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Æthelred of Mercia

Æthelred was King of Mercia from 675 until 704. He was the son of Penda of Mercia and came to the throne in 675, when his brother, Wulfhere of Mercia, died. Within a year of his accession he invaded Kent. In 679 he defeated his brother-in-law, Ecgfrith of Northumbria, at the Battle of the Trent: the battle was a major setback for the Northumbrians, ended their military involvement in English affairs south of the Humber, it permanently returned the kingdom of Lindsey to Mercia's possession. However, Æthelred was unable to re-establish his predecessors' domination of southern Britain, he was known as a pious and devout Christian king, he made many grants of land to the church. It was during his reign that Theodore, the Archbishop of Canterbury, reorganized the church's diocesan structure, creating several new sees in Mercia and Northumbria. Æthelred befriended Bishop Wilfrid of York when Wilfrid was expelled from his see in Northumbria. Æthelred's wife, was a daughter of King Oswiu, one of the dominant 7th-century Northumbrian kings.

Osthryth was murdered in unknown circumstances in 697, in 704 Æthelred abdicated, leaving the throne to Wulfhere's son Coenred. Æthelred became a monk at Bardney, a monastery which he had founded with his wife, was buried there. Ceolred, Æthelred's son, became king after Coenred. By the 7th century, England was entirely divided into kingdoms ruled by the Anglo-Saxons who had come to Britain two hundred years before; the kingdom of Mercia occupied. The origin of the kingdom is not recorded, but royal genealogies preserved in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Anglian collection agree that the royal houses were descended from a founder named Icel; the earliest Mercian king about whom definite historical information has survived is Penda of Mercia, Æthelred's father. The larger neighbouring kingdoms included Northumbria to the north united from its constituent kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira, East Anglia to the east, Wessex, the kingdom of the West Saxons, to the south. According to Ecclesiastical History of the English People, a history of the English church written by the 8th-century monk Bede, there were seven early Anglo-Saxon rulers who held imperium, or overlordship, over the other kingdoms.

The fifth of these was Edwin of Northumbria, killed at the battle of Hatfield Chase by a combined force including Cadwallon, a British king of Gwynedd, Penda. After Edwin's death, Northumbria fell apart into its two subkingdoms of Bernicia and Deira. Within a year Oswald, Edwin's nephew, killed Cadwallon and reunited the kingdoms, subsequently re-establishing Northumbrian hegemony over the south of England. In 642 Penda killed Oswald at the battle of Maserfield, Northumbria was again divided. Oswald's son Oswiu succeeded to the throne of Bernicia, Osric's son Oswine to Deira, the southern of the two kingdoms. In 655, Oswiu killed Penda at the Battle of the Winwaed. Oswiu installed Peada, a son of Penda, as king of southern Mercia and ruled the northern half himself. A coup in 658 established Wulfhere as king. By the early 670s, Wulfhere had become the most powerful king in southern Britain, with an effective hegemony over all the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms except for Northumbria; the main source for this period is Bede's History, completed in about 731.

Despite its focus on the history of the church, this work provides valuable information about the early Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. For Wessex and Kent, Bede had informants who supplied him with details of the church's history in each province, but he appears to have had no such contact in Mercia, about which he is less well-informed. A further source for this period is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, compiled at the end of the 9th century in Wessex; the Chronicle's anonymous scribe appears to have incorporated much information recorded in earlier periods. Æthelred was the son of Penda of Mercia. Penda's queen, Cynewise, is named by Bede; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives Penda's age as fifty in 626, credits him with a thirty-year reign, but this would put Penda at eighty years old at the time of his death, thought unlikely as two of his sons were young when he was killed. At least as is that Penda was fifty years old at his death, rather than at his accession. Æthelred's date of birth is unknown, but Bede describes Wulfhere as a youth at the time of his accession in 658, so it is he and Æthelred were in their middle teens at that time.

The early sources do not say whether Æthelred was younger than Wulfhere. Nothing is known of Æthelred's childhood, he had another brother and two sisters and Cyneswith. In 674, according to Stephen of Ripon, Wulfhere "stirred up all the southern nations against ", but he was defeated by Oswiu's son Ecgfrith who forced him to surrender Lindsey, to pay tribute. Wulfhere survived the defeat, but died in 675, possibly

Jack Lerole

Aaron "Big Voice Jack" Lerole was a South African singer and penny whistle player. Lerole was a leading performer in the kwela music of 1950s South Africa. Lerole was the bandleader of Elias and His Zig-Zag Jive Flutes, who had an international hit record in 1958 with "Tom Hark", he co-founded the fusion band Mango Groove in 1984, collaborated with Dave Matthews Band, a rock band from the United States. Lerole grew up in the Alexandra township near Johannesburg, in his early teens play penny whistle on the street with his brother Elias. David Ramosa and Zeph Nkabinde started playing with them, to defend themselves from street gang attacks they carried tomahawks; the tune was picked up in the UK and used as the theme music for a television program called The Killing Stones. It was released as a single, rose to number two in the UK Singles Chart in April 1958 selling an estimated three million copies worldwide, it was subsequently covered by various artists including Millie Small in 1964, Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames, The Piranhas in 1980.

In 2009, Lerole's version of the tune was used for the opening credits to Stewart Lee's Comedy Vehicle. The song is a popular fanfare for English football clubs. Although it introduced South African township music to an international audience, "Tom Hark" was only modestly popular within South Africa, the musicians received no remuneration from its success. In 1963 Lerole left the group, started recording solo as "Big Voice Jack", his breakthrough as a solo performer was the single "Blues Ngaphansi", which made him a national star. As the mbaqanga style developed, he took up the saxophone in place of the penny whistle, his popularity was overtaken by younger singers, he continued to record and produced such hits as "Cherry Beat", "Big Voice Jack", "Tully La Fluter" and "Bongo Twang Jive". He flitted from company to company, rejoining his old producer Rupert Bopape now at Gallo Africa's Mavuthela Music Company along the way, he music career revived in the 1970s, he toured in a leading role with several South African musical productions.

In 1984 he co-founded the group Mango Groove. In the early 1990s, South African-born producer Chris du Plessis made a documentary film, The Whistlers, about the music. Subsequently, the original members of Alex Black Mambazo reunited to perform in clubs. Brad Holmes, owner of the Bassline club, became their manager, in 1997 introduced them to South African-born rock star Dave Matthews when he toured the country with his band. Matthews invited Lerole to play at Foxboro Stadium and Giants Stadium during the Dave Matthews Band Summer Tour of 1998. Upon his return and his band recorded the album Colours and Moods at the Bassline; that year, director Johnathan Dorfman released his documentary Back to Alexandra, which chronicles Lerole's US tour with Dave Matthews Band, his return to South Africa. Lerole died in Soweto of throat cancer in 2003. At the 2004 South African Music Awards, he was posthumously honoured with a lifetime achievement award. Spokes Mashiyane Jack Lerole discography at Discogs

William Cook

William, Willie, Bill or Billy Cook may refer to: Billy Cook, English-born footballer who played for Sheffield United Willie Cook, Scottish footballer Billy Cook, Irish footballer who played for Celtic and Everton William Cook, English footballer who played for Darlington and Gateshead Billy Cook, Scottish-born footballer who played for Australia Bill Cook, Australian rules footballer for Carlton Bill Cook, Australian rules footballer for Geelong William Cook, World Champion of English billiards in the 19th century Bill Cook, Canadian ice hockey player in the Hockey Hall of Fame Billy Cook, Australian jockey W. T. Cook, American college sports coach William Cook, English cricketer William Cook, English cricketer William Cook, English cricketer William Hemmings Cook, Canadian fur trader and politician, member of council of Assiniboia William Cook, member of parliament for Lewes Bill Cook, Republican state senator for North Carolina William Cook, British industrialist and politician Sir William Cook, 2nd Baronet, member of parliament Willie Cook, American jazz trumpeter Antony Tudor, English choreographer Will Marion Cook, American composer and violinist William Edwards Cook, American-born expatriate artist, architectural patron, long-time friend of writer Gertrude Stein Will Cook, American writer of westerns William Delafield Cook, Australian artist William Cook, American computer scientist William Richard Joseph Cook, Chief Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence of Great Britain 1966–1970, mathematician and civil servant William Harrison Cook, Canadian chemist William J. Cook, American operations researcher and mathematician William Cook and early-twentieth century creator of the Orpington poultry breeds William Cook, American medical equipment manufacturer William Douglas Cook, founder of Eastwoodhill Arboretum, now the national arboretum of New Zealand William R. Cook, American history professor, collaborator with Ron Herzman Billy Cook, American actor Billy Cook, American mass murderer William Cook, founder of Russellville, Kentucky William W. Cook, American attorney and legal scholar William Cook, English choreographer, better known as Antony Tudor William Cooke

International Commission for Central American Recovery and Development

Established at Duke University in 1987, the International Commission for Central American Recovery and Development was a task force composed of thirty-three scholars and leaders. The commission published its report, Poverty and Hope: A Turning Point in Central America, in 1989 with principles for promoting peace, genuine democracy and equitable development in Central America. Known as the Sanford Commission Report the plan called for immediate action and international cooperation based on learning from history. With numerous proposals for Central America over the years, the commission built upon past experiences; the commission's recommendations represented the deliberations of an international body for regional democracy and development. With brief historical insights, from lessons learned the report's plan of action for a turning point in Central America is an easy to read guide for sustainable development and democracy; the report itself, released "on the eve of the fourth meeting of the Central American Presidents", is a valuable reference for analysis of the region and developments since the time of the commission.

The report noted that the economic expansion following the Second World War is critical to understanding the historical roots of the crisis that Central America faced during the 1970s and 1980s, after the region's economy nearly collapsed from the inability to adjust to international structural changes. While the region averaged unprecedented growth from 1950 to 1978, the strengths of the economy in Central America did not outweigh the faults of exclusionary politics, flawed economic structures, decline of intra-regional trade, external economic setbacks that led to social unrest and civil war. While Zuvekas maintains that the report "does not sufficiently recognize the progress" made throughout the 1980s, the commentator on the commission does believe the "ICCARD is fundamentally sound." From the historical detail on the civil strife that uprooted and caused suffering in the region for over ten years, the international commission provided an immediate plan for action in order to attend to the social impact of the crisis.

The immediate plan to aid those in poverty is followed by a strategy for sustainable development, including the revival of productivity and production, assuring the creation of employment, the development of human resources and monetary reform as well as strategy to conserve natural resources. In sequencing the plan, fiscal reform is noted as a fundamental step to finance the recovery of human resource development from positive, real returns of hard-earned profit. With recognition of the difficulties in sustaining democratic governance in the region, the report discusses building democracy as inseparable from development; the plan for building democracy consists of broadening participation in civil society, advocating respect for human rights with tolerance to instill values of democracy and peace. The international commission report stresses that the fragile institutions representing the interests of those excluded from political processes, the minimal financial resources for mobilizing to provide for the poorest in society, the perceptions of those who hold power are obstacles to progressive reform.

At this point, the report as it was presented addressed the developmental needs of the region rather than on a country-by-country basis, allowing for the "development of more comprehensive policies". The plan to promote democracy thus involves strategy for civilian rule and civil-military relations where: "security is not achieved by repression and military dominance of government. Continued withdrawal of the military from the political scene, their training in democratic political values, the rejection of authoritarian doctrines of national security, the development of effective mechanisms of civilian political control," is critical Central American societies; the commission's plan advises from the need for economic and social justice with a strong role in developing democracy through nongovernmental organizations and the support of the media. For sustainable democracy, the report maintains regional institutions and cooperation are essential, noting The Central American Parliament, The Central American Economic and Social Council, as well as The Central American Court of Justice are vital to facilitating regional integration.

The vision of regional economic planning accordingly "rests on an assumption that political dialogue is the means to resolve both internal and regional conflicts". Historical factions related to integration are detailed, including the central challenges to rebuilding the Free Trade Zone under the "conditionality" of World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the U. S. Agency for International Development structural adjustment programs; the commission suggests that while there are favorable conditions for regional investment and cooperation, the intra-regional debt remains a major obstacle. If integration is to be sustainable and successful, regional institutions must be strengthened the Central American Bank for Economic Integration and the Secretariat of the Central American Monetary Council; the strengthening of these institutions is essential to achieving economic cooperation – or "acting together internationally" in the words of the report – which requires an institutional coherence that the commission suggests the European Community is, "with it long experience in developing regional structures, in an excellent position to provide expertis

Jack Sirocco

Jack Sirocco was a New York City gangster involved in labor racketeering and strikebreaking. A lieutenant in Paul Kelly's Five Points Gang, where he was the immediate boss of Johnny Torrio, Sirocco defected to the rival Eastman Gang, which he led in its last days. Sirocco, known as the main rival of gangster "Dopey" Benny Fein, was an early member of the Five Points Gang, but defected to the Monk Eastman Gang during the gang war in the mid-1900s. Sirocco remained with the gang as manager of the Pearl House dance hall with Johnny Torrio and the satellite James Street Gang, until 1911 when he and Chick Tricker left wounded Eastman leader Jack Zelig behind during a failed robbery. Attempting to gain control of the gang both he and Tricker refused to post bail for Zelig. However, due to Zelig's political connections, the charges against him were dropped. Upon Zelig's release Sirocco and Tricker planned Zelig's death, sending Eastman member Jules Morrello to murder Zelig. Zelig, was informed of the attempt by Ike the Plug and killed Morrello during a party at the Stuyvesant Casino Hall on December 2, 1911.

This would begin a civil war between the two Eastman factions that would last for nearly a year until Zelig's death in 1912. Sirocco and Tricker tried to lead the Eastman Gang after Monk Eastman returned to lead the Eastmans, but by that time the civil war had destroyed what was left of the gang. Sirocco formed another gang, hiring out to strikebreakers and labor sluggers, competing with rival "Dopey" Benny Fein as the two struggled for control of labor slugging in New York's East Side during the early 1910s. In November 1913 the two gangs clashed as Sirocco's gang, hired by the Feldman Hat Company as strikebreakers against union workers protected by Benny Fein's gang escalated into a major gunfight in which Fein lieutenant Max Greenwalt was killed. Benny Fein planned an ambush to eliminate the Sirocco gang as they were attending a local dance at Arlington Hall on January 9, 1914; however the ambush turned into a major battle lasting several hours and, while neither gang suffered any casualties, Deputy Court Clerk Frederick Strauss investigating the battle, was killed in the crossfire.

In the ensuing scandal and the police crackdown, Sirocco disappeared from New York's underworld soon after the incident. Fried, Albert; the Rise and Fall of the Jewish Gangster in America. New York: Holt and Winston, 1980. ISBN 0-231-09683-6 Pietrusza, David. Rothstein: The Life and Murder of the Criminal Genius Who Fixed the 1919 World Series. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2003. ISBN 0-7867-1250-3 Asbury, Herbert; the Gangs of New York. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1928. ISBN 1-56025-275-8

Javier Laynez Potisek

Javier Laynez Potisek is a Mexican jurist and since December 10, 2015, a member of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation of Mexico. He holds a Law Degree from the Regiomontana University and a Master's in Tax Administration, a Master's in Public Law and a Doctor of Public Law from the Paris-Dauphine University of Paris IX Dauphine, he has been a professor of Administrative Law and Regulation, Legal Structure of the Mexican State, at the undergraduate and master's level, at the Colegio de México and at the Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Económicas, speaker at various seminars and conferences in academic institutions, international forums, public institutions. He is the author of several publications in the areas of Constitutional Law and Public Administration, he has participated in a series of studies on Comparative Law, including the English, North American and Chilean Legal System, related to the implementation of the new Accusatory Criminal System, which has allowed The table various reforms to criminal law in our country with the aim of creating a solid legal platform that operates in a practical way for the treatment of tax and financial crimes.

On December 10th 2015 he was ratified by the Senate of the Republic as Minister of the Supreme Court of the Nation with 81 votes in favor. He began his career in 1983, within the Fiscal Prosecutor's Office of the Federation, at the time acting as Attorney-at-Law, following up contentious trials before the Fiscal Tribunal of the Federation, he spent the next five years in the city of Paris, doing his Masters and PhD studies. Entered as Director of Legislation and Normativity in the former Secretariat of Programming and Budget in the year 1990. In 1992, assumed the position of Director of Normativity within the Secretariat of Public Education, in which I performed functions until the year of 1994, standing out between them, The preparation and implementation of the decentralization system of basic education in the country. In May 2005 entered like holder of the Legal Assistant and International Affairs of the Attorney General of the Republic, where as main successes had to litigate before the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation the necessary criteria for the implementation and respect of bilateral international agreements on extradition, the promotion and follow-up of federal trials filed by the Attorney General's Office on behalf of the Federation, chairing the Professionalization Committee, Of the police and ministerial career, with special emphasis on training and education in the field of human rights to police officers, as well as participate in the elaboration and negotiation of the Constitutional and Legal Reform in Narcomenudeo.

Dr. Javier Laynez Potisek was Deputy Legal Adviser of the Federal Executive during the six years of the Presidents: Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon and Vicente Fox Quezada where he had among its main functions to be a member of the initiatives Of constitutional and legal reforms in the area of comprehensive reform of the public security and justice system, creation of the Federal Judicial Council and the implementation of controversies and actions of unconstitutionality, as well as participation in the drafting and negotiations of the reform Constitution for the recognition of the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court. In the legislative part, it emphasizes, the energy reform as well as the decisive participation in the reform of the Public Administration, that proposed President Felipe Calderón Hinojosa, compacting the administrative structures. Under his administration, favorable sentences were obtained in the Issste Law, having more than 100,000 amparos gained; as regards the IETU Law, a favorable judgment was obtained in the first instance.

In the case of criminal investigations, the number of arrest warrants for crimes committed against the treasury within the scope of the powers of the Office of the Attorney General has increased, while it has been responsible for litigating financial criminal matters arising from the crisis 2008. Dr. Javier Laynez Potisek has been professor in different universities of Law and Academic Institutions in Mexico in which they stand out: Professor of Administrative Law I. Center for Research and Economic Teaching. Professor of the Master in Public Management. Center for Research and Economic Teaching. Professor of Legal Structure of the Mexican State in the Master's in Public Administration. Center for Research and Economic Teaching. Professor of the Administrative Law Course. Training Program for Tax Lawyers of the Tax Administration Service. Professor of Administrative and Tax Law; the Colegio de México. Professor of Income Tax. National College for Professional Education. Professor of Tax Law I and Tax Law II.

Universidad Regiomontana, Faculty of Accounting. Member of the Advisory Board of the Master in Administrative Law. Autonomous Technological Institute of Mexico. Member of the Academic Council of the Degree of Degree in Law. Center for Economic Research and Teaching. Speaker in different forums, seminars and conferences.: National Autonomous University of Mexico, Chamber of Deputies, Autonomous Technological Institute of Mexico, Tax Administration Service, Federal District Department, Universidad Anáhuac. Throughout his career, Dr. Javier Laynez Potisek has earned himself several awards including: Presea Isidro Fabela to Public Merit; the Silver Medal of Honor granted