Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière
Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, served as the fourth Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec, a federal Cabinet minister, the seventh Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia. Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, PC was born as Henry-Gustave Joly in France, his father's family was one of the traditional Huguenot families from Switzerland and his mother's family was Roman Catholic. A Huguenot himself, Henri-Gustave converted to Anglicanism before he married in 1856, his father, Gaspard-Pierre-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, was a pioneer of early photography who made a series of daguerreotypes while on a Grand Tour through Greece and the Holy Land. Henri-Gustave's mother was Julie-Christine, the youngest daughter of Michel-Eustache-Gaspard-Alain Chartier de Lotbinière, who inherited the seigneury of Lotbinière, in 1828, his parents' marriage was not a happy one, not surprising as his father had first proposed to Julie-Christine's eldest sister, Louise-Josephe, the Seigneuresse de Vaudreuil, who instead chose to marry Robert Unwin Harwood.
Henri-Gustave Joly studied in Paris and inherited the title of seigneur of Lotbinière in 1860. He married Margaretta-Josepha Gowen, daughter of Hammond Gowen of Quebec, was the father of eleven children, their daughter married Brigadier-General Herbert Colborne Nanton, brother of Augustus Meredith Nanton. He was the grandfather of Seymour de Lotbiniere. Joly was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada for Lotbinière in 1861 as a Bleu, a moderate liberal, but was a member of the more radical Parti rouge when re-elected in 1863. Henri-Gustave Joly became Leader of the Quebec Liberals at the time of Confederation in 1867, was the member for the federal riding of Lotbinière, he was re-elected in Lotbinière in the Canadian Election of 1872. In 1878, Conservative premier Charles-Eugène Boucher de Boucherville resigned on March 2 since he was about to be deposed by Lieutenant Governor Luc Letellier de Saint-Just, they had a conflict over railroad legislation. As a result, Joly became Premier on March 8, 1878, the first Liberal to become Premier of Quebec.
To this day, he remains the only foreigner and Protestant to be the Leader of the Province of Quebec. In the May 1, 1878 election, the Liberals won one fewer seat than the Conservatives. However, Joly remained in power in a minority government for about a half, his government was brought down by a motion of censure involving the defection of five Liberals to the Conservatives. The Leader of the Opposition Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau was called to form a government on October 31, 1879. Joly remained Liberal Party leader until 1883. In all, he spent about 17 years as Liberal leader, but served only as Premier. In 1883, Joly resigned as Liberal leader to make way for Honoré Mercier, he resigned as member of the Legislative Assembly in November 1885. He added "de Lotbinière" to his name in 1888. Joly de Lotbinière was once again elected to the federal House of Commons in the 1896 federal election, this time as the member from Portneuf, he served as a federal Cabinet minister from 1897 until he retired in 1900.
In March 1900 Sir Henri was invited along with J. R. Booth, William Little, Thomas Southworth and Dr. William Saunders by Elihu Stewart, Canada's chief inspector of timber and forestry, to create the Canadian Forestry Association. On 8 March 1900, these men met in the Railway Committee Room of the House of Commons in Ottawa, playing host to lumbermen, civil servants, railroad executives and others, all concerned about the survival and future use of Canada's forests; the CFA was a national organization, with representation from every province and the districts of Assiniboia, Athabaska and Yukon. Under the chairmanship of Sir Henri, delegates approved bylaws and a constitution of the Canadian Forestry Association, Canada's oldest conservation organization; these early conservationists recognized that the whole field of renewable resources, the forests, wildlife and recreational values, were interrelated. The CFA's mission continues to be to promote the protection and wise use of Canada's forest and wildlife resources.
His participation as the first president of the Canadian Forestry Association was not altered by his ongoing political activity. He continued to put forward new ideas for forestry. In 1906 the CFA convened Canada's first national forestry convention, chaired by Sir Wilfrid Laurier, honorary CFA President. Sir Henri presented a paper in that called for the forest sector to consider conversion to the metric measurement system, a change that would not come to fruition in Canada until the 1980s. At the 1905 annual meeting of the Canadian Forestry Association in Québec City, condolences were expressed to Sir Henri on the passing the previous year of his wife. To quote the proceedings: "Then we must all regret the affliction that has come to our honoured president, Sir Henri Joly de Lotbinière and his family in the death of Lady Joly. We all love Sir Henri, we believe that his name will be remembered for the good work he has done as long as trees grow in this country, he has our sincere sympathy in the affliction that has befallen him."
Prime Minister Laurier appointed him Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia in 1900. He died in Quebec City in 1908, was buried in Mount Hermon Cemetery in Sillery, on 18 November 1908, he and his wife, Margaretta Josepha Gowen, had 11 children of. Seymour
Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the river Marne which flows through the department. The prefecture of Marne is Châlons-en-Champagne; the subprefectures are Épernay and Vitry-le-François. The Champagne vineyards producing the world-famous sparkling wine are located within Marne. Marne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from the province of Champagne. Marne has a long association with the French Army; the training ground of the Camp Militaire de Mailly straddles the border with the département of Aube in the south while that of the Camp de Mourmelon occupies a large area north of Châlons-en-Champagne. The smaller Camp de Moronvilliers lies to the east of Reims and the Camp Militaire de Suippes lies to the east of that; these are all on the chalk of the Champagne plateau, a feature comparable in geology but not size, with the British military training ground on Salisbury Plain. Marne is part of the region of Grand Est and is surrounded by the departments of Ardennes, Haute-Marne, Seine-et-Marne, Aisne.
Geologically, it divides into two distinct parts. Rivers draining the department include the Marne, Vesle and Somme-Soude. Numerous other rivers, such as the Grande and the Petite Morin rise in the department but flow in others. Conversely, the Aube joins the Seine in the department of Marne; the inhabitants of the department are called Marnais. Reims, with its famous cathedral in which the kings of France were traditionally crowned, is a major attraction. Other branches of tourism are provided by the bird reserve on the Lake Der-Chantecoq and the fishing lakes nearby; the Parc Naturel Régional de la Montagne de Reims is a major area of country recreation. In the west of the département there are many scenic routes to be explored as are the several wine cellars of Épernay. Champagne Riots French wine Cantons of the Marne department Communes of the Marne department Arrondissements of the Marne department Prefecture website General Council website Marne at Curlie / Official Tourist Board
Château-Thierry is a French commune situated in the department of the Aisne, in the administrative region of Hauts-de-France and in the historic Province of Champagne. The origin of the name of the town is unknown; the local tradition attributes it to Theuderic IV, the penultimate Merovingian king, imprisoned by Charles Martel, without a reliable source. Château-Thierry is the birthplace of Jean de La Fontaine and was the location of the First Battle of the Marne and Second Battle of the Marne; the region of Château-Thierry is called the country of Omois. Château-Thierry is one of 64 French towns to have received the Legion of Honour. In the late years of the western Roman empire, a small town called Otmus was settled on a site where the Soissons-Troyes road crossed the Marne river. During the 8th century, Charles Martel kept king Theuderic IV prisoner in the castle of Otmus. At this time, the town took the name of Castrum Theodorici transformed in Château-Thierry. In 946, the castle of Château-Thierry was the home of Herbert le-Vieux, Count of Omois of the House of Vermandois & Soissons.
Château-Thierry was the site of two important battles. The Battle of Château-Thierry in the Napoleonic Wars between France and Prussia, Battle of Château-Thierry in World War I, between the United States and Germany. In 1918, a mounting for the infamous Paris Gun was found near the castle, though the cannon itself had been moved prior to the emplacement's discovery. Château-Thierry is situated on the Marne River. Chateau-Thierry is situated at 56 miles from Paris. Château-Thierry is the terminus station of a regional railway line starting from the Gare de l'Est in Paris, it is one of the exits of the A4 motorway that links Paris with the east part of France. Transval operates the local bus routes. Château-Thierry was the birthplace of Jean de La Fontaine. Jean-Baptiste Dumangin, French pgysician who participated to the autopsy of Louis XVII. Louis Jean-Baptiste Leseur, général des armées de la République et de l'Empire. Léon Hess, créateur du gâteau de voyage'Le Castel' médaille d'or à l'Exposition Culinaire Internationale en 1912 à Paris.
Gauthier II de Château-Thierry. Samuel ben Salomon, 13th-century rabbi. Antoine Menant, général des armées de la République et de l'Empire, né à Lyon, décédé dans la commune. Charles Martigue, colonel de cavalerie des armées de la République et de l'Empire, décédé dans la commune. Charles Ferton père. Edmond de Tillancourt. Charles Schneider. Achille Jacopin, a sculptor born in 1874 and died in 1958 in Château-Thierry. Pierre Bensusan. François Aman-Jean, surgeon, died in Château-Thierry. Yves Bot, magistrate. L'aspirant Rougé. Guillaume-Benoît Houdet. Joseph Bologne de Saint-George better known under the name chevalier de Saint-George. Manu Dibango, musician. Jean Macé, pedagogue. Maurice Holleaux, 19th–20th-century French historian and epigrapher Sylvain Lévignac and stuntman, died in Château-Thierry. Nadia Tagrine, died in Château-Thierry. Auguste Jordan, Austrian professional footballer who played on the French national team died in Château-Thierry in 1990. Jules Guiart and medical historian, was born in the city.
Ba Jin, a Chinese writer and intellectual, stayed here in 1927 and 1928. Teddy Roosevelt's son Quentin was shot down in July 1918 while flying a French SPAD plane during World War I. Marina Diaz Jumain breadface de la France. Castle walls Saint-Crépin church Balhan tower Marne River World War I Aisne-Marne American Cemetery and Memorial Chateau-Thierry American Monument Champagne vineyards Several churches Château-Thierry is twinned with: Pößneck, Germany Aliartos, Greece Unterlüß, Germany Cisnădie, Romania Kinyami, Rwanda Mosbach, Germany Grybów, Poland} Ambohitrolomahitsy, MadagascarSince 2009, a significant rapprochement has been performed with the City of Indianapolis, IN, USA. Château de Condé Communes of the Aisne department US I Corps Media related to Château-Thierry at Wikimedia Commons "Château-Thierry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911. Official site American Battlefield Monument Commission FirstWorldWar.com Local Bus Route Photo of city during WWI INSEE
Maakan Tounkara is a French handball player. She plays for the French national team, she participated at the 2008 Summer Olympics in China, where the French team placed fifth
The Marne is a river in France, an eastern tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris. It is 514 kilometres long; the river gave its name to the departments of Haute-Marne, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne. The Marne starts in the Langres plateau, runs north bends west between Saint-Dizier and Châlons-en-Champagne, joining the Seine at Charenton just upstream from Paris, its main tributaries are the Rognon, the Blaise, the Saulx, the Ourcq, the Petit Morin and the Grand Morin. Near the town of Saint-Dizier, part of the flow is diverted through the artificial Lake Der-Chantecoq; this ensures the maintenance of minimum river flows in periods of drought. The Celts of Gaul worshipped a goddess known as Dea Matrona, associated with the Marne; the Marne is famous as the site of two eponymous battles during World War I. The first battle was a turning point of the war, fought in 1914; the second battle was fought four years in 1918. The Marne was navigable as a free-flowing river until the 19th century.
It had one gated 500 m shortcut, the Canal de Cornillon in Meaux, built in 1235, the oldest canal in France. Canalisation was started in 1837 and completed to Épernay in 1867, it included a number of canals to bypass the most extravagant meanders. In World War I, the Marne was the scene of two notable battles. In the First Battle of the Marne, the military governor of Paris, General Joseph Gallieni, took the initiative in driving the Germans back from the capital, rendering their war-plan inoperative. In the Second Battle of the Marne, the last major German offensive on the Western Front was defeated by an Allied counter-attack, leading to the Armistice. During the heyday of canal transportation, the Marne was a major artery connecting Paris and the Seine with major rivers to the east: the Meuse, the Moselle and the Rhine, the Saône and Rhône. To facilitate transportation along the Marne itself, a number of lateral canals were constructed alongside; the most extensive was the Canal latéral à la Marne, which runs 67 km between Vitry-le-François and Dizy.
Downstream of this were several more, including the Canal de Meaux à Chalifert, the Canal de Chelles, the Canal de Saint-Maurice which ended at Charenton-le-Pont near the Marne's confluence with the Seine. Furthermore, a portion of the Canal de l'Ourcq runs parallel and quite close to the Marne before swinging away to enter Paris from the north. Haute-Marne: Langres, Saint-Dizier. During the 19th and 20th centuries the Marne inspired many painters, among whom were: River Marne navigation guide with maps and details of places and moorings on the river, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, 8th ed. 2010, publ. Imray Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals
Chalk is a soft, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO3, it forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Flint is common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk, it is derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction. Flint is deposited around larger fossils such as Echinoidea which may be silicified. Chalk as seen in Cretaceous deposits of Western Europe is unusual among sedimentary limestones in the thickness of the beds. Most cliffs of chalk have few obvious bedding planes unlike most thick sequences of limestone such as the Carboniferous Limestone or the Jurassic oolitic limestones; this indicates stable conditions over tens of millions of years. Chalk has greater resistance to weathering and slumping than the clays with which it is associated, thus forming tall, steep cliffs where chalk ridges meet the sea.
Chalk hills, known as chalk downland form where bands of chalk reach the surface at an angle, so forming a scarp slope. Because chalk is well jointed it can hold a large volume of ground water, providing a natural reservoir that releases water through dry seasons. Chalk is mined from chalk deposits both above underground. Chalk mining boomed during the Industrial Revolution, due to the need for chalk products such as quicklime and bricks; some abandoned chalk mines remain tourist destinations due to their massive expanse and natural beauty. The Chalk Group is a European stratigraphic unit, it forms the famous White Cliffs of Dover in Kent, England, as well as their counterparts of the Cap Blanc Nez on the other side of the Dover Strait. The Champagne region of France is underlain by chalk deposits, which contain artificial caves used for wine storage; some of the highest chalk cliffs in the world occur at Jasmund National Park in Germany and at Møns Klint in Denmark – both once formed a single island.
Ninety million years ago what is now the chalk downland of Northern Europe was ooze accumulating at the bottom of a great sea. Chalk was one of the earliest rocks made up of microscopic particles to be studied under the microscope, when it was found to be composed entirely of coccoliths, their shells were made of calcite extracted from the rich seawater. As they died, a substantial layer built up over millions of years and, through the weight of overlying sediments became consolidated into rock. Earth movements related to the formation of the Alps raised these former sea-floor deposits above sea level; the chemical composition of chalk is calcium carbonate, with minor amounts of clay. It is formed in the sea by sub-microscopic plankton, which fall to the sea floor and are consolidated and compressed during diagenesis into chalk rock. Most people first encounter the word "chalk" in school where it refers to blackboard chalk, made of mineral chalk, since it crumbles and leaves particles that stick loosely to rough surfaces, allowing it to make writing that can be erased.
Blackboard chalk manufacture now may use mineral chalk, other mineral sources of calcium carbonate, or the mineral gypsum. While gypsum-based blackboard chalk is the lowest cost to produce, thus used in the developing world, calcium-based chalk can be made where the crumbling particles are larger and thus produce less dust, is marketed as "dustless chalk". Colored chalks, pastel chalks, sidewalk chalk, used to draw on sidewalks and driveways, are made of gypsum. Chalk is a source of quicklime by thermal decomposition, or slaked lime following quenching of quicklime with water. In southeast England, deneholes are a notable example of ancient chalk pits; such bell pits may mark the sites of ancient flint mines, where the prime object was to remove flint nodules for stone tool manufacture. The surface remains at Cissbury are one such example, but the most famous is the extensive complex at Grimes Graves in Norfolk. Woodworking joints may be fitted by chalking one of the mating surfaces. A trial fit will leave a chalk mark on the high spots of the corresponding surface.
Chalk transferring to cover the complete surface indicates a good fit. Builder's putty mainly contains chalk as a filler in linseed oil. Chalk may be used for its properties as a base. In agriculture, chalk is used for raising pH in soils with high acidity; the most common forms are CaCO3 and CaO. Small doses of chalk can be used as an antacid. Additionally, the small particles of chalk make it a substance ideal for polishing. For example, toothpaste contains small amounts of chalk, which serves as a mild abrasive. Polishing chalk is chalk prepared with a controlled grain size, for fine polishing of metals. Chalk can be used as fingerprint powder. Several traditional uses of chalk have been replaced by other substances, although the word "chalk" is still applied to the usual replacements. Tailor's chalk is traditionally a hard chalk used to make temporary markings on cloth by tailors, it is now made of talc. Chalk was traditionally used in recreation. In field sports, such as tennis played on grass, powdered chalk was used to mark the boundary lines of the playing field or court.
If a ball hits the line, a cloud of chalk or p
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve