The northern pike, known as a pike in Britain, most of Canada, most parts of the United States, is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox. They are typical of fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Pike can grow to a large size: the average length is about 40–55 cm, with maximum recorded lengths of up to 150 cm and published weights of 28.4 kg. The IGFA recognizes a 25 kg pike caught by Lothar Louis in Lake on Grefeern, Germany, on 16 October 1986, as the all-tackle world-record northern pike; the northern pike gets its common name from its resemblance to the pole-weapon known as the pike. Various other unofficial trivial names are common pike, great northern pike, Lakes pike, snot rocket, slough shark, slimer, slough snake, gator, jackfish, hammer handle, other such names as long head and pointy nose. Numerous other names can be found in Field Museum Zool. Leaflet Number 9, its earlier common name, the luci, is used in heraldry. Northern pike are most olive green, shading from yellow to white along the belly.
The flank is marked with a few to many dark spots on the fins. Sometimes, the fins are reddish. Younger pike have yellow stripes along a green body; the lower half of the gill cover lacks scales, it has large sensory pores on its head and on the underside of its lower jaw which are part of the lateral line system. Unlike the similar-looking and related muskellunge, the northern pike has light markings on a dark body background and fewer than six sensory pores on the underside of each side of the lower jaw. A hybrid between northern pike and muskellunge is known as a tiger muskellunge. In the hybrids, the males are invariably sterile, while females are fertile, may back-cross with the parent species. Another form of northern pike, the silver pike, is not a subspecies but rather a mutation that occurs in scattered populations. Silver pike, sometimes called silver muskellunge, lack the rows of spots and appear silver, white, or silvery-blue in color; when ill, silver pike have been known to display a somewhat purplish hue.
In Italy, the newly identified species Esox cisalpinus was long thought to be a color variation of the northern pike, but was in 2011 announced to be a species of its own. Northern pike in North America reach the size of their European counterparts, it was caught in Great Sacandaga Lake on 15 September 1940 by Peter Dubuc. Reports of far larger pike have been made, but these are either misidentifications of the pike's larger relative, the muskellunge, or have not been properly documented and belong in the realm of legend; as northern pike grow longer, they increase in weight, the relationship between length and weight is not linear. The relationship between total length and total weight for nearly all species of fish can be expressed by an equation of the form W = c L b. Invariably, b is close to 3.0 for all species, c is a constant that varies among species. For northern pike, b = 3.096 and c = 0.000180. The relationship described in this section suggests a 20-inch northern pike will weigh about 2 lb, while a 26-inch northern pike will weigh about 4 lb.
Pike are found in sluggish streams and shallow, weedy places in lakes and reservoirs, as well as in cold, rocky waters. They are typical ambush predators, they inhabit any water body that contains fish, but suitable places for spawning are essential. Because of their cannibalistic nature, young pike need places where they can take shelter between plants so they are not eaten. In both cases, rich submerged vegetation is needed. Pike are found in brackish water, except for the Baltic Sea area, here they can be found spending time both in the mouths of rivers and in the open brackish waters of the Baltic Sea, it is normal for pike to return to fresh water after a period in these brackish waters. They seem to prefer water with less turbidity, but, related to their dependence on the presence of vegetation and not to their being sight hunters; the northern pike is a aggressive species with regard to feeding. For example, when food sources are scarce, cannibalism develops, starting around five weeks in a small percentage of populations.
This cannibalism occurs. One can expect this because when food is scarce, Northern pike fight for survival, such as turning on smaller pike to feed. Pike tend to feed on smaller fish, such as the banded killifish. However, when pike exceed 700 mm long, they feed on larger fish; because of cannibalism when food is short, pike suffer a high young morta
Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters. Flood relief methods are used to reduce the effects of high water levels. Floods are caused by many factors or a combination of any of these prolonged heavy rainfall accelerated snowmelt, severe winds over water, unusual high tides, tsunamis, or failure of dams, retention ponds, or other structures that retained the water. Flooding can be exacerbated by increased amounts of impervious surface or by other natural hazards such as wildfires, which reduce the supply of vegetation that can absorb rainfall. Periodic floods occur on many rivers. During times of rain, some of the water is retained in ponds or soil, some is absorbed by grass and vegetation, some evaporates, the rest travels over the land as surface runoff. Floods occur when ponds, riverbeds and vegetation cannot absorb all the water. Water runs off the land in quantities that cannot be carried within stream channels or retained in natural ponds and man-made reservoirs.
About 30 percent of all precipitation becomes runoff and that amount might be increased by water from melting snow. River flooding is caused by heavy rain, sometimes increased by melting snow. A flood that rises with little or no warning, is called a flash flood. Flash floods result from intense rainfall over a small area, or if the area was saturated from previous precipitation; when rainfall is light, the shorelines of lakes and bays can be flooded by severe winds—such as during hurricanes—that blow water into the shore areas. Coastal areas are sometimes flooded by unusually high tides, such as spring tides when compounded by high winds and storm surges. Flooding has many impacts, it endangers the lives of humans and other species. Rapid water runoff causes soil erosion and concomitant sediment deposition elsewhere; the spawning grounds for fish and other wildlife habitats can become polluted or destroyed. Some prolonged high floods can delay traffic in areas. Floods can interfere with drainage and economical use such as interfering with farming.
Structural damage can occur in bridge abutments, bank lines, sewer lines, other structures within floodways. Waterway navigation and hydroelectric power are impaired. Financial losses due to floods are millions of dollars each year, with the worst floods in recent U. S. history having cost billions of dollars. There are many disruptive effects of flooding on economic activities. However, flooding can bring benefits, such as making soil more fertile and providing nutrients in which it is deficient. Periodic flooding was essential to the well-being of ancient communities along the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers, the Nile River, the Indus River, the Ganges and the Yellow River, among others; the viability for hydrologically based renewable sources of energy is higher in flood-prone regions. This is the method used for remote sensing the disasters. Detection of disasters such as floods and explosions are quite complex in previous days and range of detection is inappropriate. But, it came to possibilities by using Multi temporal visualization of Synthetic Aperture Radar images.
But to obtain the good SAR images perfect spatial registration and precise calibration are necessary to specify changes that have occurred. Calibration of SAR is complex and a sensitive problem. Errors may occur after calibration that involves data fusion and visualization process. Traditional image pre-processing cannot be used here due to the on-Gaussian of radar back scattering, but a processing method called "cross calibration/normalization" is used to solve this problem; the application generates a single disaster image called "fast-ready disaster map" from multitemporal SAR images. These maps are generated without user interaction and helps in providing immediate first aid to the people; this process provides image enhancement and comparison between numerous images using data fusion and visualization process. This proposed processing includes histogram truncation and equalization steps; the process helps in identifying the permanent waters and other classes by combined composition of pre-disaster and post-disaster images into a color image for better identity.
Some methods of flood control have been practiced since ancient times. These methods include planting vegetation to retain extra water, terracing hillsides to slow flow downhill, the construction of floodways. Other techniques include the construction of levees, dams, retention ponds to hold extra water during times of flooding. Many dams and their associated reservoirs are designed or to aid in flood protection and control. Many large dams have flood-control reservations in which the level of a reservoir must be kept below a certain elevation before the onset of the rainy/summer melt season to allow a certain amount of space in which floodwaters can fill. Other beneficial uses of dam created reservoirs include hydroelectric power generation, water conservation, recreation. Reservoir and dam construction and design is based upon standards set out by the government. In the United States and reservoir design is regulated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Design of a dam and reservoir follows guidelines set by the USACE and covers topics such as design flow rates in consideration to meteorological, topographic and soi
The Driftless Area is a region in southeastern Minnesota, southwestern Wisconsin, northeastern Iowa, the extreme northwestern corner of Illinois, of the American Midwest. The region escaped glaciation during the last ice age and is characterized by steep, forested ridges, deeply-carved river valleys, karst geology characterized by spring-fed waterfalls and cold-water trout streams. Ecologically, the flora and fauna of the Driftless Area are more related to those of the Great Lakes region and New England rather than those of the broader Midwest and central Plains regions. Colloquially, the term includes the incised Paleozoic Plateau of southeastern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa; the region includes elevations ranging from 603 to 1,719 feet at Blue Mound State Park and covers an area of 24,000 square miles. The rugged terrain is due both to the lack of glacial deposits, or drift, to the incision of the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries into bedrock. An alternative, less restrictive definition of the Driftless Area includes the sand Plains region located northeast of Wisconsin's portion of the incised Paleozoic Plateau in the southwestern part of the state.
This portion of the Driftless Area in the southwestern section of Wisconsin's Central Plain lacks evidence of glaciation, contains many isolated Hills, Mesas and Pinnacles that are outlying eroded Cambrian bedrock remnants of the plateau to the southwest. Retreating glaciers leave behind silt, sand and boulders called drift. Glacial drift includes unsorted material called till and layers deposited by meltwater streams called outwash. While drift from early glaciations has been found in some parts of the region, much of the incised Paleozoic Plateau of Wisconsin and northwestern Illinois holds no evidence for glaciation; the region has been subject to large floods from the melting Laurentide ice sheet and subsequent catastrophic discharges from its proglacial lakes, such as Glacial Lake Wisconsin, Glacial Lake Agassiz, Glacial Lake Grantsburg, Glacial Lake Duluth. The last phases of the Wisconsin Glaciation involved several major lobes of the Laurentide ice sheet: the Des Moines lobe, which flowed down toward Des Moines on the west.
The northern and eastern lobes were in part diverted around the area by the Watersmeet Dome, an ancient uplifted area of Cambrian rock underlain by basalt in northern Wisconsin and western upper Michigan. The southward movement of the continental glacier was hindered by the great depths of the Lake Superior basin and the adjacent highlands of the Bayfield Peninsula, Gogebic Range, Porcupine Mountains, Keweenaw Peninsula, the Huron Mountains along the north rim of the Superior Upland bordering Lake Superior; the Green Bay and Lake Michigan lobes were partially blocked by the bedrock of the Door Peninsula, which presently separates Green Bay from Lake Michigan. In earlier phases of the Wisconsinan, the Driftless Area was surrounded by ice, with eastern and western lobes joining together to the south of it; the latest concept explaining the origin of the Driftless Area is the pre-Illinoian continental glacial ice flowing over the Driftless Area and depositing on it pre-Illinoian till, more than 790,000 years old.
When the ice retreated and uncovered the area, intensive periglacial erosion removed it. Anticyclonic snow-bearing winds episodically dropped large amounts of snow, which gradually removed superficial sediment from slopes by solifluction and snowmelt overland flow, washing the deposits down to stream valleys that flowed into the Mississippi River. In the adjacent glaciated regions, the glacial retreat left behind drift, which buried all former topographical features. Surface water was forced to carve out new stream beds. Overall, the region is characterized by an eroded plateau with bedrock overlain by varying thicknesses of loess. Most characteristically, the river valleys are dissected; the bluffs lining this reach of the Mississippi River climb to nearly 600 feet. In Minnesota, Pre-Illinoian-age till was removed by natural means prior to the deposition of loess; the sedimentary rocks of the valley walls date to the Paleozoic Era and are covered with colluvium or loess. Bedrock, where not directly exposed, is near the surface and is composed of "primarily Ordovician dolomite and sandstone in Minnesota, with Cambrian sandstone and dolomite exposed along the valley walls of the Mississippi River."
In the east, the Baraboo Range, an ancient, profoundly eroded monadnock in south central Wisconsin, consists of Precambrian quartzite and rhyolite. The area has not undergone much tectonic action, as all the visible layers of sedimentary rock are horizontal. Karst topography is found throughout the Driftless area; this is characterized by caves and cave systems, disappearing streams, blind valleys, underground streams, sinkholes and cold streams. Disappearing streams occur where surface waters sinks down into the earth through fractured bedrock or a sinkhole, either joining an aquifer, or becoming an underground stream. Blind valleys are formed by disappearing lack an outlet to any other stream. Sinkholes are the result of the collapse of the roof of a cave, surface water can flow directly into them. Disappearing streams can re-emerge as large cold springs. Cold streams with cold springs; the Mississippi River passes through the Driftless Area between and including P
The largemouth bass is a carnivorous freshwater gamefish in the Centrarchidae family, a species of black bass native to much of the United States And Northern Mexico. It is known by a variety of regional names, such as the widemouth bass, bigmouth bass, black bass, largies, Potter's fish, Florida bass, Florida largemouth, green bass, Green trout, gilsdorf bass, Oswego bass, southern largemouth and northern largemouth, LMB; the largemouth bass is the state fish of Georgia and Indiana, the state freshwater fish of Florida and Alabama, the state sport fish of Tennessee. The largemouth bass is an olive-green to greenish gray fish, marked by a series of dark, sometimes black, blotches forming a jagged horizontal stripe along each flank; the upper jaw of a largemouth bass extends beyond the rear margin of the orbit. In comparison to age, a female bass is larger than a male; the largemouth is the largest of the black basses, reaching a maximum recorded overall length of 29.5 in and a maximum unofficial weight of 25 pounds 1 ounce.
The fish lives 10 to 16 years on average. The juvenile largemouth bass consumes small bait fish, small shrimp, insects. Adults consume smaller fish, snails, frogs, salamanders and small water birds and baby alligators. In larger lakes and reservoirs, adult bass occupy deeper water than younger fish, shift to a diet consisting entirely of smaller fish like shad, yellow perch, ciscoes and sunfish, it consumes younger members of larger fish species, such as catfish, walleye, white bass, striped bass, smaller black bass. Prey items can be larger. Studies of prey utilization by largemouths show that in weedy waters, bass grow more due to difficulty in acquiring prey. Less weed cover allows bass to more find and catch prey, but this consists of more open-water baitfish. With little or no cover, bass can starve or be stunted. Fisheries managers must consider these factors when designing regulations for specific bodies of water. Under overhead cover, such as overhanging banks, brush, or submerged structure, such as weedbeds, humps and drop-offs, the largemouth bass uses its senses of hearing, sight and smell to attack and seize its prey.
Adult largemouth are apex predators within their habitat, but they are preyed upon by many animals while young. Notably in the Great Lakes Region, Micropterus salmoides along with many other species of native fish have been known to prey upon the invasive round goby. Remains of said fish have been found inside the stomachs of largemouth bass consistently; this feeding habit may impact the ecosystem positively, but more research must be conducted to verify this. Note that it is illegal to use Neogobius melanostomus as bait in the Great Lakes Region. Largemouth bass reach sexual maturity and begin spawning when they are about a year old. Spawning takes place in the spring season when the water temperature first holds steady above 60˚F. In the northern region of the United States, this occurs anywhere from late April until early July. In the southern states, where the largest and healthiest specimens inhabit, this process can begin in March and is over by June. Males create nests by moving debris from the bottom of the body of water using their tails.
These nests are about twice the length of the males, although this can vary. Bass prefer sand, muck, or gravel bottoms, but will use rocky and weedy bottoms where there is cover for their nest, such as roots or twigs. After finishing the nest, the males swim near the nest looking for a female to mate with. After one is found, the two bass swim around the nest together, turning their bodies so that the eggs and sperm that are being released will come in contact on the way down to the nest. Bass will spawn twice per spring, with some spawning three or four times, although this is not as common; the male will guard the nest until the eggs hatch, which can take about 2 to 4 days in the southern U. S and Northern Mexico, longer in the northern part of its Native Range. Depending on the water temperature, the male will stay with the nest until the infant bass are ready to swim out on their own, which can be about two more weeks after they hatch. After this, the male and newborns will switch to more of a summer mode, in which they focus more on feeding.
Largemouth bass are keenly sought after by anglers and are noted for the excitement of their'fight,' meaning how vigorously the fish resists being hauled into the boat or onto shore after being hooked. The fish will become airborne in their effort to throw the hook, but many say that their cousin species, the smallmouth bass, is more aggressive. Anglers most fish for largemouth bass with lures such as plastic worms, jigs and live bait, such as worms and minnows. A recent trend is the use of large swimbaits to target trophy bass that forage on juvenile rainbow trout in California. Fly fishing for largemouth bass may be done using both topwater and worm imitations tied with natural or synthetic materials. Other Live baits, such as frogs or crawfish, can be productive. In fact, large golden shiners are a popular live bait used to catch trophy bass when they are sluggish in the heat of summer or in the cold of winter. Largemouth bass hang around big patches of weeds and other shallow water cover.
These fish are capable of surviving in a wide variety of climates and waters
Mazeppa is a city in Wabasha County, United States, along the North Fork of the Zumbro River. The population was 842 at the 2010 census. Mazeppa was platted in 1855, named in honor of Hetman Ivan Mazepa via a poem by Lord Byron; the city was incorporated in 1877. The Mazeppa Public School was built in 1858 and further expanded on many times, including after the fire on December 26, 1975 that destroyed the historic elementary school; the newer adjoining high school and 1940s gymnasium were saved from the blaze. The Mazeppa Public School system merged with the Zumbrota Public School system in fall of 1987 to create the Zumbrota-Mazeppa Public Schools; the city contains one property listed on the National Register of Historic Places: the 1904 Walnut Street Bridge. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.09 square miles, all of it land. Minnesota State Highway 60 serves as a main route in the community; as of the census of 2010, there were 842 people, 337 households, 234 families residing in the city.
The population density was 772.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 362 housing units at an average density of 332.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 1.2% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 337 households of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 6.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 30.6% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age in the city was 38.4 years. 26% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.0% male and 49.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 778 people, 312 households, 214 families residing in the city.
The population density was 795.7 people per square mile. There were 335 housing units at an average density of 342.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.69% White, 0.39% African American, 1.29% Native American, 0.13% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. There were 312 households out of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.2% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $36,375, the median income for a family was $46,250. Males had a median income of $30,208 versus $21,607 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,509. About 5.7% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 20.5% of those age 65 or over. Students attend the Zumbrota-Mazeppa Public schools jointly with students from the nearby town of Zumbrota as of fall 1987, their mascot, the cougar, is a deviation from the original mascot of the Indians for Mazeppa and the tigers for Zumbrota. The present school colors are silver. Stub Allison - sports coach Steeplechase Ski & Snowboard Area Hurricane Hills Motorcross
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary