Vlieland is a municipality and island in the northern Netherlands. The municipality of Vlieland has one major town, Oost-Vlieland, it is the second most sparsely populated municipality in the Netherlands, after Schiermonnikoog. Vlieland is one of the West Frisian Islands, lying in the Wadden Sea, it is the second island from the west in the chain, lying between Terschelling. The island was permanently separated from the mainland in St. Lucia's flood in 1287. Vlieland was named after the Vlie, the seaway between it and Terschelling, the estuary of the river IJssel in medieval times. Richel is a permanently dry sandbank, located about 1 kilometer east of the northernmost point of Vlieland and is administered by the municipality of Vlieland; the northern part of the island of Texel, once was the southwestern part of Vlieland. A storm surge in 1296 separated Eierland from Vlieland. Erosion further diminished the size of Vlieland from the west, leading in 1736 to the disappearance of a second village on Vlieland, West-Vlieland, after the inhabitants had tried for decades to rebuild the town following numerous floods.
Until 1942 Vlieland, like Terschelling, was part of the province of North Holland. During the Second World War, Vlieland became part of the German Atlantic Wall; the Germans built two anti-aircraft batteries and stationed more soldiers on the island than there were inhabitants. They repartitioned the island to Friesland and the situation was not reversed after the war; the mail station in the western part of the island is a reminder that in the past mail was delivered by ferry from Texel. Because of this history, Vlieland natives do not speak Frisian; the original dialect, was related to the dialect of Texel and to other Dutch dialects in North Holland. The last native speaker, Petronella de Boer-Zeylemaker, died in 1993 at the age of 107; the majority of the landscape of the island consists of sand dunes, but there are some wooded areas and small meadows. A large part of the island, the western part, consists of sand. There is one village on Oost-Vlieland. A second village, West-Vlieland, was lost to the sea in 1736.
Vlieland can be reached by ferry from the Frisian town of Harlingen on the mainland. Ferries are operated by Doeksen and the journey takes 45 minutes to 1.5 hours to cross the Wadden Sea and part of the North Sea. Tourists are not allowed to bring cars with them on the ferry. A summer-only ferry service runs between De Cocksdorp on the neighboring island of Texel and the westernmost point of Vlieland; the most common form of transport on the island is the bicycle. A bus service runs from the ferry terminal to the village and campgrounds after the arrival of a ferry, some time before departure. There is a small heliport near the village, but it is only used for SAR flights. Vlieland, being the outermost of the Frisian barrier islands, sees its climate the most moderated by the North- and Wadden Sea; as is the case with the other West Frisian islands, sunshine hours are among the highest in the Netherlands. Temperature extremes are rare; this counts for extreme cold. Nights below -10 Celsius only happen on average once every 2 years.
Wind is abundant however, the average wind speed on Vlieland is 8 metres per second, or 28 kilometres per hour. Gale-force winds occur on average nine days per year. Vlieland has a nine-member municipal council elected once every four years; the results of the last election, held in 2018, are shown in the table below. The municipal executive consists of GroenWit. Tineke Schokker has been mayor of Vlieland since 2017. Tourism is the main source of income on Vlieland. There are 15 hotels, several hundred apartments and holiday homes. Vlieland has two campgrounds. Here Comes The Summer and Into The Great Wide Open are two music festivals, held in late April and in late August. Official website Tourist office website
Kampen is a city and municipality in the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. A member of the former Hanseatic League, it is located at the lower reaches of the river IJssel; the municipality of Kampen had a population of 53,063 in 2017 and covers an area of 161.79 square kilometres. Kampen is the largest city in this region; the city of Kampen itself has around 35,000 inhabitants. Kampen has one of the best preserved old town centres of the Netherlands, including remains of the ancient city wall and numerous churches. Notable are the three bridges over the IJssel which connect Kampen with IJsselmuiden and Kampereiland, the agricultural area between the branches which form the IJssel delta, a windmill. Traditionally people in Kampen speak a variation of the Sallands dialect, known as Kampers. By 1150, there were wooden buildings on the site where Kampen is located; the name Kampen, however, is not mentioned until 1277. The city has had city rights since 1236; as a result of its convenient location on the busy trade route between the Zuiderzee and the Rhine, Kampen developed from simple settlements into a prosperous trading town, to become one of the most powerful and leading cities of northwestern Europe.
In the 14th century, Kampen exchanged with the bishop of Utrecht, Jan van Arkel, the Mastenbroek polder against the right to increase the IJsseldelta. The silting up of the IJssel brought a gradual end to the prosperity of Kampen from 1430 on. For a long time Kampen did not want to sign a union and make economic and political concessions to other cities, as was usual in the Hanseatic League; when the County of Holland went to war with the Hanseatic League this situation came to an end: the city was forced to choose a side in the war. Kampen was more oriented toward the Baltic trade and commerce with the hinterland of the Rhine, therefore in 1441 formally joined the Hanseatic League; the city had much influence in the League. This project was accomplished in just five months. With this bridge Kampen hoped to be able to develop closer relationships with the hinterland. On 11 August 1572 Kampen was conquered from the Spaniards by Willem van den Bergh, a brother of William of Orange. After the massacre of Zutphen on 15 November, the city voluntarily surrendered to the Spanish.
In 1578, the city changed ownership again after the Siege of Kampen, led by George van Lalaing. Due to its right to increase the IJsseldelta, Kampen was owner of the growing Kampereiland. From 1500 the islands were leased; the rents were so large. The Franco-Dutch War, fought by the Republic of the United Netherlands against the Kingdom of France, the Bishopric of Münster, the Archbishopric of Cologne and the Kingdom of England, marked a definitive end to the enormous power of the city. Kampen only became well known again in the 19th century; the city was difficult to reach from the sea, because the surrounding wetlands became silted up and shallow. During the preceding centuries, the watercourse of the river IJssel was dredged several times, but the costs were high and within a few years, the river silted up again; as the IJssel had several delta-like mouths here, the main route of the river shifted several times. In the 19th century, a new strategy was put in place to counter this problem: some watercourses were dammed to allow for more water at a higher speed through one or two main routes.
This had the advantage that less sand and silt were deposited and resulted in a river course that "swept itself clean". A key figure in this story is city architect Nicolaas Plomp, besides his work for the current IJssel front of the city of Kampen, was involved in hydraulic engineering. Due to the emerging industry in the 19th century and the importance of roads and railways for the economy and paved roads were constructed to replace transportation over sand and mud roads. Kampen is part of the province of Overijssel in the Eastern part of The Netherlands, situated between the provinces of Gelderland, Flevoland and Friesland; the city of Kampen is situated at the mouth of the river IJssel. Opposite Kampen, along the IJssel, lies IJsselmuiden, the second largest residential nucleus of the municipality Kampen; the municipality of Kampen has five other population centers: Grafhorst,'s-Heerenbroek, Kamperveen and Zalk. Kampen has a large number of old to old buildings, including remains of the ancient city wall and the Church of St Nicholas.
The structure of the walled fortress city is still visible in the streets. Significant structures include: The Koornmarktpoort: a city gate located near the river IJssel which dates from the 14th century. In the 15th century two squat towers were added at the outer corners; the Broederpoort: a rectangular city gate with four slender towers from 1465, rebuilt in Renaissance style in 1615 The Cellebroederspoort: a rectangular city gate, flanked by two heavy round towers from 1465, rebuilt in 1617 in Renaissance style The Stedelijk Museum Kampen: located in the former town hall of Kampen, which dates from the late 14th century The Gotisch huis: built around 1500. This was the location of the Stedelijk Museum Kampen before it moved to its current location i
Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands located in the eastern part of the country. The province's name translates to "across the IJssel", from the perspective of the Episcopal principality of Utrecht by which it was held until 1528; the capital city of Overijssel is Zwolle and the largest city is Enschede. The province had a population of 1,142,360 in 2015. Overijssel is bordered by Germany to the east, the Achterhoek region of Gelderland to the south, the Veluwe region of Gelderland and Flevoland to the west, Friesland and the former moors of Drenthe to the north. Overijssel comprises three regions: Kop van Overijssel in the northwest, Salland in the centre of the province, Twente in the east. Besides the capital Zwolle, other major cities are Almelo, Deventer and Hengelo. To the southeast, the province's surface is sandy, interspersed with small rivers such as the Regge and Dinkel and other brooks. In the northwest, the geology is dominated by sediments from clay; the northern parts were once covered by veen which separated the dryer and more arable south from Drenthe and which have been exploited as fuel to a large degree.
