The Emergency (Ireland)
The Emergency was the state of emergency which existed in the state of Ireland during the Second World War. The state of Ireland remained neutral throughout the war, the Emergency has been used metonymically in historical and cultural commentary to refer to the state during the war. The state of emergency was proclaimed by Dáil Éireann on 2 September 1939 and this gave sweeping new powers to the government for the duration of the Emergency, including internment, censorship of the press and correspondence, and government control of the economy. The Emergency Powers Act lapsed on 2 September 1946, although the state of emergency itself was not rescinded until 1 September 1976, no emergency legislation was ever in force after 1946 to exploit this anomaly. On 6 December 1922, following the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the War of Independence, on 8 December 1922, the parliament of the six north-eastern counties, already known as Northern Ireland, voted to opt out of the Irish Free State and rejoin the United Kingdom.
This Treaty settlement was followed by the bitter Irish Civil War between the pro-Treaty and anti-Treaty factions of the Irish Republican Army. After 1932, the party of the new state was the republican Fianna Fáil. In 1937, de Valera introduced a new constitution, which had distanced the state further from the United Kingdom, in 1932–38 he had conducted the Anglo-Irish Trade War. De Valera had good relations with the British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, the major remaining disagreement between the countries was the status of Northern Ireland. The Irish saw it as rightfully Irish territory while the UK saw it as rightfully British territory, within Ireland itself, armed opposition to the treaty settlement took the name of the anti-treaty IRA, seeing itself as the true government of Ireland. This IRA mounted armed attacks both in Great Britain and Ireland, on September 1,1939, German troops invaded Poland, precipitating war with the UK and France, and their allies. On 2 September, de Valera told the Dáil Éireann that neutrality was the best policy for the country, in this he was almost universally supported by the Dáil and the country at large.
The 1937 constitution was amended to allow the Government to take emergency powers, the government was able to take control of the economic life of the country under the new Minister of Supply Seán Lemass. Liberal use was made of all of these powers, Internment of those who had committed a crime or were about to commit one would be used extensively against the IRA. Censorship was under the charge of the Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures, in addition, the information made available to Irish people was carefully controlled. De Valera performed the duties of Minister of External Affairs, though the secretary for the Department of External Affairs and he travelled to London on 6 September where he met the Dominions Secretary, Anthony Eden, who was conciliatory and defended Irish neutrality in subsequent Cabinet meetings. In addition, the appointment of Sir John Maffey as a British representative in Dublin was agreed, for the Irish government, neutrality meant not displaying alignment with either side.
On one hand, that meant the open announcement of military activity such as the sighting of submarines or the arrival of parachutists, Irelands geographic position meant that this policy tended to benefit the Allies more than Germany
Flag of Ireland
The national flag of Ireland – frequently referred to as the Irish tricolour – is a vertical tricolour of green and orange. The proportions of the flag are 1,2, the Irish government has described the symbolism behind each colour as being that green represents the older Gaelic tradition while the orange represents the supporters of William of Orange. The white in the centre signifies a lasting truce between the Orange and the Green, Meagher was the son of Newfoundland-born mayor of Waterford, Thomas Meagher Jr. The flag was adopted in 1916 by the Easter Rising rebels and its use was continued by the Irish Free State and it was given constitutional status under the 1937 Constitution of Ireland. The tricolour is used by nationalists on both sides of the border as the flag of the whole island of Ireland since 1916. Thus it is flown by nationalists in Northern Ireland as well as by the Gaelic Athletic Association. In relation to the flag of Ireland, the Constitution of Ireland simply states in Article 7, The national flag is the tricolour of green, white.
As there are no statutory requirements in relation to the flag. In its advisory role, the Department has issued guidelines to assist persons in their use of the national flag, the flag should be rectangular in shape and its length should be two times its width, translating into an aspect ratio of 1,2. The three coloured pales — green and orange — should be of size. Provided that the proportions are observed, the flag may be made to any convenient size. The green pale in the flag symbolises Irish republicanism dating back to the Society of United Irishmen in the 1790s and his title came from the Principality of Orange in the south of France that had been a Protestant bastion from the 16th century. It was included in the Irish flag in an attempt to reconcile the Orange Order in Ireland with the Irish independence movement, the white in the centre signifies a lasting truce between the two cultures and a living together in peace. There are exceptions to the general beneficent theory, Green was used as the colour of such Irish bodies as the mainly-Protestant and non-sectarian Friendly Brothers of St.
Patrick, established in 1751. Occasionally, differing shades of yellow, instead of orange, are seen at civilian functions, however the Department of the Taoiseach state that this is a misrepresentation which should be actively discouraged, and that worn-out flags should be replaced. In songs and poems, the colours are sometimes enumerated as green and gold, variants of different guises are utilised to include -for example, various emblems of Ireland, such as the presidential harp, the four provinces or county arms. A green flag featuring a harp is described as being used by Owen Roe ONeill in 1642, in the late 18th century green had become associated as the colour of revolution. The United Irishmen, founded in the 1790s, were inspired by the French revolution, the colours were used in the same period for rosettes and badges, and on the banners of trade guilds
Irish euro coins
The same harp is used as on the official seals of the Taoiseach, and government ministers and the Seal of the Uachtaran. The coins design features the 12 stars of the EU, the year of minting and these in turn are surrounded by the 12 stars of the flag of Europe. On the one-euro coin the stars appear on the gold coloured surround with the harp, the colours are in the reverse for the two euro coin. * No coins were minted that year for that denomination ** Data not available yet Limited release in 2010, featuring an Irish hunter horse, Limited release in 2011, featuring a Salmon and smolt. Limited release in 2012, featuring an Irish wolfhound and pup, coins of the Republic of Ireland Identifying marks on euro coins The Euro Information Website – Ireland euroHOBBY Ireland
Erin is a Hiberno-English derivative of the Irish word Éirinn. The dative has replaced the nominative in a few regional Irish dialects and nineteenth-century Irish nationalists used Erin in English as a romantic name for Ireland. According to Irish mythology and folklore, the name was given to the island by the Milesians after the goddess Ériu. Erin go bragh, a slogan dating from the 1798 revolution, is translated as Ireland forever. The etymology of the word as it drifted throughout the Gaelic region gave rise to its use by the early Scots to both mean Ireland and west - as Ireland lies to the west of Scotland. As a given name, Erin is used for both sexes, given its origins, it is used as a feminine forename. It first became a popular name in the United States. Its US popularity for males peaked in 1974 with 321 boys registered with the name, Erin is a name for Ireland in Welsh, and is one of the 20 most popular girls names in Wales. As a family name, Erin has been used as one of the spellings of the name of the Scottish clan Irwin - which was involved in the Scottish Plantations of Ireland.
However, that name was derived from the place of the same name near Dumfries
Names of the Irish state
There have been various names for the state that is today officially known as Ireland. The state makes up almost five-sixths of the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom, covers the rest of the island. When the state was created in 1922 it was named the Irish Free State, in 1937 it adopted a new constitution which claimed all of Ireland as its territory, becoming Ireland in English and Éire in Irish, although the latter was often used in English too. In 1949 it declared itself a republic and adopted the term Republic of Ireland as its official description while keeping the name Ireland. The terms Republic of Ireland, the Republic or the South are often used when there is a need to distinguish the state from the island or when Northern Ireland is being discussed. Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that he name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, the Irish state has two official names, Éire and Ireland. For official purposes, including in international treaties and other documents, and where the language of the documents is English.
The same is true in respect of the name Éire for documents written in Irish, the name of the state is reflected in its institutions and public offices. For example, there is a President of Ireland and a Constitution of Ireland, some Irish people disfavour or disapprove of the use of the name Eire in English texts or speech. Since 1949 the Republic of Ireland Act has provided that the Republic of Ireland is the description for the state. However, Ireland remains the name of the state. The constitutional name Ireland is normally used, the legal description Republic of Ireland is sometimes used when disambiguation is desired between the state and the island of Ireland. In colloquial use this is shortened to the Republic. This distinction between description and name was and remains important because the Act was not a constitutional amendment, if it had purported to do so, it would have been unconstitutional. The distinction between a description and a name has caused confusion. In contrast, other republics, like Ireland and Hungary do not do so, the state joined the European Economic Community in 1973.
Its accession treaty was drawn up in all of the EUs then-official treaty languages and, as such, on 1 January 2007, Irish became an official working language of the EU. This did not change the name of the Irish state in EU law, concerning Ireland, it states that its official names are Éire and Ireland, its official name in English is Ireland, its country code is IE, and its former abbreviation was IRL
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, a philosophical language of Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval South Asia. As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia, as one of the oldest Indo-European languages for which substantial written documentation exists, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, philosophical, the compositions of Sanskrit were orally transmitted for much of its early history by methods of memorization of exceptional complexity and fidelity. Thereafter and derivatives of the Brahmi script came to be used, Sanskrit is today one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which mandates the Indian government to develop the language. It continues to be used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the form of hymns.
The Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- may be translated as refined, elaborated, as a term for refined or elaborated speech, the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit in the Manusmṛti and the Mahabharata. The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the fourth century BCE. Sanskrit, as defined by Pāṇini, evolved out of the earlier Vedic form, the present form of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced back to as early as the second millennium BCE. Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or Pāṇinian Sanskrit as separate dialects, although they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a collection of hymns and theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, for nearly 2000 years, Sanskrit was the language of a cultural order that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent East Asia.
A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of Indian epic poetry—the Ramayana, the deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or innovations, and not because they are pre-Paninian. Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations ārṣa, meaning of the ṛṣis, in some contexts, there are more prakritisms than in Classical Sanskrit proper. There were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit, paścimottarī, madhyadeśī, pūrvi, the predecessors of the first three dialects are attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas, of which the first one was regarded as the purest. In the 2001 Census of India,14,035 Indians reported Sanskrit to be their first language, in India, Sanskrit is among the 14 original languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. The state of Uttarakhand in India has ruled Sanskrit as its official language. In October 2012 social activist Hemant Goswami filed a petition in the Punjab. More than 3,000 Sanskrit works have been composed since Indias independence in 1947, much of this work has been judged of high quality, in comparison to both classical Sanskrit literature and modern literature in other Indian languages
Postage stamp may refer to a formatting artifact in the display of film or video, Windowbox. A postage stamp is a piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are printed on special paper, show a national designation and a denomination on the front. They are sometimes a source of net profit to the issuing agency, stamps are usually rectangular, but triangles or other shapes are occasionally used. The stamp is affixed to an envelope or other postal cover the customer wishes to send, the item is processed by the postal system, where a postmark, sometimes known as a cancellation mark, is usually applied in overlapping manner to stamp and cover. This procedure marks the stamp as used to prevent its reuse, in modern usage, postmarks generally indicate the date and point of origin of the mailing. The mailed item is delivered to the address the customer has applied to the envelope or parcel. Postage stamps have facilitated the delivery of mail since the 1840s, before then and hand-stamps, usually made from wood or cork, were often used to frank the mail and confirm the payment of postage.
The first adhesive postage stamp, commonly referred to as the Penny Black, was issued in the United Kingdom in 1840, there are varying accounts of the inventor or inventors of the stamp. The postage stamp resolved this issue in a simple and elegant manner, concurrently with the first stamps, the UK offered wrappers for mail. S. Postal service for priority or express mailing, the postage stamp afforded convenience for both the mailer and postal officials, more effectively recovered costs for the postal service, and ultimately resulted in a better, faster postal system. With the conveniences stamps offered, their use resulted in greatly increased mailings during the 19th and 20th centuries, as postage stamps with their engraved imagery began to appear on a widespread basis and collectors began to take notice. The study of stamps and their use is referred to as philately. Stamp collecting can be both a hobby and a form of study and reference, as government-issued postage stamps. The postage for the item was prepaid by the use of a hand-stamp to frank the mailed item.
Though this stamp was applied to a letter instead of a piece of paper it is considered by many historians as the worlds first postage stamp. Rowland Hill The Englishman Sir Rowland Hill began interest in postal reform in 1835, in 1836, a Member of Parliament, Robert Wallace, provided Hill with numerous books and documents, which Hill described as a half hundred weight of material. Hill commenced a study of these documents, leading him to the 1837 publication of a pamphlet entitled Post Office Reform its Importance
The Iverni were a people of early Ireland first mentioned in Ptolemys 2nd century Geography as living in the extreme south-west of the island. He locates a city called Ivernis in their territory, and observes that this settlement has the name as the island as a whole. The name Iverni has been derived from Proto-Indo-European *PiHwerjoHn, the fertile land and it was probably once the name given to all the peoples of Ireland, but by Ptolemys time had a more restricted usage applicable to the inhabitants of the south-west. These Iverni can be identified linguistically with the Érainn, a people attested in Munster, the prehistoric Érainn royal dynasties are sometimes referred to as the Dáirine. In early Irish genealogical tracts the Érainn are regarded as an ethnic group, the Dál Riata and Dál Fiatach in Ulster are considered Érainn. The most important of the Munster Érainn, the Corcu Loígde, the Déisi Muman may have had Érainn origins, but this has long been disputed. It seems likely the Iverni were related to the Darini of eastern Ulster, an early name for Dundrum, County Down, is recorded as Dún Droma Dáirine, and the name Dáirine was applied to the Corcu Loígde, further suggesting a relationship between the Darini and the Iverni.
The genealogies trace the descent of the Érainn from two separate eponymous ancestors, Ailill Érann and Íar mac Dedad, the historical sept of the Uí Maicc Iair and the MAQI IARI of ogham inscriptions appear to be related. The personal name Iar is simply another variant of the present in Iverni. T. F. ORahilly identified the Érainn with the mythological Fir Bolg and he proposed that they invaded from Britain and spoke a Brittonic language, which he named Ivernic. However, by the period, the Érainn were evidently Goidelic-speaking, as ogham inscriptions in Primitive Irish are most abundant in Counties Cork. ORahillys historical model History of Ireland List of Irish kingdoms List of Celtic tribes Mac Con
1948 Summer Olympics
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom. After a 12-year hiatus because of World War II, these were the first Summer Olympics since the 1936 Games in Berlin, the 1940 Games had been scheduled for Tokyo, and for Helsinki, the 1944 Games had been provisionally planned for London. This was the occasion that London had hosted the Olympic Games. The 1948 games were the first of two summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström, the event came to be known as the Austerity Games, because of the economic climate and post-war rationing. No new venues were built for the games, and athletes were housed in existing accommodation in the Wembley area instead of an Olympic Village, as were the 1936 Games and the subsequent 1952 Games. A record 59 nations were represented by 4,104 athletes,3,714 men and 390 women and Japan were refused permission to participate, the USSR was invited but chose not to send any athletes.
The United States team won the most total medals,84, the host nation won 23 medals, three of them gold. One of the performers at the Games was Dutch sprinter Fanny Blankers-Koen. Dubbed The Flying Housewife, the 30-year-old mother of two won four medals in athletics. In the decathlon, American Bob Mathias became the youngest male ever to win an Olympic gold medal at the age of 17, the most individual medals were won by Veikko Huhtanen of Finland who took three golds, a silver and a bronze in mens gymnastics. In June 1939, the International Olympic Committee awarded the 1944 Olympic Summer Games to London, ahead of Rome, Budapest, Helsinki, World War II stopped the plans and the Games were cancelled so London again stood as a candidate for 1948. Britain almost handed the 1948 games to the USA due to financial and rationing problems. The official report of the London Olympics shows that there was no case of London being pressed to run the Games against its will. As a result, a committee was set up by the British Olympic Council to work out in some detail the possibility of holding the Games.
After several meetings they recommended to the council that the Lord Mayor of London should be invited to apply for the allocation of the Games in 1948. In March 1946 the IOC, through a vote, gave the summer Games to London. London was selected ahead of Baltimore, Lausanne, Los Angeles, which had previously hosted the 1908 Summer Olympics, became the second city to host the Olympics twice, Paris hosted the event in 1900 and 1924. It became the first city to host the Olympics for the time when London hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics. E
Pytheas of Massalia, was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia. He made a voyage of exploration to northwestern Europe in about 325 BC, in this voyage he circumnavigated and visited a considerable part of Great Britain. He is the first person on record to describe the Midnight Sun, the theoretical existence of a Frigid Zone, and temperate zones where the nights are very short in summer and the sun does not set at the summer solstice, was already known. Similarly, reports of a country of perpetual snow and darkness had reached the Mediterranean some centuries before, Pytheas is the first known scientific visitor and reporter of the Arctic, polar ice, and the Germanic tribes. He introduced the idea of distant Thule to the geographic imagination, Pytheas may have reached Iceland. Pliny says that Timaeus believed Pytheas story of the discovery of amber, Strabo says that Dicaearchus did not trust the stories of Pytheas. That is all the information that survives concerning the date of Pytheas voyage, some would give Timaeus an extra 5 years, bringing the voyage down to 325 BC at earliest.
If one presumes that Pytheas would not have written before reaching age 20, he would have been a contemporary, as they read his writings he must have written toward the earlier years of the window. As is common with ancient texts, multiple titles may represent a source, for example. The mainstream today recognizes periplus as a genre of literature and concedes that there was only one work, on the Ocean. Diodorus does not mention Pytheas by name, the connection is made as follows, Pliny reports that Timaeus says there is an island named Mictis … where tin is found, and to which the Britons cross. Diodorus says that tin is brought to the island of Ictis, the last link is supplied by Strabo, who says that an emporium on the island of Corbulo in the mouth of the Loire was associated with the Britain of Pytheas by Polybius. Assuming that Ictis and Corbulo are the same, Diodorus appears to have read Timaeus, who must have read Pytheas, Pytheas was the first documented Mediterranean mariner to reach the British Isles.
The start of Pytheass voyage is unknown, the Carthaginians had closed the Strait of Gibraltar to all ships from other nations. Some historians, mainly of the late 19th century and before, therefore speculated that he must have traveled overland to the mouth of the Loire or the Garonne. Others believed that, to avoid the Carthaginian blockade, he may have close to land and sailed only at night. An alternate theory holds that by the 4th century BC, the western Greeks, in 348 BC, Carthage and Rome came to terms over the Sicilian Wars with a treaty defining their mutual interests. Rome could use Sicilian markets, Carthage could buy and sell goods at Rome, Rome was to stay out of the western Mediterranean, but these terms did not apply to Massalia, which had its own treaty