The École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne is a research institute and university in Lausanne, that specializes in natural sciences and engineering. It is one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, it has three main missions: education and technology transfer at the highest international level. EPFL is regarded as a world leading university; the QS World University Rankings ranks EPFL 12th in the world across all fields in their 2017/2018 ranking, whilst Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranks EPFL as the world's 11th best school for Engineering and Technology. EPFL is located in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Associated with several specialised research institutes, the two universities form the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain, directly dependent on the Federal Department of Economic Affairs and Research. In connection with research and teaching activities, EPFL operates a nuclear reactor CROCUS, a Tokamak Fusion reactor, a Blue Gene/Q Supercomputer and P3 bio-hazard facilities.
The roots of modern-day EPFL can be traced back to the foundation of a private school under the name École spéciale de Lausanne in 1853 at the initiative of Lois Rivier, a graduate of the École Centrale Paris and John Gay, the professor and rector of the Académie de Lausanne. At its inception it had only 11 students and the offices was located at Rue du Valentin in Lausanne. In 1869, it became the technical department of the public Académie de Lausanne; when the Académie was reorganised and acquired the status of a university in 1890, the technical faculty changed its name to École d'ingénieurs de l'Université de Lausanne. In 1946, it was renamed the École polytechnique de l'Université de Lausanne. In 1969, the EPUL was separated from the rest of the University of Lausanne and became a federal institute under its current name. EPFL, like ETH Zurich, is thus directly controlled by the Swiss federal government. In contrast, all other universities in Switzerland are controlled by their respective cantonal governments.
Following the nomination of Patrick Aebischer as president in 2000, EPFL has started to develop into the field of life sciences. It absorbed the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in 2008. In 1946, there were 360 students. In 1969, EPFL had 55 professors. In the past two decades the university has grown and as of 2012 14,000 people study or work on campus, about 9,300 of these being Bachelor, Master or PhD students; as EPFL first became a federal institute under its current name in 1969, with a student body of less than 1500, the university is included in the Times Higher Education list of top 100 universities under 50 years old. The environment at modern day EPFL is international with the school now attracting top students and researchers from all over the world. More than 125 countries are represented on the campus and the university has two official languages and English. Like every public university in Switzerland, EPFL is obliged to grant admission to every Swiss resident who took the maturité high-school certificate recognized by the Swiss Confederation.
However, international students are required to have a final grade average of 80% or above of the maximum grade of the upper secondary school national system. As such, for Swiss students, EPFL is not selective in its undergraduate admission procedures; the real selection process happens during the first year of study. This period is called the propaedeutic cycle and the students must pass a block examination of all the courses taken during the first year at the end of the cycle. If the weighted average is insufficient, a student is required to retake the entire first year of coursework if they wish to continue their studies at the school. 50% of students fail the first year of study, many of them choose to drop out rather than repeat the first year. The failure rate for the propaedeutic cycle differs between fields of study, it is highest for Mathematics and Electrical Engineering majors where only 30–40% of students pass the first year. For foreign students, the selection procedure towards the undergraduate program is rather strict, since most undergraduate courses are taught in French, foreign students must provide documentation of having acquired a level B2 proficiency as measured on the CEF scale, though C1 proficiency is recommended.
As at all universities in Switzerland, the academic year is divided into two semesters. Regular time to reach graduation is six semesters for the Bachelor of Science degree and four additional semesters for the Master of Science degree. Though only 58% of the student's who manage to graduate are able to graduate within this time-period; the possibility to study abroad for one or two semesters is offered during the 3rd year of study under certain conditions as EPFL maintains several long-standing student exchange programs, such as the junior year engineering and science program with Carnegie Mellon University in the United States, as well as a graduate Aeronautics and Aerospace program with the ISAE in France. The final semester is dedicated to writing a thesis. Entrepreneurship is encouraged to foster a start-up culture among the student body as evident by the EPFL Innovation Park being an integral part of campus. Since 1997, 12 start-ups have been created per year on average by EPFL students and faculty.
In the year 2013, a total of 105 million CHF was raised by EPFL start-ups. The three most observed international university rankings, QS World University Rankings, Academic Ranking of World Universities and Times Higher Education
The Codex Borbonicus is an Aztec codex written by Aztec priests shortly before or after the Spanish conquest of Mexico. The codex is named after the Palais Bourbon in France, it is held at the Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée Nationale in Paris. In 2004 Maarten Jansen and Gabina Aurora Pérez Jiménez proposed that it be given the indigenous name Codex Cihuacoatl, after the goddess Cihuacoatl; the Codex Borbonicus is a single 46.5-foot long sheet of amatl "paper". Although there were 40 accordion-folded pages, the first two and the last two pages are missing, it was pictorial and logographic as was usual for pre-Columbian Aztec codicies, although some Spanish descriptions have been added. There is dispute as to whether the Codex Borbonicus is pre-Columbian, as the calendar pictures all contain room above them for Spanish descriptions. Codex Borbonicus can be divided into three sections: The first section is one of the most intricate surviving divinatory calendars; each page represents one of the 20 trecena, in the tonalpohualli.
Most of the page is taken up with a painting of the ruling deity or deities, with the remainder taken up with the 13 day-signs of the trecena and 13 other glyphs and deities. With these 26 symbols, the priests were able to divine the future; the first 18 pages of the codex show more wear than the last sections likely indicating that these pages were consulted more often. The second section of the codex documents the Mesoamerican 52-year cycle, showing in order the dates of the first days of each of these 52 solar years; these days are correlated with the nine Lords of the Night. The third section is focused on rituals and ceremonies those that end the 52-year cycle, when the "new fire" must be lit; this section is unfinished. Aztec calendar Aztec codices Codex Borgia Famsi.org: Links to each of the 36 pages of Codex Borbonicus The Guardian "Aztec manuscript under the microscope"
The Lyman filament extruder is a device for making 3-D printer filament suitable for use in 3-D printers like the RepRap. It was the winner of the Desktop Factory Competition; the goal of the Desktop Factory Competition was to build an open source filament extruder for less than $250 in components can take ABS or PLA resin pellets, mix them with colorant, extrude enough 1.75 mm diameter ± 0.05 mm filament that can be wrapped on a 1 kg spool. The machine must use the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported. The use of DIY filament extruders like the Lyman can reduce the cost of printing with 3-D printers; the Lyman filament extruder was designed to handle pellets, but can be used to make filament from other sources of plastic such as post-consumer waste like other RecycleBots. Producing plastic filament from recycled plastic has a significant positive environmental impact
Dan Zerfaß is a German classical organist, the cantor at the Worms Cathedral and academic teacher. Born in Simmern, Zerfaß was a student of Regional cantor Franz Leinhäuser in Oberwesel, he studied at the Hochschule für Musik Frankfurt, finishing in 1992 with top honors as a church musician and graduating in 1993 as a recital organist. Influential teachers were Wolfgang Schäfer and Godehard Joppich, he took master classes with Daniel Roth, Wolfgang Rübsam and Guy Bovet, Egidius Doll, Peter Planyavsky and Theo Brandmüller and Günther Ludwig. In 1989, Zerfaß became cantor at St. Albert in Frankfurt and in 1996 the regional cantor at St. Bonifatius in Bad Nauheim. Since 1999, he has been the cantor at the cathedral St. Peter in Worms. From 1993 to 1997 he taught liturgical organ playing at the Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe and is supervising an organ literature class at the Hochschule für Musik Mainz of Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, he is as an organ expert of the Diocese of Mainz and works in the artistic direction of the Internationale Orgelfestwochen of the festival Kultursommer Rheinland-Pfalz.
As a composer, he participated in the project Mainzer Bistumsmesse, a collaboration of six regional cantors to create a mass in German for choir, a high voice and organ. He composed Herr, erbarme dich, Nicolo Sokoli Ehre sei Gott, Thomas Gabriel Ich glaube an Gott, Andreas Boltz Gottheit tief verborgen, Ralf Stiewe Heilig, Ruben J. Sturm Lamm Gottes, he recorded the complete organ works by Robert Schumann and works by Petr Eben, among others
The National Christian Party was a radical-right authoritarian and antisemitic political party in Romania active between 1935 and 1938. It was formed by a merger of Octavian Goga's National Agrarian Party and A. C. Cuza's National-Christian Defense League. Goga was chosen in December 1937 by King Carol II to form a government; the government was followed by a royal dictatorship by Carol. Founded in 1935, led by Goga, it never received more than about 10% of the vote, but was chosen in December 1937 by King Carol II to form a government; the party stated that it would rule by the existing constitution but held longer term ambitions at reform, wanting to introduce a smaller parliament and a new corporatist upper chamber. The party was noted for its anti-Semitism and Alexander Easterman writes of the party's brief time in office, "Goga proclaimed his policy and unashamed, as designed to rid Roumania of the Jews. Indeed, he had no other policy to offer. In order to underline its anti-Semitic credentials the party adopted the swastika as its emblem, whilst retaining the blue shirt of the LANC as its political uniform.
Easterman hypothesizes that Carol had placed this party in power "to give his people a taste of Fascism", hoping vainly that an ensuing reaction against such policies would sweep away not only the weak National Christians but the far stronger Iron Guard. The party retained close links to the paramilitary Lăncieri, close to LANC. Goga's government was formed on 29 December 1937, began its term by repudiating Romania's obligations under the 1919 Treaty of Paris known as the Minorities Treaty, imposed upon it at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference; the government introduced a series of anti-semitic laws. On 21 January 1938, it promulgated a decree aimed at reviewing criteria for citizenship, it required all Jews who had received citizenship in 1918-1919 to reapply for it, set an impossibly high bar for documentary proof of such citizenship, while providing only 20 days in which this could be achieved. It stripped 250,000 Romanian Jews of Romanian citizenship, one third of the Romanian Jewish population.
Jewish businesses were closed down. Besides being an anti-Semite himself, Goga attempted to outflank the Iron Guard's popular support. In press interviews at the time he said: The Jewish problem is an old one here, it is a Rumanian tragedy. We have far too many Jews. For us there is only one final solution of the Jewish problem—the collection of all Jews into a region, still uninhabited, the foundation there of a Jewish nation, and the further away the better. The regime instituted by Goga and Cuza gave itself a paramilitary wing of Fascist character, the Lăncieri, they borrowed from the Iron Guard, started competing with it for public attention. Between 1935 and 1937, the Lăncieri carried out more terrorist actions and pogroms throughout Romania than the Iron Guard; because of its anti-semitic measures, the Goga-Cuza government has been referred to as "more Nazi than the Germans". At Goga's request, Carol dissolved parliament on 18 January 1938 with a view toward holding a new election that winter.
However, Carol became alarmed with overtures being made by the National Christian Party towards the Iron Guard, on 10 February 1938, he ended Goga's government after only 45 days, suspended the Constitution, canceled the planned election, instituted a royal dictatorship. He formed the National Renaissance Front as the single monopoly party and banned all other political parties, he suspended the 1923 Constitution, created the 1938 Constitution of Romania
The Waterfront is a super-regional open air shopping mall spanning the three boroughs of Homestead, West Homestead, Munhall near Pittsburgh. The shopping mall sits on land once occupied by U. S. Steel's Homestead Steel Works plant, which closed in 1986, it has a gross leasable area of 700,000 square feet in "The Waterfront" and 400,000 square feet in "The Town Center." The development opened in 1999. More development continued into the early 21st century; the Waterfront is accessible from the Parkway East via the Homestead High-Level Bridge, now known as the Homestead Grays Bridge. Pennsylvania Route 837, which runs through the town of Homestead connects drivers to The Waterfront via Amity Street and Waterfront Drive; the site still has the smokestacks of the 19th-century steel works that helped make Pittsburgh the greatest Steel City in America. In 2005, Industrial Workers of the World celebrated their 100th Anniversary, having formed in there in 1905; the local celebration included. The Pump House is the location of the landing of the Pinkertons who navigated the river in 1892 with the intention to provide security at the plant, subject to a labor strike of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers at the instruction of Henry Clay Frick.
The battle that followed, known as the Homestead Strike / Battle of Homestead, left sixteen people dead and set back the cause of organizing the iron and steel industry in Pittsburgh for decades. The Battle of Homestead is one of the most noted strikes in American Labor History; the Waterfront, unlike the SouthSide Works located a few miles up the river, was developed in a more suburban fashion, with retail and office spaces all being separated from each other by vast parking lots. However, unlike the Southside Works, the Waterfront did not benefit from proximity to, unrestricted access to, a thriving urban commercial area. Of note; the Waterfront was predominantly a private investment, although there was a tax increment financing of $25 million approved by three separate municipalities, one county, one school district, a notable accomplishment. Traffic congestion within the development is common due to the large distances between outlets and the lack of sidewalks and pathways; the complex is separated from the original sections of Homestead, West Homestead, Munhall, via railroad tracks and does not physically or visually connect with the older sections of the municipalities, impossible due to the active rail lines.
To facilitate access, Allegheny County constructed a new access ramp to the site from the Homestead High Level Bridge, partnered with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1993 on the construction of the East Flyover Ramp in Munhall Borough. The construction of this ramp was well in advance of development plans which were announced in 1997; this resulted in a ramp which proved to be less than optimal. The Town Center area of the development is home to stores one would find in most malls, including a Victoria's Secret and Lane Bryant. Macy's, Barnes & Noble, a Loews Cineplex are located in this area as well; the eastern end of the development resembles more of a traditional suburban strip mall, with many big-box retail stores fronting a large parking lot. Stores here include Bed, Bath, & Beyond, Dick's Sporting Goods, Giant Eagle grocery, Lowe's, Target. Around the perimeter of the complex along the Monongahela River, are most of the development's restaurants all of which are typical chain restaurants like Uno Chicago Grill, LongHorn Steakhouse, Panera Bread, Red Robin, T.
G. I. Friday's, Eat'n Park, P. F. Chang's China Bistro, as well as several fast food locations. An apartment complex, a few office buildings, fueling station, multiple hotels are located along the river perimeter. In 2002, Kaufmann's parent company, May Co. announced it would construct a scaled-down version of its department store at The Waterfront. It was the first of its kind in the now-defunct department store company. On September 9, 2006, Kaufmann's became part of the Macy's company; the store has since been replaced with the Macy's nameplate. It remains one of the smaller Macy's department stores in the chain. In 2018, Macy's announced the closing of this location, it now sits vacant. In August 2019, it was confirmed. Them being Siemens and Commonwealth Charter Academy; the state of the building, as of January 2020, appears to be gutted on the inside. It is unknown when these 2 locations were open Every May, The Waterfront welcomes The Mentoring Partnership of Southwestern Pennsylvania and many local youth mentoring agencies to the Town Center to talk to shoppers about the importance of mentoring and the number of local children waiting for mentors.
In the month of October, The Waterfront recognizes Domestic Violence Awareness month in conjunction with Womansplace. Additionally, they host walks to support research for cancer and polycystic kidney disease