumbent effigy in stone or metal placed on a tomb, or a less permanent "funeral effigy", placed on the coffin in a grand funeral, wearing real clothing. Figures caricatural in style, that are damaged, destroyed or paraded in order to harm the person represented by magical means, or to mock or insult them or their memory, are called effigies, it is common to burn an effigy of a person as an act of protest. The word is first documented in English in 1539 and comes via French, from the Latin effigies, meaning "representation"; this spelling was used in English for singular senses: a single image was "the effigies of...".
In effigie was understood as a Latin phrase until the 18th century. The word occurs in Shakespeare's As You Like It of 1600, where scansion suggests that the second syllable is to be emphasized, as in the Latin pronunciation; the best known British example of a caricature effigy is the figure of the 1605 Gunpowder Plotter Guy Fawkes, found in charge of gunpowder to blow up the King in the House of Lords. On November 5, Guy Fawkes Night or Bonfire Night, his effigy made of straw and old clothing, is still traditionally burned on a bonfire in many villages accompanied by fireworks. In many parts of the world, there are traditions of large caricature effigies of political or other figures carried on floats in parades at festivals. Political effigies serve a broadly similar purpose in political demonstrations and annual community rituals such as that held in Lewes, on the south coast of England. In Lewes, models of important or unpopular figures in current affairs are burned on Guy Fawkes Night alongside an effigy of the Pope.
Caricature effigies, in Greek skiachtro, are still in use to prevent birds from eating mature fruit grapes. In Oriental Orthodox and Latin American Christianity, populace used to burn an effigy of Judas, just before Easter. Now it is considered an obsolete custom and there are no attempts at revival. In South and Latin American Christianity, populace still burn or explode an effigy of Judas, just before Easter or on New Year's Eve; the display of temporary or permanent effigies in wood or wax sculpture and other media of the deceased was a common part of the funeral ceremonies of important people over a long stretch of European history. They were shown lying on the coffin at the funeral, often displayed beside or over the tomb; the figures were dressed in the clothes of the deceased. The museum of Westminster Abbey has a collection of English royal wax effigies reaching to Edward III of England, as well as those of figures such as the prime minister Pitt the Elder, the naval hero Horatio Nelson, Frances Stewart, Duchess of Richmond, at her own request and expense, who had her parrot stuffed and displayed.
From the time of the funeral of Charles II in 1680, effigies were no longer placed on the coffin but were still made for display. The effigy of Charles II was displayed over his tomb until the early 19th century, when all effigies were removed from the abbey. Nelson's effigy was a tourist attraction, commissioned the year after his death and his burial in St Paul's Cathedral in 1805; the government had decided that major public figures with State funerals should in future be buried at St Paul's. Concerned for their revenue from visitors, the Abbey decided it needed a rival attraction for admirers of Nelson. In the field of numismatics, effigy has been used to describe the central image or portrait on the obverse of a coin. A practice evident in reference literature of the 19th century, the obverse of a coin was said to depict “the ruler’s effigy”; the appearance and style of effigy used varies according to the preference of the monarch or ruler being depicted - for example, such as George VI of the United Kingdom have preferred to be shown uncrowned, while others have favoured highly-formal representations.
It can be the case that the monarch's reign becomes long enough to merit issuing a succession of effigies so that their appearance continues to be current. Such has been the case for Queen Victoria and Elizabeth II, depicted by five different effigies on British coins and three different effigies on British postage stamps since she ascended to the throne in 1953. In the past, criminals sentenced to death in absentia might be executed "in effigy" as a symbolic act. In southern India, effigies of the demon-king Ravana from the epic poem the Ramayana are traditionally burnt during the festival of Navrati; the term gisant is associated with the full-length effigies of a deceased person depicted in stone or wood on church monuments. These lie with hands together in prayer. An Effigie of a deceased person, kneeling in prayer is called a priant. Effigies may be demi-figures and the term is used to refer to busts; the Marzanna ritual represents the end of the dark days of winter, the victory over death, the welcoming of the spring rebirth.
A wicker man was a large wicker statue used by the ancient Druids for sacrifice by burning it in effigy. The main evidence for this practice is one sentence in Julius Caesar's Commentary on the Gallic war, which modern scholarship has linked to an earlier writer, Poseidonius. Modern archaeological research has not yielded much evidence of human sacrifice among the Celts, the ancient Greco-Roman sources are now regarded somewhat skeptically considering the likelihood that Greeks and Romans "were eager to transmit any bizarre and negative information" about the Celts at a time when the latter were feared and disdained. However, archaeological evidence from Ireland does indicate that human sacrifice was practised in times pre-dating contact with Rome. Human remains have been found at the foundations of structures dating from the Neolithic period to the Roman era, with injuries and in positions that argue for their being foundation sacrifices. In modern times, the wicker man has been symbolically referenced as a part of some neopagan-themed ceremonies, without the human sacrifice.
Effigies of this kind have been used as elements in performance art, as display features at rock music festivals, as thematic material in songs. A wicker man is featured in a pivotal scene of the cult British horror film The Wicker Man, much of the prominence of the wicker man in modern popular culture and the wide general awareness of the wicker man as structure and concept is attributable to this film. While other Roman writers of the time, such as Cicero, Lucan and Pliny the Elder, described human sacrifice among the Celts, only Caesar and the geographer Strabo mention the wicker man as one of many ways the Druids of Gaul performed sacrifices. Caesar reports that some of the Gauls built the effigies out of sticks and placed living men inside set them on fire to pay tribute to the gods. Caesar writes that though the Druids used those found guilty of crimes deserving death, as they pleased the gods more, they sometimes used slaves and thralls when no delinquents could be found. One medieval commentary, the 10th-century Commenta Bernensia, states that men were burned in a wooden mannequin in sacrifice to Taranis.
Wicker men may be set ablaze during some contemporary pagan festivities. An effigy of wicker or other materials is burnt at the stake for the annual Danish celebration of Sankt Hans aften. Modern wicker men range from life sized to huge, temporary sculptures that are set ablaze during a celebration toward the end of the event, they are constructed with a wooden frame, woven with flexible sticks such as willow used in wicker furniture and fencing. Some wicker men are complex and require days of construction. In Northern Portugal, the burning of gigantic human effigies is a tradition amongst some Portuguese villages which one can relate with Portugal's celtic past – the effigy has as its own name, Entrudo which comes from the latin word introits meaning introducing; this tradition is neither a recreation nor a neopagan revival, but a practice which has continued for centuries with some Catholic contamination. The Entrudo Festival or Caretos Festival is practiced as a fertility ritual announcing the Spring – young adults dressed in colorful costumes and wearing horned masks hang around their village searching for young girls in order to symbolically'fertilize' them.
The culmination of the festival is the burning of a gigantic human effigy with horns while young adults run around it. The Wickerman Festival is an annual rock and dance music event that takes place in Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland; the Northern Italian version of the wicker man is called La vecchia, burned once a year as part of town festivals. However, it has a more Christian connotation since it is burned on Mid-Lent Thursday, as depicted in the film Amarcord by Federico Fellini. In addition, since 1986, an effigy of a man has been burned during Burning Man, a week-long annual event being held in Black Rock Desert, Nevada; the Wicker Man The Wicker Man Bonfire Ravana#Ravana-Dahan Willow Man Burning Man Burning of Judas Zozobra Wicker Man Caesar, De Bello Gallico, English translation by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn.
Papier-mâché is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste. Two main methods are used to prepare papier-mâché; the first method makes use of paper strips glued together with adhesive, the other uses paper pulp obtained by soaking or boiling paper to which glue is added. With the first method, a form for support is needed on. With the second method, it is possible to shape the pulp directly inside the desired form. In both methods, reinforcements with wire, chicken wire, lightweight shapes, balloons or textiles may be needed; the traditional method of making papier-mâché adhesive is to use a mixture of water and flour or other starch, mixed to the consistency of heavy cream. Other adhesives can be used if thinned such as polyvinyl acetate-based glues. Adding oil of cloves or other additives such as salt to the mixture reduces the chances of the product developing mold. For the paper strips method, the paper is cut or torn into strips, soaked in the paste until saturated.
The saturated pieces are placed onto the surface and allowed to dry slowly. The strips may be placed on an armature, or skeleton of wire mesh over a structural frame, or they can be placed on an object to create a cast. Oil or grease can be used as a release agent. Once dried, the resulting material can be cut, sanded and/or painted, waterproofed by painting with a suitable water-repelling paint. Before painting any product of papier-mâché, the glue must be dried, otherwise mold will form and the product will rot from the inside out. For the pulp method, the paper is left in water at least overnight to soak, or boiled in abundant water until the paper dissolves in a pulp; the excess water is drained, an adhesive is added and the papier-mâché applied to a form or for smaller or simpler objects, sculpted to shape. In ancient Egypt and death masks were made from cartonnage—layers of papyrus or linen covered with plaster. In Persia, papier-mâché has been used to manufacture trays, étagères and cases.
Japan and China produced laminated paper articles using papier-mâché. In Japan and India, papier-mâché was used to add decorative elements to armor and shields. In Kashmir as in Persia, papier-mâché has been used to manufacture small painted boxes, bowls lined with metals, trays, étagères and cases, it remains marketed in India and is a part of the luxury ornamental handicraft market. Starting around 1725 in Europe, gilded papier-mâché began to appear as a low-cost alternative to treated plaster or carved wood in architecture. Henry Clay of Birmingham, patented a process for treating laminated sheets of paper with linseed oil to produce waterproof panels in 1772; these sheets were used for building coach door panels as well as other structural uses. Theodore Jennens patented a process in 1847 for steaming and pressing these laminated sheets into various shapes, which were used to manufacture trays, chair backs, structural panels laid over a wood or metal armature for strength; the papier-mâché finished with a pearl shell finish.
The industry lasted through the 19th century. Russia had a thriving industry in ornamental papier-mâché. A large assortment of painted Russian papier-mâché items appear in a Tiffany & Co. catalog from 1893. Martin Travers the English ecclesiastical designer made much use of papier-mâché for his church furnishings in the 1930s. Papier-mâché has been used for doll heads starting as early as 1540, molded in two parts from a mixture of paper pulp and plaster, glued together, with the head smoothed and varnished. Cartonería or papier-mâché sculptures are a traditional handcraft in Mexico; the papier-mâché works are called "carton piedra" for the rigidness of the final product. These sculptures today are made for certain yearly celebrations for the Burning of Judas during Holy Week and various decorative items for Day of the Dead. However, they include piñatas, masks and more made for various other occasions. There is a significant market for collectors as well. Papier-mâché was introduced into Mexico during the colonial period to make items for church.
Since the craft has developed in central Mexico. In the 20th century, the creation of works by Mexico City artisans Pedro Linares and Carmen Caballo Sevilla were recognized as works of art with patrons such as Diego Rivera; the craft has become less popular with more recent generations, but various government and cultural institutions work to preserve it. One common item made in the 19th century in America was the paper canoe, most famously made by Waters & Sons of Troy, New York; the invention of the continuous sheet paper machine allows paper sheets to be made of any length, this made an ideal material for building a seamless boat hull. The paper of the time was stretchier than modern paper when damp, this was used to good effect in the manufacture of paper boats. A layer of thick, dampened paper tacked down at the edges. A layer of glue was added, allowed to dry, sanded down. Additional layers of paper and glue could be added to achieve the desired thickness, cloth could be added as well to provide additional strength and stiffness.
The final product was trimmed, reinforced with wooden strips at the keel and gunwales to provide stiffness, waterproofed. Paper racing sh
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the seat of Santa Fe County; this area was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago, on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge; the city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is the oldest state capital in the United States. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012, it is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. Before European colonization of the Americas, the area Santa Fe occupied between 900 CE and the 1500s was known to the Tewa peoples as Oghá P'o'oge and by the Navajo people as Yootó. In 1610, Juan de Oñate established the area as Santa Fe de Nuevo México–a province of New Spain.
Formal Spanish settlements were developed leading the colonial governor Pedro de Peralta to rename the area La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The phrase "Santa Fe" is translated as "Holy Faith" in Spanish. Although more known as Santa Fe, the city's full, legal name remains to this day as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the standard Spanish variety pronounces it SAHN-tah-FAY as contextualized within the city's full, Spaniard name La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Aśis. However, due to the large amounts of tourism and immigration into Santa Fe, an English pronunciation of SAN-tuh-FAY is commonly used; the area of Santa Fe was occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west.
The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway; as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.
Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Missouri; when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis; the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule; some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote: I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported; the country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy; the streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime, they are the poorest looking people I saw. They subsist principally on mutton and red pepper. In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Utah, C
Gustave Baumann was an American printmaker and painter, one of the leading figures of the color woodcut revival in America. His works have been shown at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC, the New Mexico Museum of Art, he is recognized for his role in the 1930s as area coordinator of the Public Works of Art Project of the Works Progress Administration. Gustave Baumann was born in Magdeburg and moved to the United States in 1891 with his family. By age 17 he was working for an engraving house while attending night classes at the Art Institute of Chicago, he returned to Germany in 1904 to attend the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich where he studied wood carving and learned the techniques of wood block prints. After returning to the United States, he began producing color woodcuts as early as 1908, earning his living as a graphic artist, he spent time in Brown County, Indiana as a member of the Brown County Art Colony, developing his printmaking technique.
He followed the traditional European method of color relief printing using oil-based inks and printing his blocks on a large press. This contrasted with the trend at the time of many American artists to employ hand rubbed woodblock prints in the Japanese traditional style. By this time he had developed his personal artist's seal: the opened palm of a hand on a heart, his Mill Pond is the largest color woodcut produced at the time. These were shown at the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition where Baumann won the gold medal for color woodcut. In 1918, he headed to the Southwest to inquire into the artists' colony of New Mexico. Thinking it too crowded and too social, he boarded the train, its art museum had opened the previous year and its curator, Paul Water, persuaded Baumann to stay in Santa Fe. In Santa Fe, Baumann took part in various community celebrations, he was a member of the Taos Society of Artists, made the head of the first Zozobra and carved and performed with marionettes. Baumann married Jane Devereaux Henderson on June 25, 1925.
Their daughter, was born on July 31, 1927. He remained in Santa Fe for more than fifty years until his death there in 1971. In addition to his popular color woodcuts, Baumann made oil paintings and furniture, his work depicted southwestern landscapes, ancient Indian petroglyphs, scenes of pueblo life, gardens and orchards. In the Hills o' Brown Twelve prints depicting views of Nashville, Indiana, as well as interior scenes. Includes The Blacksmith Shop, The Print Shop, The Town of Nashville, The Wagon Shop, In the Hills o' Brown, The Rug Weaver, The Courthouse Yard, An Evening Chat, Clinching the Argument, The Suspension Bridge, The Door Yards, Mathis Alley. New Mexico Portfolio Comprises Cliff Dwellings, Sanctuario – Chimayo, My Garden, The Bishop's Apricot, Chile con Cabre, Night at the Fiesta – Taos, Talpa Chapel, Corn Dance – Santa Clara, Lost in the Desert, San Geronimo – Taos, Beginning of the Fiesta, San Domingo Pueblo. Five views of the Grand Canyon: Bright Angel Trail, Grand Canyon, Grand Canyon, Grand Canyon, Grand Canyon.
Four Southern Arizona views: Palo Verde and Ocotea and Sahuaro, Superstition Mountain, Wild Horse Mesa. Mid-1920s views of the Pacific coast: Pelican Rookery, Sequoia Forest, Coast Range, Singing Woods, Windswept Eucalyptus, Redwood Muir Woods, Point Lobos, Point Lobos Rock Garden, Monetery Cypress, Song of the Sea. All the Year Round, 12 illustrations Chips an' Shavings and illustrations Frijoles Canyon Pictographs and illustrations William A. Karges Fine Art Saks Galleries Zaplin Lampert Gallery Aaron Payne Fine Art David Dee Fine Arts New Mexico Museum of Art Stark Museum of Art Indianapolis Museum of Art Two Red roses Foundation Acton, David. Hand of A Craftsman: The Woodcut Technique of Gustave Baumann. Museum of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0890132976. Krause, Martin F.. Gustave Baumann Nearer to Art. Museum of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0890132518. Riley, James Whitcomb. All the Year Round. Bobbs Merrill Co. Includes twelve color woodcuts by Baumann. Traugott, Joseph. Gustave Baumann's Southwest. Pomegranate.
ISBN 978-0764941788. Works by or about Gustave Baumann at Internet Archive Gustave Baumann Biography at the Annex Galleries
Burning of Judas
The burning of Judas is an Easter-time ritual in many Orthodox and Catholic Christian communities, where an effigy of Judas Iscariot is burned. Other related mistreatment of Judas effigies include hanging and exploding with fireworks. Anthropologists generalize these types of activities as "scapegoating rituals". A similar ritual would be the hanging in his ten sons during Purim. Though not an official part of the Easter liturgical cycle, the custom is a part of the reenactment of the story of the Passion, practiced by the faithful during Easter. Customs vary, but the effigy of Judas is hanged on Good Friday burned on the night of Easter Sunday. In many parts of Latin America this practice occurs on the eve of the new year as a symbol of ridding one's self of evil and beginning a new year in spiritual purity; some communities observe this ritual using various effigies, including the biblical Judas. This custom, during which the effigy is burned on a stake, is called "Quema del Judas" in Uruguay and Argentina, "Quema del Año Viejo" in other places.
The burning of Judas was once practiced across Europe, is still practiced in parts of Greece, Brazil, Spain, Venezuela, Cyprus where it is called'lambratzia', the Philippines, Paraguay where it is called'Judas kái' and elsewhere. Judas burnings took place in the district of Dingle, in Liverpool, England, in the early 20th Century, until it was banned by the authorities; the burning of Judas is not traditional to England, although a similar custom of burning Catholic rebel Guy Fawkes in effigy exists. The practice was once cited in the United States State Department's Religious Freedom Report for Greece; the report incorrectly referred to the custom as the "burning of the Jew", whereas in Greece the term always used is "burning of Judas". In response, Archbishop Christodoulos head of the Greek Orthodox Church, denied such allegations, stating that this practice refers to the image of "Judas the traitor" and not Jews in general. In Latin America, despite the controversial nature of anti-Semitism associated with the "burning of the Jew", although the practice does exist in the above stated form it is not regarded as an act of hostility towards the Jewish nation or ethnicity but is representative of "evil", thus not differing in any way from the other effigies listed.
Wikibooks:The Golden Bough/The Fire-Festivals of Europe