Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands. It lies some 30 km northeast of Arnhem, on the eastern bank of the river IJssel at the point where it is joined by the Berkel. First mentioned in the 11th century, the place-name appears to mean "south fen". In 2005, the municipality of Zutphen was merged with the municipality of Warnsveld, retaining its name. In 2019, the municipality had a population of 47,609. In about 300 AD, a Germanic settlement was the first permanent town on a complex of low river dunes. Whereas many such settlements were abandoned in the early Middle Ages, Zutphen on its strategic confluence of IJssel and Berkel stayed. After the incorporation of the IJssel lands in Charlemagne's Francia, Zutphen became a local centre of governance under a count; the Normans raided and ravaged it in 882. Afterwards a circular fortress was built to protect the budding town against Viking attacks. In the eleventh century, Zutphen was a royal residence for a number of years.
The counts of Zutphen acquired a lot of power, until the line of counts became extinct in the twelfth century. After the death of her father and her brother, the heiress of Zutphen married the count of Guelders; the settlement received town rights between 1191 and 1196, making it one of the oldest towns in the country. This allowed it to have a judicial court. Only Utrecht, Deventer preceded it in receiving town rights. Zutphen, in turn, became the mother town of several other towns in Guelders, such as Arnhem, Doesburg, Harderwijk and Emmerich, it became part of the Hanseatic League, a group of towns with great wealth. During the 12th century, coins were minted in Zutphen by the Counts of Guelders and Zutphen: Henry I and Otto I. Although the city had minting rights for a few centuries this was only used during four periods: 1478–1480, 1582–1583, 1604–1605 and 1687–1692; the largest and oldest church of the city is the St. Walburgis church, which dates from the eleventh century; the present Gothic building contains monuments of the former counts of Zutphen, a fourteenth-century candelabrum, an elaborate copper font, a monument to the Van Heeckeren family.
The chapter-house's library contains a pre-Reformation collection, including some valuable manuscripts and incunabula. It is considered one of only five remaining medieval libraries in Europe; this chained library's books are still chained to their ancient wooden desk – a custom from centuries ago, when the "public library" used chains to prevent theft. Having been fortified the town withstood several sieges, specially during the Eighty Years' War, the most celebrated fight under its walls being the Battle of Zutphen in September 1586 when Sir Philip Sidney was mortally wounded. Taken by the Spanish in 1587 by the treachery of the English commander Rowland York, Zutphen was recovered by Maurice, prince of Orange, in 1591, except for two short periods, one in 1672 and the other during the French Revolutionary Wars, it has since remained a part of the Netherlands, its fortifications were dismantled in 1874. In World War II the town was bombed several times by the allied forces because the bridge over the IJssel was vital to support the German troops at Arnhem after the Operation Market Garden.
After two weeks of battle the town was liberated on 14 April 1945. After the war a renovation program started. Nowadays Zutphen has one of the best preserved medieval town centres of northwestern Europe, including the remains of the medieval town wall and a few hundred buildings dating from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries; the old center survived the Second World War in its entirety, though some parts of the city were lost the area around the railway station, in the northern part of the city center, known as the Nieuwstad. The city center includes many monumental buildings dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries, some date back to the 13th century, such as a retirement home area. There are remains of the old town walls in several places. Today, Zutphen is a modern small city; the urban area, which includes the village of Warnsveld, has about 51,000 inhabitants. Food shops are open from 8:30 am and other stores are open from 9:30 am to 6 pm on weekdays, on Friday evening until 9 pm and on Saturday until 5 pm.
Some stores open earlier, the larger supermarkets stay open until 10 pm. Because Zutphen contains a large number of historical buildings with a tower, Zutphen is called the tower city; because there are no modern high-rise buildings in the city centre the historical tower spires are visible and form the skyline of Zutphen. The title of tower city is used in advertising to draw tourists to Zutphen; the Walburgis church was built as a Roman collegiate church around 1050, after that it was redecorated and remodeled on several occasions. There are six bells in the tower. Since 1561 a library called, it was founded as a public library for the rich citizens of Zutphen. These days the library contains an important collection of 15th- to 17th-century books; the Broederen church is a large early 14th-century monastery church of the Dominican order. Since 1983 the church has been used as the city's public library, it was been extensively restored. On
Aparecida Sueli Carneiro Jacoel, best known as Sueli Carneiro is an Afro-Brazilian philosopher and anti-racism activist. Carneiro is the founder and current director of Geledés - Black Women's Institute and a leading author on black feminism in Brazil. Carneiro was born in 1950, in the São Paulo neighborhood of Lapa, the eldest of seven children of José Horácio Carneiro, a railroad worker, Eva Alves Carneiro, a seamstress, she graduated in philosophy at University of São Paulo and got her doctorate in education at the same institution. Carneiro became active in the black feminist movement in Brazil from the late 1970s. In 1983, when the São Paulo state government created the Conselho Estadual da Condição Feminina, Carneiro got involved in a successful campaign for a black woman, the radio broadcaster Marta Arruda, to join the council. In 1988, she founded Geledés — Instituto da Mulher Negra, first independent black feminist organization in São Paulo. Months after, Carneiro was invited to join the Conselho Nacional da Condição Feminina, in Brasília.
Carneiro created the only health program specific for Afro-Brazilian women. Weekly, more than thirty women are attended by psychologists and social workers, participating in lectures on sexuality, contraception and mental health at Geledés headquarters, she created SOS Racismo, a program offering free legal assistance for victims of racial discrimination in São Paulo. Prêmio Benedito Galvão. French Republic Human Rights Award. Prêmio Bertha Lutz Prémio de direitos humanos Franz de Castro Holzwarth Racismo, Sexismo e Desigualdade no Brasil Mulher negra: Política governamental e a mulher with Thereza Santos and Albertina de Oliveira Costa Sueli Carneiro column "Questões de Genero" on Geledés.org.br
Newmarket Workshops in Auckland was a major New Zealand Railways Department facility, one of 13 workshops nationwide. It was one of two main railway workshops of Auckland, used for maintenance; the original Auckland Railway Workshops constructed in 1875 consisted of buildings for machining and blacksmithing work, carriage maintenance, locomotive maintenance and a boiler house. Due to the unsuitable site on which the facilities were constructed, at the beginning of the Northclimb to Newmarket, there were soon plans to relocate the buildings; the Public Works Department announced on 13 October 1879 that it had purchased a suitable site for the workshops in Newmarket. Motivating the workshops relocation was the need to use the land on which the existing buildings were sited to rearrange of the yard for the new Newmarket railway station; the contract for construction of the new workshops was let in March 1883 and completed by 30 November 1883. Relocation of plant and workshop staff to the new site occurred between October 1884 and February 1885.
The new site was on both sides of Remuera Road, from Mahuru Street in the south to just north of the junction with the North Auckland Line, bounded by Broadway on the western side, Middleton Road on the east. Up to 1908, while the Auckland section was isolated from the rest of the North Island rail network, the workshops were responsible for the construction of new carriages and the maintenance of all rolling stock used on the section; this remained the status quo until 1912, when the Auckland Harbour Board initiated a reclamation project that included an area reaching out to Campbell’s Point. Included in this project was a plan to extend King’s Drive out to the point, but in order for this to happen the locomotive depot had to be moved as it straddled the road. Following a Harbour Board request, the Railways Department purchased land at Newmarket; because the land was in a small gully, extensive earthworks were required to prepare the site, which were done by hand with the aid of horse-drawn muck trucks.
Plans to use the new site for the locomotive running shed were abandoned. The idea of moving the engine sheds to Newmarket from the Auckland Railway Station was mooted as early as 1912, cited as one of the reasons why the Parnell Tunnel would have to be duplicated. General Manager E. H. Hiley reported on 1 August 1914 that because its reclaimed land at Mechanics Bay would all be required for an extension of the station yard and other traffic sidings, the locomotive depot would be sited on reclaimed land in Hobson Bay and that the land, designated for this purpose at Newmarket would be used to extend the workshops; the extension of the Newmarket site was delayed by the war, but the land was used for the construction of a carriage and wagon workshop, which freed space in some of the other workshops for locomotive maintenance. It was reported on 21 July 1916 that work on the new workshops was well underway, the new buildings were ready for use towards the end of the year, they included a timber drying shed, a wood mill, a carriage and wagon shop, a lifting shop, a blacksmiths' shop, a tarpaulin shop and a trimming shop.
In 1925 a Royal Commission consisting of two English railwaymen, Sir Sam Fay and Sir Vincent Raven, was asked to report on New Zealand Railways. They made several recommendations regarding workshops around the country for Auckland and Wellington. With respect to the Newmarket site they were critical of the woodworking & machine shop, too small, the yard arrangement was inadequate and the separation of various facilities by Remuera Road necessitated shunting through a busy and congested yard, resulting in costly delays; the Minister of Railways reported in 1928 that it was possible to extend the existing workshops at Hillside and Addington in the South Island, but that the sites of the two main workshops in the North Island, at Newmarket and Petone, were hopelessly inadequate and that land was to be acquired at Otahuhu and Lower Hutt to replace them. The new Otahuhu Workshops were opened after Christmas 1928, Newmarket Workshops closed. Unlike the other main centre workshops, locomotives were not constructed or rebuilt at Newmarket or Otahuhu, which specialised in repair and maintenance work.
The only exceptions weres one FA class in 1896, nine rebuilds of F and L classes. An experimental MacEwan-Pratt Railcar was built at Newmarket in 1912, but it did not prove satisfactory and was dismantled in 1913. New roads and urban development have obliterated most traces of the workshops. Otahuhu Workshops Addington Workshops Hillside Workshops Hutt Workshops New Zealand Railways Department McClare, E. J.. Auckland’s Railway Workshops. Wellington: New Zealand Railway and Locomotive Society. ISBN 0-908573-72-3. Lloyd, W. G.. Register of New Zealand Railways Steam Locomotives 1863-1971. Wellington: Triple M Publications. ISBN 0-9582072-1-6. ONTRACK. "Project DART". Retrieved 7 October 2007. Photographs of Newmarket Workshops held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections