click links in text for more info


Écarté is an old French casino game for two players, still played today. It is a trick-taking game, similar to whist, but with a eponymous discarding phase. Écarté was popular in the 19th century, but is now played. It is described as "an elegant two-player derivative of Triomphe quite fun to play" and a "classic that should be known to all educated card players." All cards from two to six are removed from a 52-card pack, to produce the Piquet pack of thirty-two cards, which rank from the lowest 7, 8, 9, 10, knave, queen, to king high. Note that the ace ranks between ten and knave, making the king the highest card; the players cut to determine the dealer, who deals five cards each in packets of two and three, or three and two, either to whim or some agreement. The eleventh card is dealt face up to determine the trump suit. If this card is a king, the dealer can mark an extra point for himself; the elder hand is entitled, if that player so desires, to begin the exchange—a crucial part of the game.

This involves discarding cards in order to improve their hand with fresh cards from the remaining pack. To make an exchange, the elder hand must make a proposal to the dealer of a specific number of cards; the dealer must decide whether or not to accept. If the dealer accepts the elder hand must propose a discard and the dealer should deal the same number of fresh cards from the pack. Once cards have been discarded, they looked at. If the proposal was accepted the elder hand can make another proposal, if desired, can go on making proposals as long as the dealer accepts them; this process ends and play begins either at the point that the elder hand chooses not to propose, or the dealer refuses to accept, or the stock of remaining cards runs out. The elder hand is under no obligation to make any exchange at all. If no initial proposal is made, the elder hand becomes a vulnerable player, leaving the dealer with a chance of scoring an extra point; the dealer suffers the same liability and becomes vulnerable if they refuse the initial proposal made by the opponent.

After the initial proposal, the elder hand can decline to propose further and the dealer can refuse to accept at any point, without either player becoming vulnerable. Before playing the first card, if either player holds the king of trumps, they can mark an extra point for themselves by announcing it, they do not have to forfeit the right if they forget to do so before starting play. The play begins with the elder hand leading the initial trick, after which the winner of the previous trick leads the next. If it is possible to follow suit the other player must always do so; the trick is won by the highest card in the suit led. If a trump card is played the highest trump wins the trick. If a player can win the trick they must do so. One point is scored by the dealer by dealing the king face up as the eleventh card. One point is scored by marking the king of trumps in a hand. One point is scored by the player winning the most tricks. One extra point is scored by the winning player if he wins all five tricks.

One extra point is scored by defeating a vulnerable player. Five points wins the game; the rules of Écarté, as were accepted by the principal clubs in London at the start of the 20th century, cited in Cavendish, are as follows: Each player has a right to shuffle both his own and his adversary's pack. The dealer has the right to shuffle last; the pack must be shuffled neither below the table, nor in such a manner as to expose the faces of the cards, nor during the play of the hand. A cut must consist of at least two cards, at least two must be left in the lower packet. A player exposing more than one card when cutting for deal must cut again; the player who cuts the highest Écarté card deals, has choice of cards and seats. The choice determines both cards during the play; the cut for deal holds good if the pack be incorrect. If in cutting to the dealer a card be exposed, there must be a fresh cut; the dealer must give five cards to his adversary and five to himself, by two at a time to each, by three at a time to each, or vice versa.

The dealer, having selected the order in which he will distribute the cards, must not change it during that game. If the dealer give more or fewer than five cards to his adversary or to himself, or do not adhere to the order of distribution first selected, the error be discovered before the trump card is turned, the non-dealer, before he looks at his hand, may require the dealer to rectify the error, or may claim a fresh deal; the hands having been dealt, the dealer must turn up for trumps the top card of those remaining. If the dealer turn up more than one card, the non-dealer, before he looks at his hand, may choose which of the exposed cards shall be the trump, or may claim a fresh deal. Should the non-dealer have looked at his hand, there must be a fresh deal. If, before the trump card is turned up, a faced card be discovered in the pack, there must be a fresh deal. If the dealer expose any of his own cards the deal stands good. If he expose any of his adversary's cards, the non-dealer, before he looks at his hand, may claim a fresh deal.

If a player deal out of his turn, or with his adversary's pack, the error be discovered before the trump card is turned up, the deal is void. After the trump card is turned up, it is too late to rectify the error, if the adversary's pa

Abida secale

Abida secale is a species of small air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Chondrinidae. The distribution of this species is Western Alpine regions; this species is known to occur in a number of Western European countries and islands including: Great Britain: England Sardinia Switzerland and other areas This species only occurs on calcareous rocks. This species has a number of named subspecies: Abida secale secale Abida secale cadiensis Gittenberger, 1973 Abida secale lilietensis Abida secale margaridae Bech, 1988 Abida secale branopsis Abida secale vilellai Kokshoorn & Gittenberger, 2010 Abida secale peteri Kokshoorn & Gittenberger, 2010 Abida secale merijni Kokshoorn & Gittenberger, 2010 Abida secale ionicae Kokshoorn & Gittenberger, 2010 Abida secale at AnimalBase


In nuclear strategy, a counterforce target is one that has a military value, such as a launch silo for intercontinental ballistic missiles, an airbase at which nuclear-armed bombers are stationed, a homeport for ballistic missile submarines, or a command and control installation. The intent of a counterforce strategy is to do a pre-emptive nuclear strike whose aim is to disarm an adversary by destroying its nuclear weapons before they can be launched; that would minimize the impact of a retaliatory second strike. However, counterforce attacks are possible in a second strike as well with weapons like UGM-133 Trident II. A counterforce target is distinguished from a countervalue target, which includes an adversary's population, economic, or political resources. In other words, a counterforce strike is against an adversary's military, a countervalue strike is against an adversary's cities. A related tactic is the decapitation strike, which destroys an enemy's nuclear command and control facilities and has a goal to eliminate or reduce the enemy's ability to launch a second strike.

In nuclear warfare, enemy targets are divided into two types: countervalue. A counterforce target is an element of the military infrastructure either specific weapons or the bases that support them. A counterforce strike is an attack that targets those elements but leaving the civilian infrastructure, the countervalue targets, as undamaged as possible. Countervalue refers to the targeting of an opponent's cities and civilian populations. An ideal counterforce attack would kill no civilians. Military attacks are prone to causing collateral damage when nuclear weapons are employed. In nuclear terms, many military targets are located near civilian centers, a major counterforce strike that uses relatively small nuclear warheads against a nation would inflict many civilian casualties; the requirement to use ground burst strikes to destroy hardened targets would produce far more fallout than the air bursts used to strike countervalue targets, which introduces the possibility that a counterforce strike would cause more civilian casualties over the medium term than a countervalue strike.

Counterforce weapons may be seen to provide more credible deterrence in future conflict by providing options for leaders. One option considered by the Soviet Union in the 1970s was basing missiles in orbit. Counterforce is a type of attack, proposed during the Cold War; because of the low accuracy of early generation intercontinental ballistic missiles, counterforce strikes were possible only against large, undefended targets like bomber airfields and naval bases. Later-generation missiles, with much-improved accuracy, made possible counterforce attacks against the opponent's hardened military facilities, like missile silos and command and control centers. Both sides in the Cold War took steps to protect at least some of their nuclear forces from counterforce attacks. At one point, the US kept B-52 Stratofortress bombers permanently in flight so that they would remain operational after any counterforce strike. Other bombers were kept ready for launch on short notice, allowing them to escape their bases before intercontinental ballistic missiles, launched from land, could destroy them.

The deployment of nuclear weapons on ballistic missile submarines changed the equation as submarines launching from positions off the coast would destroy airfields before bombers could launch, which would reduce their ability to survive an attack. Submarines themselves, are immune from counterforce strikes unless they are moored at their naval bases, both sides fielded many such weapons during the Cold War. A counterforce exchange was one scenario mooted for a possible limited nuclear war; the concept was. That would leave the military capability of both sides destroyed; the war might come to an end because both sides would recognize that any further action would lead to attacks on the civilian population from the remaining nuclear forces, a countervalue strike. Critics of that idea claimed that since a counterforce strike would kill millions of civilians since some strategic military facilities like bomber airbases were located near large cities; that would make it unlikely. MIRVed land-based ICBMs are considered destabilizing because they tend to put a premium on striking first.

