Schiphol Airport railway station
Schiphol Airport railway station is a major passenger railway station in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands. It is located directly beneath the complex of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and is operated by the Nederlandse Spoorwegen. The stations six platforms are accessible via escalators and three elevators located in the main concourse of the airport. The original station was opened in 1978, and the current station was opened in 1995 and it connects the airport to Amsterdam and to various others cities in the Netherlands, as well as to Belgium and France. The original railway station at Schiphol was partly at street level, by 1978, One could only travel to Amsterdams Zuid WTC and RAI stations, as well as south bound towards Leiden, The Hague and Rotterdam. To get to Amsterdam Centraal station one had to travel to RAI, a direct link was created with the construction of the Amsterdam-Schiphol railway in 1986. A newly built station opened in 1995. The station was renamed Schiphol Airport from 13 December 2015 to make the more recognisable to international passenger.
Schiphol stations offers several trains per hour to Amsterdam Centraal, and these include intercity services to Leiden, The Hague, Utrecht, Amersfoort, Lelystad, Groningen, Leeuwarden and Zwolle. A new flyover provides connections to Utrecht and the south of the country. This so-called Utrechtboog opened on 12 March 2006 and it connects two existing lines and is located more or less between the stations Amsterdam RAI and Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA bypassing the Duivendrecht station. Passengers need not change trains at Duivendrecht anymore, during nighttime, an hourly service connects Schiphol with Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Delft and The Hague between 1am and 5am. The high-speed trains Thalys and Intercity Direct call at Schiphol railway station, Thalys operates a service between Amsterdam Centraal, Rotterdam Centraal, Antwerp-Central, Brussels-South and Paris Gare du Nord or Lille. Intercity direct connects Amsterdam to Rotterdam Centraal and Breda via Schiphol, both trains use Schiphol - Antwerp high speed line.
Reservations are obligatory to board Thalys, for Intercity direct to Breda a supplement is required for the High Speed stretch to Rotterdam. From December 2012 direct services from Schiphol to Hannover and Berlin ceased, passengers could use a national Intercity service to Hilversum and change there for the Berlin service. From December 2014 a direct service restarted between Amsterdam and Brussels, following the failure of the Fyra and this service uses the The Hague HS route. There are several types of series in the Netherlands, Intercity direct These are Intercity Services using the high speed network
Thalys is an international high-speed train operator originally built around the LGV Nord high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. This track is shared with Eurostar trains that go from Paris or Brussels to London via Lille, Thalys serves Amsterdam and Cologne as well. Its system is managed by Thalys International and operated by THI Factory, before Thalys, there had been an express rail service between Paris and Brussels since 1924 on the train service lÉtoile du Nord. In the 1970s it connected the two cities in around 2 hours 30 minutes, the decision to build a high-speed railway between Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam was made in 1987. On 4 June 1996 the first train left Paris using the LGV Nord until it reached Belgium, in 1997, the Belgian HSL1 line, allowing 300 km/h and running from the French border to the outskirts of Brussels, was completed for service. On 14 December 1997 the first Thalys train from Paris to Brussels ran on the HSL1, at the same time service commenced to Cologne and Aachen in Germany, and Bruges, Ghent, Mons and Ostend in Belgium.
On 19 December 1998 the Thalys Neige service started to the ski resorts of Tarentaise Valley, on 28 November 1999, the company changed its name to Thalys International. In 2000, Thalys started a daily Service between Brussels and Geneva, Thalys Soleil started offering direct connections to the Provence, initially to Valence, and extended to Avignon and Marseille in 2002. Service between Brussels and Cologne was improved in December 2002 when trains began running on the new HSL2 in Belgium, in 2003, services started to Brussels International Airport and the Thalys Nuits d’Été service to Marne-la-Vallée. Deutsche Bahn purchased 10% of the company in 2007, HSL3 was completed in 2007, but Thalys trains had not yet been equipped with the ETCS signalling equipment necessary to use the new line. After installation and testing, Thalys began operating on HSL3 on 13 December 2009, for the same reasons, Thalys started operating on the HSL 4/HSL-Zuid high-speed line between Antwerp and Amsterdam 13 December 2009, two years after the lines construction.
Since 29 August 2011, one journey to Cologne has been extended to Essen Hauptbahnhof. In June 2013, Deutsche Bahn stopped selling Thalys tickets, Thalys has served Düsseldorf Airport station since the winter 2013 schedule went into effect. On 12 April 2014, Thalys started a service between Lille Europe and Amsterdam Centraal. At the end of March 2015, Thalys dropped the Paris – Oostende, on 30 March 2015, Thalys became a train company, and operates since under its own train operator certificate. Starting from 13 December 2015, service in Germany is extended to Dortmund, beyond Brussels, the main cities Thalys trains reach are Antwerp, Amsterdam, Liège, Aachen and Cologne. Trains to these destinations run partly on dedicated high-speed tracks, the high-speed lines used by Thalys are HSL1 between Paris and Brussels, HSL 4/HSL-Zuid between Antwerp and Amsterdam, and the HSL2 and HSL3 between Brussels and Aachen. For its seasonal operations within France, other high-speed lines are used, journeys from Brussels to Paris are normally 1 hour,22 minutes, for a distance of approximately 300 kilometres
A ring road is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town or city. Australia and India use the ring road, as in Melbournes Western Ring Road. In Canada the term is the most commonly used, with orbital used to a lesser extent. In Europe, some ring roads, particularly those of standard which are longer in length, are often known as orbital motorways. Examples include the London Orbital, Rome Orbital and Manchester Orbital, in the United States, many ring roads are called beltlines, beltways, or loops, such as the Capital Beltway around Washington, D. C. Some ring roads, such as Washingtons Capital Beltway, use Inner Loop and Outer Loop terminology for directions of travel, the term ring road is occasionally – and inaccurately – used interchangeably with the term bypass. Construction of fully circumferential ring roads has generally occurred more recently, beginning in the 1960s in many areas, Interstate Highway System and similar-quality roads elsewhere were designed. Columbus, Ohio, in the United States, has two, while Houston, Texas will have three official ring roads, some cities have far more – Beijing, for example, has five ring roads, simply numbered in increasing order from the city center.
Geographical constraints can complicate or prohibit the construction of a ring road. Adjacency of international boundaries may prohibit ring road completion in other cases, the presence of significant natural or historical areas limits route options, as for the long-proposed Outer Beltway around Washington, D. C. C. Ring roads can exist around radio masts carrying an umbrella antenna at the basements of the anchor of the wire of the umbrella antenna, such ring roads are usually only for internal use and closed to the public. Most orbital motorways are purpose-built major highways around a town or city, in the United States, beltways are commonly parts of the Interstate Highway System. Similar roads in the United Kingdom are often called orbital motorways, an excellent example of this is Londons North Circular/South Circular ring road. Such loops not only function as a bypass for through traffic, in the United States, an Interstate highway loop is usually designated by a three-digit number beginning with an even digit before the two-digit number of its parent interstate.
Interstate spurs, on the hand, generally have three-digit numbers beginning with an odd digit. Circumferential highways are prominent features in or near large cities in the United States. In many cases, such as Atlanta, Interstate 285 serves as a bypass while other highways pass directly through the city center. However, if a primary Interstate passes through a city and a loop bypasses it on one side
The Kadijken, known as Kadijkseiland or Kadijkenbuurt, is a neighbourhood to the north of Artis zoo in the centre of Amsterdam. The name Kadijken is the form of Kadijk and refers to the two main streets that traverse the neighbourhood, Hoogte Kadijk and Laagte Kadijk. The neighbourhood is cut into two halves, a western part and a smaller western part, by a former complex of sluice gates that forms a canal between the Nieuwe Vaart and Entrepotdok canals. This canal isolates the western part of the neighbourhood from the rest of the city, connecting the two main streets, Hoogte en Laagte Kadijk, is a small street appropriately named Tussen Kadijken. The small street Buiten Kadijken runs from Hoogte Kadijk to Nieuwe Vaart canal, at the corner of Hoogte Kadijk and Buiten Kadijken is a pillar topped with a sculpture of a falcon with a crown on its head. This is a replica of a sculpture that stood here for many years as a trademark of the beer brewery De Gekroonde Valk. The western edge of the neighbourhood is formed by Kadijkenplein square with the Zeemanshuis, from the square, a cast-iron bridge leads across Nieuwe Herengracht canal.
