SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Penda of Mercia

Penda was a 7th-century King of Mercia, the Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is today the English Midlands. A pagan at a time when Christianity was taking hold in many of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Penda took over the Severn Valley in 628 following the Battle of Cirencester before participating in the defeat of the powerful Northumbrian king Edwin at the Battle of Hatfield Chase in 633. Nine years he defeated and killed Edwin's eventual successor, Oswald, at the Battle of Maserfield, he defeated the East Angles and drove Cenwalh the king of Wessex into exile for three years. He continued to wage war against the Bernicians of Northumbria. Thirteen years after Maserfield, he suffered a crushing defeat by Oswald's successor and brother Oswiu, was killed at the Battle of the Winwaed in the course of a final campaign against the Bernicians; the source for Penda's life which can most securely be called the earliest, and, the most detailed, is Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Penda appears prominently in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, whose sources and so reliability for this period are unclear, in the early ninth-century Historia Brittonum, which adds a little more reliable information to Bede's account.

He seems to be mentioned, as Panna ap Pyd, in the seventh-century Welsh praise-poem Marwnad Cynddylan, which says of Cynddylan:'pan fynivys mab pyd mor fu parawd'. Penda and his family seem to have given their names to a number of places in the West Midlands, including Pinbury and Pinvin; the etymology of the name Penda is unknown. Penda of Mercia is the only person recorded in the comprehensive Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England with this name. Suggestions for etymologies of the name are divided between a Celtic and a Germanic origin; the names of members of a Northumbrian brotherhood are recorded in the ninth-century Liber vitae Dunelmensis. John T. Koch noted that, "Penda and a number of other royal names from early Anglian Mercia have more obvious Brythonic than German explanations, though they do not correspond to known Welsh names." These royal names include those of Penda's father Pybba, of his son Peada. It has been suggested that the firm alliance between Penda and various British princes might be the result of a "racial cause."Continental Germanic comparanda for the name include a feminine Penta and a toponym Penti-lingen, suggesting an underlying personal name Pendi.

Penda was a son of Pybba of Mercia and said to be an Icling, with a lineage purportedly extending back to Wōden. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives his descent as follows: Penda was Pybba's offspring, Pybba was Cryda's offspring, Cryda Cynewald's offspring, Cynewald Cnebba's offspring, Cnebba Icel's offspring, Icel Eomer's offspring, Eomer Angeltheow's offspring, Angeltheow Offa's offspring, Offa Wermund's offspring, Wermund Wihtlæg's offspring, Wihtlæg Woden's offspring; the Historia Brittonum says that Pybba had 12 sons, including Penda, but that Penda and Eowa of Mercia were those best known to its author. Besides Eowa, the pedigrees give Penda a brother named Coenwalh from whom two kings were said to descend, although this may instead represent his brother-in-law Cenwalh of Wessex; the time at which Penda became king is uncertain. Another Mercian king, Cearl, is mentioned by Bede as ruling at the same time as the Northumbrian king Æthelfrith, in the early part of the 7th century. Whether Penda succeeded Cearl is unknown, it is unclear whether they were related, if so how closely.

It is possible that Cearl and Penda were dynastic rivals. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Penda became king in 626, ruled for 30 years, was 50 years old at the time of his accession; that he ruled for 30 years should not be taken as an exact figure, since the same source says he died in 655, which would not correspond to the year given for the beginning of his reign unless he died in the thirtieth year of his reign. Furthermore, that Penda was 50 years old at the beginning of his reign is doubted by historians because of the ages of his children; the idea that Penda, at about 80 years of age, would have left behind children who were still young has been considered implausible. The possibility has been suggested that the Chronicle meant to say that Penda was 50 years old at the time of his death, therefore about 20 in 626. Bede, in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, says of Penda that he was "a most warlike man of the royal race of the Mercians" and that, following Edwin of Northumbria's defeat in 633, he ruled the Mercians for 22 years with varying fortune.

The noted 20th-century historian Frank Stenton was of the opinion that the language used by Bede "leaves no doubt that... Penda, though descended from the royal family of the Mercians, only became their king after Edwin's defeat"; the Historia Brittonum accords Penda a reign of only ten years dating it from the time of the Battle of Maserfield around 642, although according to the accepted chronology this would still be more

TV Channel 16/12

TV channel 16/12 — is the only independent news TV channel in Kazakhstan. The Kazakhstan’s authorities have tried to stop the broadcasting of Channel 16/12; the Channel’s employees were intimidated, their offices were searched and the equipment needed for their work seized. In 2014, officers of the National Security Committee of Kazakhstan, along with law enforcement officers of Russia, burst into the office of the production company, making videos for the TV Channel 16/12, they withdrew hard discs from the operating computers and took them away. Soon after that, a similar search was conducted in the Astana office of a company, making videos for the opposition channel. During the search, the equipment needed for their work was seized. Prior to this, Sanat Urnaliyev, journalist of TV Channel 16/12, Viktor Gudz, the cameraman, were subjected to administrative arrest on a fake charge, along with a correspondent of Radio Azattyk, the Kazakh service of the Radio Liberty. Other employees of the Channel were subjected to administrative arrest on fake charges as well.

For instance, Dmitri Schelokov was arrested for 15 days for appearing in front of the administrative Court building to support the arrested journalist Andrei Tsukanov. Prior to this, Dmitri Schelokov and Rinat Kibrayev had been arrested for 10 days for intending to take part in the meeting with Akim Akhmetzhan Yesimov arranged for Almaty bloggers. Apart from blocking the access for the journalists with no reasons offered, they were put behind the bars. On 11 July 2014, the Almaty inter-district administrative court sentenced correspondent Andrei Tsukanov to 15 days of arrest for covering the protest action of flat letters against the arbitrariness of police officers. Tsukanov was detained. During the arrest, the police officers beat Andrei and confiscated his press ID. TV Channel 16/12's channel on YouTube

Maserati 3200 GT

The Maserati 3200 GT is a four-seater grand tourer produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Maserati from 1998 to 2002, replacing the Shamal as the flagship grand tourer of the marque. The luxury coupé was designed by Italdesign, whose founder and head Giorgetto Giugiaro designed, among others, the Ghibli and Merak. Interior design was commissioned to Enrico Fumia and completed by 1995. 4,795 cars were produced before it was replaced by the Maserati Coupé. The 3200 GT was announced in July 1998 and was presented to the press in September by Luca Cordero di Montezemolo, in the presence of veteran Maserati racing driver Sir Stirling Moss and Giorgetto Giugiaro; the car made its public debut at the October 1998 Mondial de l'Automobile in Paris. Maserati wanted to name the car "Mistral" but after discovering that Volkswagen owned the copyrights to the name, decided to name the car 3200 GT, its name honoured the company's first series production grand tourer. Sold in Europe, the 3200 GT was powered by the twin-turbocharged, 32-valve, dual overhead cam 3.2-litre V8 engine featured in the Quattroporte Evoluzione, rated at 370 PS against the Quattroporte's 335 PS and achieved 116 PS per litre.

The manual transmission model was produced until 2001. The tail-lights consisted of LEDs arranged in the shape of a boomerang; the outer layer of the'boomerang' provided the brake light, with the inner layer providing the directional indicator. This was the world's first car with LED taillights. Deliveries started in March 1999. In total 2,689 manual GT models were produced. In 1999, an automatic transmission equipped model of the 3200 GT became available, either referred to as 3200 GT Automatica or 3200 GTA. Introduced at the March 1999 Geneva Motor Show, it was equipped with a 4-speed conventional torque converter automatic transmission supplied by Australian firm BTR. Engine output remained unchanged, though the engine was set up for the automatic transmission. In Italy the Automatica commanded a 7 million Lire premium over the 3200 GT's 149.5 million Lire list price. This model was produced until 2002. In June 1999 the 1,000th 3200 GT left the factory. In total 2,106 GTA cars were produced. Presented to the public at the 2001 Geneva Motor Show, the 3200 GT Assetto Corsa was a limited edition variant of the 3200 GT with a special handling package.

Limited to 259 units, 3 of which were special orders, it was available in three standard colours: Grigio Touring, Nero Carbonio and Rosso Mondiale. The Assetto Corsa was lowered by 15 mm, had larger front anti-roll bar, stiffer springs, soft compound Pirelli P Zero Corsa tyres on dark grey or silver painted BBS alloy wheels, specific brake ventilation ducts; the interior featured black perforated Connolly leather seats with red stitching and'Assetto Corsa' script on the sill kick panels. Both kerb weight and performance were unchanged from their regular counterparts. Production was divided between 96 automatic cars; the 3200 GT's coupé body seats four people and has a drag coefficient of Cd=0.34. The steel unibody structure was complemented by a front tubular subframe supporting the drivetrain and a rear subframe supporting the suspension links and the differential. Suspension was of the double wishbone type all around, with forged aluminium control arms and uprights, coaxial aluminium-bodied dampers and coil springs, two anti-roll bars.

The gearbox was in line with the front-mounted engine, transmitted power to the rear limited slip differential via a two-piece aluminium driveshaft. Brembo supplied the braking system, consisting of vented and cross-drilled discs with four-piston callipers on all four wheels. Active safety systems included a four channel anti-lock braking system and Bosch ASR traction control system; the all-aluminium V8 engine had two overhead camshafts per bank operating four valves per cylinder, two crossflow turbochargers, a crossplane crankshaft. The engine itself weighs 221 kg; the Maserati 320S is a concept racing car in a barchetta bodystyle designed by Italdesign Giugiaro and based on the 3200 GT. It was first shown at the 2001 Geneva Motor Show as a glimpse of an open top Maserati model. A true barchetta design, the 320S was a single-seater and was outfitted for competition with six-point racing belts, an exposed roll bar behind the driver, fire extinguishing system and racing seat supplied by Sparco.

Compared to the 3200 GT, the 320S's wheelbase was shortened by 22 cm, while the engine remained the same as the 3200 GT with a 6-speed manual transmission. Bodywork of the 320S features modifications to the aerodynamic shaping of the spoiler on the rear bumper, which features a supplementary nolder to increase the vertical load to the rear. Maserati 3200 GT official website