For example, suppose that each side has 100 missiles, with 5 warheads each, each side has a 95 percent chance of neutralizing the opponent's missiles in their silos by firing 2 warheads at each silo. In that case, the side that strikes first can reduce the enemy ICBM force from 100 missiles to about 5 by firing 40 missiles with 200 warheads and keeping the remaining 60 missiles in reserve. For such an attack to be successful, the warheads would have to strike their targets before the enemy launched a counterattack; this type of weapon was therefore banned under the START II agreement, not ratified and therefore ineffectual. R-36M. Deployed in 1976, this counterforce MIRV ICBM had single or 10 MIRV warheads, with a circular error probable of 250 m. Targeted against Minuteman III silos as well as CONUS command and communications facilities. Has sufficient throw-weight to carry up to 10 RVs and 40 penaids. Still in service. RS

Lou Pote

Louis William Pote is an American former professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the Anaheim Angels and Cleveland Indians. Pote was drafted by the San Francisco Giants in 1990, he began his professional career the following season with the Arizona League Giants, continued to pitch in the Giants farm system until 1995, when he was traded to the Montreal Expos. He was released by Montreal near the end of spring training in 1997 signing with the St. Louis Cardinals in August, he became a free agent at the end of the season. After pitching for the Midland Angels in 1998, he was promoted to the Triple-A Edmonton Trappers in 1999, he was called up to the major leagues in August, making his debut on August 11. It was in 2001, while pitching for the Angels, that Pote caused mild-mannered Seattle Mariners DH Edgar Martínez to charge the mound for the first and only time in his career. Pote was released by the Angels in January 2003, he spent one season in NPB before returning to North America.

Pote returned to the Cardinals prior to the 2004 season, but his contract was sold to the Indians in May. He returned to the major leagues in June, pitching in two games for Cleveland, before being released from his contract, he signed with the San Diego Padres organization, finishing the season with their top farm club, the Portland Beavers. After spending 2005–06 in the Texas Rangers organization, Pote signed a contract with the Edmonton Cracker-Cats for the 2007 Northern League season and finished in the top 10 in pitching. In 2008, he played for Chinese Professional Baseball League's Uni-President 7-Eleven Lions. In 2009, Pote returned to Edmonton with the Capitals, who at the time played in the Golden Baseball League, he started the 2010 season with the Dorados de Chihuahua in the Mexican League, but pitched in just eight games before returning to the Capitals. He retired with the Capitals in 2011 after winning the NABL championship and getting the honors of MVP. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference

James B. Herrick

James Bryan Herrick was an American physician and professor of medicine who practiced and taught in Chicago. He is credited with the description of sickle-cell disease and was one of the first physicians to describe the symptoms of myocardial infarction. Herrick was born in Oak Park, Illinois, of parents Origen White Herrick and Dora Kettlestrings Herrick, he attended River Forest High School and nearby Rock River Seminary. He received a BA degree from the University of Michigan in 1882, after which he taught school in Peoria and Oak Park. Herrick married Zellah P. Davies of Oak Park. After a few years of teaching in the public schools he entered Rush Medical College, received a medical degree in 1888, he interned at Cook County Hospital. He obtained a part-time teaching position at Rush College, was listed as a full professor there from 1900 through 1927, he was on the staff of Presbyterian Hospital in Chicago from 1895 through 1945. Herrick taught at various Chicago hospitals, his first discovery, in 1910, was that of sickle-shaped red blood cells on the blood film of a medical student from Grenada.