Only small patches survive today (Engbertsdijksvenen near Tubbergen and the Aamsveen. The extreme northwest is dominated by a system of lakes formed by former peat-mining and protected under the De Weerribben-Wieden National Park status, a valuable wetland; the highest point in Overijssel is the summit of the Tankenberg, a hill in the municipality of Losser, at 85 metres. The lowest point is in the Mastenbroek Polder near Kampen at 2 metres below sea level. Overijssel enjoys an oceanic climate. However, winters tend to be less mild than the rest of the Netherlands, because of its distance from the coast. Overijssel was known as Oversticht and included most of the modern-day province of Drenthe. In 1336, it was made part of Guelders, though it was ceded to the Bishopric of Utrecht in 1347; the Bishops ceded the Oversticht to the Emperor Charles V in 1528, who styled himself Lord of Overijssel, after the Latin name of Oversticht, known since 1233: Transysla or Transisalania, or Over-IJssel, i.e. the other side of the river IJssel.
The people joined with the other Dutch and rebelled against Charles' heir Philip II. Overijssel became governed by the most powerful mayors and lords in the province, including by the luitenant-governor Nicolaas Schmelzing. After a brief occupation by the forces of the Bishop of Münster, Overijssel received a new form of government which granted the stadtholders more power. Widespread resistance against the increased power throughout the provinces led to the formation of the Batavian Republic in 1795. A centralist government arose and the Netherlands was organised into a series of départements, based on those used by revolutionary France. At first organised into its own département, it was merged with Drenthe in 1798 to form Ouden IJssel, renamed Overijssel in 1801; the French annexed the Batavian Republic in 1810, Overijssel was organised into the new French département of Bouches-de-l'Yssel. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the kingdom of the Netherlands and the former province of Overijssel were recreated.
Overijssel was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II from May 1940 until its liberation in April 1945. The Noordoostpolder, a reclaimed territory, laid dry in 1942, was part of Overijssel from 1962 until 1986, when it became part of the newly created province of Flevoland; the King's Commissioner of Overijssel is a vacant position as previous title holder Ank Bijleveld was appointed to be Minister of defence on 26 October 2017. The King's Commissioner is the chairman of the Provincial-Executive and the States-Provincial of the province. There are three main motorways in Overijssel, the A1, A28, the A35; the A32 runs through the province, but just for a few kilometers near Steenwijk. The main railway station in Overijssel is the Zwolle railway station, located in the city of Zwolle which serves as hub between the northern provinces and the rest of The Netherlands; the main airport in Overijssel is the Enschede Airport Twente, located outside of Enschede. The airport does not offer any international flights, though it has historically.
Overisel Township, Michigan, US was named after Overijssel Tanfana Official website Participation platform of Overijssel Overijssel travel guide from Wikivoyage
Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands. It is located in the centre of the country, bordering the Eemmeer in the north-east, the province of Gelderland in the east and south-east, the province of South Holland in the west and south-west and the province of North Holland in the north-west and north. With an area of 1,400 square kilometres, it is the smallest of the twelve Dutch provinces. Apart from its eponymous capital, major cities in the province are Amersfoort, Nieuwegein, Veenendaal, IJsselstein and Zeist. In the International Organization for Standardization world region code system Utrecht makes up one region with code ISO 3166-2:NL-UT; the Bishopric of Utrecht was established in 695 when Saint Willibrord was consecrated bishop of the Frisians at Rome by Pope Sergius I. With the consent of the Frankish ruler, Pippin of Herstal, he settled in an old Roman fort in Utrecht. After Willibrord's death the diocese suffered from the incursions of the Vikings. Better times appeared during the reign of the Saxon emperors, who summoned the Bishops of Utrecht to attend the imperial councils and diets.
In 1024 the bishops were made Princes of the Holy Roman Empire and the new Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht was formed. In 1122, with the Concordat of Worms, the Emperor's right of investiture was annulled, the cathedral chapter received the right to elect the bishop, it was, soon obligated to share this right with the four other collegiate chapters in the city. The Counts of Holland and Guelders, between whose territories the lands of the Bishops of Utrecht lay sought to acquire influence over the filling of the episcopal see; this led to disputes and the Holy See interfered in the election. After the middle of the 14th century the popes appointed the bishop directly without regard to the five chapters. During the Hook and Cod Wars, Utrecht was fought over by forces of the Duke of Burgundy leading to the First Utrecht Civil War and Second Utrecht Civil War. In 1527, the Bishop sold his territories, thus his secular authority, to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the principality became an integral part of the Habsburg dominions, which included most other Dutch provinces.
The chapters transferred their right of electing the bishop to Charles V and his government, a measure to which Pope Clement VII gave his consent, under political pressure after the Sack of Rome. However, the Habsburg rule did not last long, as Utrecht joined in the Dutch Revolt against Charles' successor Philip II in 1579, becoming a part of the Dutch Republic. In World War II, Utrecht was held by German forces until the general capitulation of the Germans in the Netherlands on May 5, 1945, it was occupied by Canadian Allied forces on May 7, 1945. The towns of Oudewater, Woerden and Leerdam were transferred from the province of South Holland to Utrecht in 1970, 1989, 2002 and 2019 respectively. In February 2011, together with the provinces of North Holland and Flevoland, showed a desire to investigate the feasibility of a merger between the three provinces; this has been positively received by the Dutch cabinet, for the desire to create one Randstad province has been mentioned in the coalition agreement.
The province of South Holland, part of the Randstad urban area, visioned to be part of the Randstad province, much supportive of the idea of a merger into one province, is not named. With or without South Holland, if created, the new province would be the largest in the Netherlands in both area and population. In the east of Utrecht lies the Utrecht Hill Ridge, a chain of hills left as lateral moraine by tongues of glacial ice after the Saline glaciation that preceded the last ice age; because of the scarcity of nutrients in the fast-draining sandy soil, the greatest part of a landscape, heath has been planted with pine plantations. The south of the province is a river landscape; the west consists of meadows. In the north are big lakes formed by the digging of peat from bogs formed after the last ice age. One of the most attractive natural areas in the province is the Vechtstreek, situated on either side of the Vecht river. An international nature conservation organisation that has settled the head office of its Netherlands branch in this province is the WWF.
"Natuur en Milieu" is a national nature protection organisation whose head office is in this province. The Province of Utrecht is divided into 26 municipalities. Pope Adrian VI, the only Dutch pope; the chemist and meteorologist C. H. D. Buys Ballot. Artists Piet Mondrian, Gerrit Rietveld and Theo van Doesburg. Publisher Anton Hart specializing in healthcare issues Website of the Province Utrecht Foreign Investment Office Visit Utrecht Region - Tourist Information Utrecht travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, northeast Germany, Poland and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53 ° N from 10 ° E to 30 ° E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, the Little Belt, it includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Bay of Gdańsk. The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula; the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. Administration The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area includes the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, without calling Kattegat a part of the Baltic Sea, "For the purposes of this Convention the'Baltic Sea Area' shall be the Baltic Sea and the Entrance to the Baltic Sea, bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43'N."Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea, in tandem: in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør.
The narrowest part of Little Belt is the "Middelfart Sund" near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland; the Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö. By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. It's the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water. Hydrography and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, a limit to the Belt Sea; the shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of heavy salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm and Gotland. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea have a rich biology; the remainder of the Sea is poor in oxygen and in species.
Thus, the more of the entrance, included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen; the origin of the latter name is speculative and it was adopted into Slavic and Finnic languages spoken around the sea likely due to the role of Medieval Latin in cartography. It might be connected to the Germanic word belt, a name used for two of the Danish straits, the Belts, while others claim it to be directly derived from the source of the Germanic word, Latin balteus "belt". Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt, he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Xenophon.
It is possible. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait." Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". This root and its basic meaning were retained in both Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. Another explanation is that, while derived from the aforementioned root, the name of the sea is related to names for various forms of water and related substances in several European languages, that might have been associated with colors found in swamps, yet another explanation is that the name meant "enclosed sea, bay" as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe. In the Middle Ages the sea was known by a variety of names; the name Baltic Sea became dominant only after 1600. Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in 19th century.