Behind the bridge are the Scharrebiersluis sluice gates, both the bridge and the sluice gates were constructed in 1906. The neighbourhood has about 3,000 inhabitants, there about 1,700 residences, primarily in the western part of the neighbourhood. Of those, 70% is rented, and the remaining 30% is privately owned, the eastern part of the neighbourhood is less residential, this area is dominated by offices and workshops. The many former warehouses and shipyards in the Kadijken are a reminder of the neighbourhoods past as an area of town dominated by shipping, Werfmuseum t Kromhout and Koning William, both on Hoogte Kadijk, are still in use as shipyards. The eastern hall of Werfmuseum t Kromhout is now a museum, the neighbourhood has a large number of rijksmonumenten, including the warehouses on Entrepotdok, the Sibbelwoningen on Hoogte Kadijk and a series of 17th- and 18th-century houses. In this area, a dike, the Nieuwe Zeedijk, had been constructed beyond the original Sint Antoniesdijk dike. A kadijk is the outer, lower dike within a set of two dikes to keep a river, from flooding.
During the city expansion, the Nieuwe Zeedijk was raised and the part was called Hoogte Kadijk. The Kadijken rapidly developed into an area dominated by shipyards, the south side was originally used for recreation, but from the early part of the 18th century this part of the neighbourhood was filled with warehouses and other buildings for storage of goods. In 1827 the Rapenburgergracht, as the canal along the edge of the neighbourhood was called, was taken over by the Dutch national government. The government established the Algemeen Rijksentrepot there, which allowed goods in transit to be stored and transferred from one ship to another without the need to pay excise duties
Amsterdam-Zuid is a borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands. The borough was formed in 2010 as a merger of the former boroughs Oud-Zuid, the borough has almost 138,000 inhabitants. With 8,500 homes per square kilometer, it is one of the most densely populated boroughs of Amsterdam and it has the highest income per household of all boroughs in Amsterdam. Amsterdam-Zuid is the borough of Amsterdam situated to the south and southwest of the Singelgracht canal, the Singelgracht canal had been Amsterdams city border since the 17th century, when the Amsterdam canal belt was constructed. The taking down of the surrounding the Singelgracht, the outer canal. South of the wall, the first neighborhoods to develop were the Oude Pijp neighborhood, the neighborhood surrounding the Rijksmuseum. This area is now known as Oud Zuid. In 1917, the area was further developed southwards on the basis of Plan Zuid, berlages plan included wide streets lined with four-story apartment blocks for the middle class. The plan included public art to be installed in the new residential areas, between 1920 and 1940, the Plan Zuid neighborhoods of Nieuwe Pijp, Rivierenbuurt and Apollobuurt were constructed, with many buildings designed in Amsterdam School style.
This area is known as Nieuw Zuid. Another neighborhood built in the 1920s is the Hoofddorppleinbuurt, west of the Schinkel river and this neighborhood is part of Plan West, another urban expansion plan by Berlage which was designed for the western area of the city on the territory of the former municipality of Sloten. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Buitenveldert neighborhood and the smaller Prinses Irenebuurt became the last major developments in the southern part of the city. In 1961, the Amsterdam RAI Exhibition and Convention Centre opened, the A10 motorway, which runs through the southern borough, was constructed in 1962. In 1978, the first section of the Weesp–Leiden railway and the Amsterdam Zuid railway station opened along the part of the A10 motorway. In the 1990s and 2000s, the surrounding the railway station became the rapidly developing business district of Zuidas. Since the 2014 municipal elections, the councils have been abolished and replaced by smaller. The district committees are elected every four years, on the day as the citys central municipal council.
Each district committee elects three of its members to form an executive committee, the district committees jurisdiction is determined by the central municipal council
ABN AMRO Bank N. V. is a Dutch bank with headquarters in Amsterdam. ABN AMRO Bank is the third-largest bank in the Netherlands, following the collapse of Fortis, who acquired the Dutch business, it was nationalized by the Dutch government along with Fortis Bank Nederland. It was relisted as public company again in 2015, the bank is a product of a long history of mergers and acquisitions that date to 1765. In 1991, Algemene Bank Nederland and AMRO Bank agreed to merge to create the original ABN AMRO, by 2007, ABN AMRO was the second-largest bank in the Netherlands and the eighth-largest in Europe by assets. At that time the magazine The Banker and Fortune Global 500 placed it 15th in the list of world’s biggest banks and it had operations in 63 countries, with over 110,000 employees. In October 2007, a consortium of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group and Banco Santander, known as RFS Holdings B. V. acquired the bank, the bank was divided into three parts, each owned by one of the members of the consortium.
However, RBS and Fortis soon ran into trouble, the large debt created to fund the takeover had depleted the banks reserves just as the financial crisis of 2007–2010 started. The operations owned by Santander, notably those in Italy and Brazil, were merged with Santander and this demerger created two separate organisations, ABN AMRO Bank N. V. and The Royal Bank of Scotland N. V. The remaining parts of the original ABN AMRO still owned by The Royal Bank of Scotland N. V. meanwhile, were renamed, the Dutch government has said that ABN AMRO would remain state-owned until at least 2014. On November 20,2015 the Dutch government publicly re-listed the company through an IPO, the NHM merged with the Twentsche Bank in 1964 to form Algemene Bank Nederland. In the same year, the Amsterdamsche Bank, established in 1871, merged with the Rotterdamsche Bank, established in 1873, in 1991, ABN and AMRO Bank agreed to merge to create ABN AMRO. Through these mergers and acquisitions, ABN AMRO gained a number of overseas companies and branches.
From NHM, it owned a significant branch network in Asia, one of these, the Saudi Hollandi Bank was owned by the NHM Jeddah branch and in which ABN AMRO still had a 40% stake, caused questions in the Dutch parliament from the political Party for Freedom. In 1979, ABN expanded into North America with the acquisition of Chicago-based LaSalle National Bank, in 2005, Standard Federal became LaSalle Bank Midwest to unite the two components. ABN AMRO purchased The Chicago Corporation, an American securities and commodities trading and clearing corporation in fall 1995, other major acquisitions included the Brazilian bank Banco Real in 1998 and the Italian bank Antonveneta in 2006. It was involved in the acquisition of the Dutch local government mortgage and building development organisation. ABN AMRO sold the Bouwfonds as a concern in 2006. ABN AMRO had come to a crossroads in early 2005, from 2000 until 2005, ABN AMROs stock price stagnated
The Jodenbuurt is a neighborhood of Amsterdam, Netherlands. For centuries before World War II, it was the center of the Jews of Amsterdam — hence and it is best known as the birthplace of Baruch Spinoza, the home of Rembrandt, and the Jewish ghetto of Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. But it grew to include parts of Nieuwmarkt, Sint Antoniesbreestraat, the Plantage, and Weesperzijde, especially after 1882, the first Jews to settle in Amsterdam were the Sephardim, who had been expelled from Portugal and Spain in 1593. They were joined in the decades by the Ashkenazi from Central and Eastern Europe. By 1612, the population was about 500 people but it doubled to about 1,000 in 1620, the Jews gave their new home, its Hebrew name, Mokum to show that they had finally felt at home in the city. So the Jews were allowed to build their own synagogues, the first of them was the Beth Jakob, built between 1602 and 1610, followed by the second synagogue, Neve Shalom, constructed between 1608 and 1612, and the third, Beth Israel, founded in 1618.
They were all hidden and therefore not visible from the streets, but the Jews were not alone in the Jodenbuurt. They were joined by several Christians, one of them was the artist Rembrandt, who was fascinated by the Biblical faces of his new neighbors. In 1641, a group of Franciscans came to establish a Catholic clandestine church in a house called Moses, known as the Jewish Church, it began as the Sint-Anthoniuskerk but it grew into the Mozes en Aäronkerk. It is still standing today at the Waterlooplein, on 8 November 1616, the Jews were made legal citizens by the City of Amsterdam. But they were not allowed to enter certain occupations, they were not permitted by the guilds of Amsterdam. So they were limited to street trading, book printing, from 1622, the synagogues began to cooperate for the good of the Jodenbuurt. On 3 April 1693, they merged their districts into a municipality under the name of Talmud Torah. In that year, they opened the first synagogue that was visible from the streets.