His description of the student's disease was known for many years as Herrick's syndrome, is now known as sickle-cell disease. The condition is prevalent in West Africa. Herrick's second major contribution was a landmark article on myocardial infarction in JAMA in 1912, he proposed that thrombosis in the coronary artery leads to the symptoms and abnormalities of heart attacks and that this was not fatal. While Herrick was not the first to propose this his article was the most influential, although at the time it received only limited attention. In 1918 he was one of the first to encourage electrocardiography in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Herrick is not associated with genetics, but his discoveries turned out to be inherited traits, so his contributions pointed other researchers toward genetically-based conditions. A Handbook of Medical Diagnosis for Students - 435 pages James Bryan Herrick - an appreciation - a compilation of Herrick papers, edited by William W. Holmes. Published in 1935 LCCN: 36014236 LC: R154.

H38H6 Herrick served as president of several medical associations, including the Chicago Pathological Society, the Chicago Society of Internal Medicine, the Association of American Physicians, the American Heart Association, the Institute of Medicine, the Society of Medical History. He received an honorary degree from the University of Michigan, an honorary degree from UM, he received the George H. Kober Medal from the Association of American Physicians. Herrick received the Distinguished Service Cross from the American Medical Association, he traveled several times to Europe. He participated in and supported the Chicago Literary Club all his life, he was an avid student of Geoffrey Chaucer's writings. The collected papers were donated to Rush Medical College after his death. A portion of his collected papers had been donated to the University of Chicago before his death, he is commemorated by a memorial lecture. Herrick JB. "Peculiar elongated and sickle-shaped red blood corpuscles in a case of severe anemia".

Archives of Internal Medicine. 6: 517–21. Doi:10.1001/archinte.1910.00050330050003. PMC 2588723. PMID 11501714. Archived from the original on 2010-11-19. Retrieved 2009-07-22. Herrick JB. "Landmark article. Clinical features of sudden obstruction of the coronary arteries. By James B. Herrick". JAMA. 250: 1757–65. Doi:10.1001/jama.250.13.1757. PMID 6350634. Herrick JB. "Concerning thrombosis of the coronary arteries". Transactions of the Association of American Physicians. 33: 408–15. Hammerschmidt DE. "About the cover illustration: James Herrick and the description of sickle-cell disease". Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 139: 126. Doi:10.1067/mlc.2002.122233. PMID 11926226. Cheng TO. "James Herrick, sickle cell disease, the thrombogenic theory of myocardial infarction". The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 140: 126. Doi:10.1067/mlc.2002.125906. PMID 12228769. Hammerschmidt DE. "James Herrick and the description of sickle-cell disease". The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 139: 126. PMID 11926226.

Haller JO, Berdon WE, Franke H. "Sickle cell anemia: the legacy of the patient, the interne, the attending physician and the facts of its discovery". Pediatric Radiology. 31: 889–90. Doi:10.1007/s002470100014. PMID 11727028. James TN. "Homage to James B. Herrick: a contemporary look at myocardial infarction and at sickle-cell heart disease: the 32nd Annual Herrick Lecture of the Council on Clinical Cardiology of the American Heart Association". Circulation. 101: 1874–87. Doi:10.1161/01.cir.101.15.1874. PMID 10769291. Acierno LJ, Worrell LT. "James Bryan Herrick". Clinical Cardiology. 23: 230–2. Doi:10.1002/clc.4960230322. PMC 6655071. PMID 10761818. Ramanan SV. "James Bryan Herrick: a man of intellectual muscle". Connecticut Medicine. 62: 601–4. PMID 9821724. Willerson JT. "James B. Herrick Memorial Lecture". Circulation. 89: 1875–81. Doi:10.1161/01.cir.89.4.1875. PMID 8149552. Sobel BE. "The structure of cardiological revolutions. James B. Herrick

Martin Newell (musician)

Martin Newell is an English singer-songwriter, poet and author who leads the Cleaners from Venus, a guitar pop band with jangly, upbeat arrangements. He is regarded as a significant figure in the history of cassette culture and DIY music, his most popular work is The Greatest Living Englishman, produced by Andy Partridge of XTC. In the summer of 1973, a 20-year-old Newell joined the glam-rock band Plod as their lead singer, replacing founder member and lead singer Steve Travis. Plod was signed to London-based indie label Banjul Records in early 1975, began recording tracks for an album. However, contractual irregularities and financial problems at the label prevented the album from being finished or released, the band broke up within a few months of being signed. In 2003, one track from the sessions was released on a 70s glam-rock compilation CD titled Velvet Tinmine; this track was credited to The Plod, remains the only issued work by the band. Newell joined Gypp, a pop-oriented progressive rock band, as lead singer.

Gypp played abroad and became popular in Germany's North Rhine-Westphalia area thanks to their live performances. Gypp issued one 3-song 7-inch EP in 1978, but their music was out of step with the punk-oriented trends of the UK music scene at the time and the EP received a negative review in the New Musical Express. Demoralised, Newell left the band. By his own account, he became a "musical recluse", staying in the studio and creating new songs but not playing live gigs for many years. In the late seventies, Newell led, they recorded material in 1979 and 1980, but it was not released until 1982 after the band had broken up. In the meantime, Newell issued his first solo single on vinyl in 1980. By the end of 1980, he was collaborating with Lawrence "Lol" Elliot as The Cleaners from Venus, a band that released their work on cassettes outside the traditional music distribution channels. By 1983, The Cleaners from Venus had evolved into a band with a floating line-up that featured Newell as its only constant.

The band still issued material on cassette, got signed to the West German independent label Modell Records for one vinyl album and to the German leg of RCA Records which released two albums. Giles Smith joined Newell as the only other official member of Cleaners From Venus between 1986 and 1988, in 1987, Newell returned to performing live under The Cleaners of Venus banner; as well, while releasing Cleaners From Venus material on cassette, through the 1980s Newell occasionally released cassette singles and albums under his own name. On these solo releases he was the only musician; the Brotherhood of Lizards was another Newell band, active in 1988–89. It was a joint venture between Newell and the multi-instrumentalist known as Nelson. In 1993, Newell began working as a solo artist with more conventional production values, his first non-cassette solo album, The Greatest Living Englishman, was produced by XTC's Andy Partridge and had some songs arranged by Dave Gregory, was a critical success. Commercially, it remains his most successful album.

It was followed by three more albums and an EP that continued to explore the same subject matter as Englishman, including the charms of rural or small-town English life and portraits of characters and scenes. Newell has made live appearances with The Cleaners from Venus and The Stray Trolleys in the 1990s and beyond, has issued several post-1993 live recordings with these bands. However, studio releases credited to these groups post-1993 are all CD reissues of pre-1993 material released only on cassette. In addition, Gypp played reunion gigs in 1996, live Gypp material – as well as Gypp demos recorded in the late 1970s – have now been issued on CD. In 2004 Newell released an album of The Light Programme; the album was not successful commercially but his next album A Summer Tamarind returned to his usual style and was much more warmly received. In late 2005 the British singer Richard Shelton released a jazz vocal album called Top Cat with five Newell compositions. Newell's songs have been recorded by Miki Huber, The Jennifers, Kerry Getz, R.

Stevie Moore and Alphaville. Newell is better known to some as a author. In 2007 he released a volume of reminiscences and historical information about his beloved Wivenhoe, he is a weekly contributor of poetry to The Sunday Express, He now writes a weekly column for the East Anglian Daily Times, performs annually at the Essex Book Festival and issues spoken word recordings of his poems. I Hank Marvinned... 16-page booklet of poems. OCLC 505070831. Under Milk Float. Colchester: The Greyhound Press, 1992. Illustrated by Barry Woodcock. ISBN 0-9519100-0-0. 60-page book of poems The Illegible Bachelor. Colchester: Festival Books, 1996. ISBN 0-9519100-5-1. Poems Poetic Licence: The Best of 1990–1996. Ipswich: Jardine Press, 1996. ISBN 0-9525594-2-0. Poems Wild Man of Wivenhoe. Jardine Press, 1996. Illustrated by James D