The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or Mare Germanicum. Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it indicate the geographical location of the sea, or its size in relation to smaller gulfs, or tribes associated with it. In modern lang
1928 Summer Olympics
The 1928 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, celebrated from 28 July to 12 August 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The city of Amsterdam had bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but was obliged to give way to war-torn Antwerp in Belgium for the 1920 Games and Pierre de Coubertin's Paris for the 1924 Games; the only other candidate city for the 1928 Olympics was Los Angeles, which would be selected to host the Olympics four years later. In preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics, the United States Olympic Committee reviewed the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games; the committee reported a total cost of US$1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million, giving a negligible loss of US$18,000, a considerable improvement over the 1924 Games. Dutch nobleman, Frederik van Tuyll van Serooskerken, first proposed Amsterdam as host city for the Summer Olympic Games in 1912 before the Netherlands Olympic Committee was established; the Olympic Games were cancelled in 1916 due to World War I.
In 1919, the Netherlands Olympic Committee abandoned the proposal of Amsterdam in favor of their support for the nomination of Antwerp as host city for the 1920 Summer Olympics. In 1921, Paris was selected for the 1924 Summer Olympics on the condition that the 1928 Summer Olympics would be organized in Amsterdam; this decision, supported by the Netherlands Olympic Committee, was announced by the International Olympic Committee on 2 June 1921. The IOC's decision was disputed by the Americans, but their request to allocate the 1928 Summer Olympics to Los Angeles was without success in 1922 and again in 1923. Los Angeles was selected as host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics; these were the first Olympics to be organized under the IOC presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour. The Olympic Flame was lit for the first time for the duration of the Olympics, a tradition that continues to this day; the torch relay, would not take place until the 1936 Summer Olympics. For the first time, the parade of nations started with Greece, which holds the origins of the Olympics, ended with the host country, a tradition which has continued since.
The Games were opened by Prince Hendrik, consort of Queen Wilhelmina, who had authorized her husband to deputise for her. The Queen was unable to attend the opening ceremony as she was on holiday in Norway and did not want to disrupt her trip; this was the second time a head of state had not officiated at an Olympic opening ceremony. The Queen had refused to make an appearance at either the opening or closing ceremony. However, she returned from Norway before the conclusion of the Games, to be present at the closing ceremony, she presented the first prizes at the prize distribution, held beforehand. Athletics events were held on a 400-meter track becoming the standard for athletics tracks; these Games were the first to feature a fixed schedule of sixteen days, still followed. In previous Olympics, competition had been stretched out over several months. Johnny Weissmuller, who appeared in several Tarzan movies, won two gold medals in swimming: an individual gold in the men's 100 m freestyle, a team gold in the men's 4 x 200 m freestyle relay.
Paavo Nurmi of Finland won his ninth, final, gold medal in the 10,000 m race. Canadian athlete Percy Williams exceeded expectations by winning both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events. South American football made a definite breakthrough, as Uruguay retained its title by defeating Argentina. India took its first gold medal in field hockey, beginning a streak of six consecutive gold medals in the sport. Mikio Oda of Japan won the triple jump event with a result of 15.21 meters, becoming the first gold medalist from an Asian country. Algerian-born marathon runner Boughera El Ouafi won a gold medal for France in the men's marathon. Among the participants was Crown Prince Olav, who would become King of Norway. Pat O'Callaghan won the first medal for a newly independent Ireland, taking gold in the hammer throw; the sponsor Coca-Cola made its first appearance at the Olympic Games. These Games were the first to bear the name "Summer Olympic Games", to distinguish them from the Winter Olympic Games. Germany returned to the Olympic Games for the first time since 1912, after being banned from the 1920 and 1924 Games.
The German team finished second in the 1928 medal count. Many cars were expected for the Games, but Amsterdam had no more than 2,000 single car parking spaces. A number of new parking sites were provided and a special parking symbol was launched to show foreign visitors where they could park; the white P on a blue background was to become the international traffic sign for parking, still used today. During the 1928 Summer Olympics, there were 14 sports, 20 disciplines and 109 events in the tournament. In parentheses is the number of events per discipline. Women's athletics and team gymnastics debuted in spite of criticism. Halina Konopacka of Poland became the first female Olympic field champion. Reports that the 800 meter run ended with several of the competitors being exhausted were circulated; as a result, the IOC decided that women were too frail for long distance running, women's Olympic running events were limited to 200 meters
The river IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel to avoid confusion with the Hollandse IJssel, is the branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. The Romans knew the river as Isala; the IJssel flows from Westervoort, east of the city of Arnhem, until it discharges into the IJsselmeer. The River IJssel is one of the three major distributary branches into which the Rhine divides shortly after crossing the German-Dutch border; the name includes the digraph ij, which behaves like a single letter in Dutch orthography—this explains why both letters appear capitalized. The name IJssel, is thought to derive from a Proto-Indo-European root *eis- "to move quickly". In the Middle Ages, the Zuiderzee had not yet formed, in its place there was an inland lake known as Vlies, the IJssel flowed through the surrounding lakelands. However, since the formation of the Zuiderzee and obstruction from the Afsluitdijk, the IJssel no longer flows into its estuary, the Vlie, now restricted in meaning and referring only to the strait separating the islands of Vlieland and Terschelling.
It is hypothesised that the now-poldered tidal inlets near Medemblik and the IJ once were branches of river IJssel. The river was a natural line of defence and in April 1945 had to be stormed by assault troops of the Allied armies liberating the Netherlands from the occupying forces of Nazi Germany. Canadian histories refer to the river in English as "Ijssel"; the IJssel was the lower part of the small river Oude IJssel, that rises in Germany and is now a 70 km long tributary of the IJssel. The connection between Rhine and IJssel was artificial dug by men under the Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus c. 12 BCE as a defence against Germanic tribes and to let Roman ships carry troops along it. The current Oude IJssel is now the second-largest contributor to the flow of the river, after the river Rhine; the source of the Oude IJssel is near Borken in Germany. First it flows south-west. After passing through Isselburg it crosses the border with the Netherlands; the river, called Oude IJssel from here flows through Doetinchem and joins the IJssel at Doesburg.
The average discharge of the IJssel can change significantly. The average discharge has been stated as 300 cubic meters per second; this can be as low as 140 and as high as 1800, depending on the Nederrijn locks west of Arnhem, which regulate the amount of water taken in by the Nederrijn and IJssel branches. As a lowlands river, the IJssel has a lot of bends and occurring dead branches; the occurring phenomenon of sedimental island-forming in the outside of bends has been regulated to the point of non-occurrence since the late nineteenth century. From the moment the connection between the Rhine and IJssel was dug, the Rhine became the largest contributor to the flow of the IJssel, although only a small amount of the total Rhine flow makes its way into the IJssel system. Various tributaries can sometimes add a considerable volume of water to the total flow of the IJssel, such as the Berkel and Schipbeek streams; the IJssel river is the only branch of the Rhine delta that takes up tributary rivers rather than giving rise to distributaries.
Only in the last few miles of the river's run, near the city of Kampen, distributaries form, resulting in the minor IJssel delta. Some of the branches have been dammed up to lower the risk of flooding. Several of the delta branches are, still connected without interruption. Most of the damming-up was done prior to 1932, when the Zuiderzee was turned into the freshwater IJsselmeer lake; the area had been prone to flooding in times of northwestern gales, pushing back the saline Zuiderzee water into the IJssel delta and preventing the water flowing from the mouths of the IJssel branches from discharging into the Zuiderzee. The modern-day names of the delta branches are, west to east, Kattendiep, Noorddiep and Goot. Of these, the Keteldiep and Kattendiep channels are the main navigational arteries. Another branch, De Garste, had completely silted up by the middle of the nineteenth century; until the beginning of the twentieth century, the Ganzendiep branch up to the Goot fork was known as IJssel proper.
Due to it being the historical main channel, with the present-day main channel being called Regtediep or Rechterdiep until well into the twentieth centuryThe IJssel, although now technically "merely" a Rhine branch, has retained most of the character of a distinct river in its own right, in no small part due to the fact that it has its own tributaries and, in river Oude IJssel a former headstream. The following canals and tributary streams connect to the IJssel, in downstream order: Apeldoorns Kanaal near the town of Dieren river Oude IJssel at the city of Doesburg the Berkel stream at the city of Zutphen the Twentekanaal between Zutphen and the village of Eefde the Schipbeek stream near the city of Devente