It stood on the Houtgracht, at the present Waterlooplein, next to the new synagogue on Nieuwe Amstelstraat was a meat market, where the residents of the neighborhood could buy their kosher meat. The Sephardi did not have knowledge about Judaism. They were not allowed to be Jews in Portugal and Spain, so in Amsterdam they sent for the rabbis to come out of Italy, North Africa, and the Ottoman Empire to teach them the ways of Judaism in the Jodenbuurt. The Portuguese Synagogue was the place where Spinoza was placed under the ban by the Sephardic Jewish community in 1656, because of their knowledge of Spanish and Portuguese, many of the Sephardim were involved with trade and plantations in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in South America
Canary Wharf is a major business district located in Tower Hamlets, East London. Canary Wharf contains around 16,000,000 square feet of office and retail space, Morgan, KPMG, MetLife, Morgan Stanley, RBC, S&P Global, State Street, and Thomson Reuters. Canary Wharf is located on the West India Docks on the Isle of Dogs, from 1802 to 1939, the area was one of the busiest docks in the world. After the 1960s, the industry began to decline, leading to all the docks being closed by 1980. Canary Wharf itself takes its name from No.32 berth of the West Wood Quay of the Import Dock and this was built in 1936 for Fruit Lines Ltd, a subsidiary of Fred Olsen Lines for the Mediterranean and Canary Islands fruit trade. The Canary islands were so named after the dogs found there by the Spanish and as it is located on the Isle of Dogs. The Canary Wharf of today began when Michael von Clemm, former chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston, further discussions with G Ware Travelstead led to proposals for a new business district.
The first buildings were completed in 1991, including One Canada Square, which became the UKs tallest building at the time, by the time it opened, the London commercial property market had collapsed, and Olympia and York Canary Wharf Limited filed for bankruptcy in May 1992. Initially, the City of London saw Canary Wharf as an existential threat and it modified its planning laws to expand the provision of new offices in the City of London, for example, creating offices above railway stations and roads. The resulting oversupply of office space contributed to the failure of the No 1 Canada Square project, in 1997, some residents living on the Isle of Dogs launched a lawsuit against Canary Wharf Ltd for private nuisance because the tower interfered with television signals. In December 1995 an international consortium, backed by the owners of Olympia & York and other investors. The new company was called Canary Wharf Limited, and became Canary Wharf Group, recovery in the property market generally, coupled with continuing demand for large floorplate Grade A office space, slowly improved the level of interest.
A critical event in the recovery was the start of work on the Jubilee Line Extension. At the peak of property prices in 2007, the HSBC building sold for a record £1.1 billion, in March 2014 planning permission was granted for the second residential building on the Canary Wharf estate, a 58-storey tower including 566 apartments plus shops and a health club. In July 2014 Canary Wharf Group was granted planning permission for a major expansion of the Canary Wharf estate. The plans include the construction of 30 buildings comprising a total of 4.9 million square feet, construction is planned to commence in autumn 2014 with the first buildings to be occupied at the end of 2018. In 2014, Singapore listed Oxley Holdings, together with developer Ballymore UK, have a joint venture to set up a new waterfront township of Royal Wharf with 3385 new homes housing over 10,000 people. This table lists completed buildings in Canary Wharf that are over 60 metres tall, the Canary Wharf developers played a pro-active role in improving transport links, which they recognised as essential to the success of the project
The Rock (building)
The office tower The Rock at the Gustav Mahlersquare is part of the Mahler 4 office area in Amsterdam. The building distinguishes itself by the glass, stone. The building seems to be much heavier at the upper parts compared to the lower area, the design is very rough and feels like a rock. It is one of the tallest buildings at the Zuidas in Amsterdam, the interior is created from the stone and brass. In the offices the design is relatively simple, although most of the building is characterized by straight edges and sleek shapes, the entrance has more rounded shapes and smooth transitions. The staircase in the main entrance won a prize for Staircase of the year from EeStairs in the year 2012, media related to The Rock at Wikimedia Commons
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
De Negen Straatjes is a neighborhood of Amsterdam, Netherlands. It consists of nine streets of the Prinsengracht, Herengracht. Together they form a sub-neighborhood within the larger western Grachtengordel, one with small and diverse shops. The construction in this area back to the first half of the 17th century. The Negen Straatjes is bordered on the north by the Raadhuisstraat, the idea to promote the Nine Little Streets as a shopping area came from Djoeke Wessing. Still a local shop keeper, she wanted a name for the area to give the same allure as the Jordan. This, she felt, would promote cooperation and business growth, the Association of The 9 Streets was founded on November 12,1996. Nobody thought it was a name at the time, but the name has stuck. In recent years the Hazenstraat, a street of the Elandsgracht in the Jordaan