Étienne-Louis Boullée was a visionary French neoclassical architect whose work influenced contemporary architects. Born in Paris, he studied under Jacques-François Blondel, Germain Boffrand and Jean-Laurent Le Geay, from whom he learned the mainstream French Classical architecture in the 17th and 18th century and the Neoclassicism that evolved after the mid century, he was elected to the Académie Royale d'Architecture in 1762 and became chief architect to Frederick II of Prussia, a honorary title. He designed a number of private houses from 1762 to 1778, his work for François Racine de Monville has also vanished but his probable influence on Monville's own architectural works as seen at the Désert de Retz speaks for itself. Together with Claude Nicolas Ledoux, he was one of the most influential figures of French neoclassical architecture, it was as a teacher and theorist at the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées between 1778 and 1788 that Boullée made his biggest impact, developing a distinctive abstract geometric style inspired by Classical forms.
His work was characterised by the removal of all unnecessary ornamentation, inflating geometric forms to a huge scale and repeating elements such as columns in huge ranges. For Boullée regularity and variety were the golden rules of architecture. Boullée promoted the idea of making architecture expressive of its purpose, a doctrine that his detractors termed architecture parlante, an essential element in Beaux-Arts architectural training in the 19th century, his style was most notably exemplified in his proposal for a cenotaph for the English scientist Isaac Newton, who 50 years after his death became a symbol of Enlightenment ideas. The building itself was a 150 m tall sphere, taller than the Great Pyramids of Giza, encompassed by two large barriers circled by hundreds of cypress trees; the massive and spheric shape of the building was inspired by Boullée's own study called "theory of bodies" where he claims that the most beautiful and perfect natural body is the sphere, the most prominent element of the Newton Memorial.
Though the structure was never built, Boullée had many ink and wash drawings engraved and circulated in the professional circles in 1784. A cenotaph is a funerary monument celebrating a figure interred elsewhere; the small sarcophagus for Newton is placed at the lower pole of the sphere. The design of the memorial creates the effect of night; the night effect occurs when the sarcophagus is illuminated by the sunlight coming through the holes in the vaulting. This gives the illusion of stars in the night sky; the day effect is an armillary sphere hanging in the center. Thus, the use of light in the building's design causes the building's interior to change its appearance; the boiseries, still dated in the mid-1760s, were discussed in the issue of L'Avant-coureur for 21 January 1761, so must have been carried out about 1758-59. The Hôtel in the Marais district remodelled for Claude-Charles-Dominique Tourolle survives but the salon's boiseries and chimneypieces were removed in the mid-nineteenth century to a house in the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré now in the possession of the Cercle Interallié.
Round-arched mirrors over the chimneypieces and centering the long wall in a shallow recess are disposed in a system of stop-fluted Ionic pilasters. White marble draped caryatid therm figures support the chimneypiece's tablette. There is a full architrave under a dentilled cornice; the white-and-gold ensemble would still have been in style in 1790. The Hôtel Alexandre or Hôtel Soult, rue de la Ville l'Évêque, Paris, is the sole survivor of Boullée's residential work in Paris, it was built for the financier André-Claude-Nicolas Alexandre. In its cour d'honneur four Ionic columns embedded against a recess in the wall plane create an entry. Flanking doors in the corners of the courtyard have isolated architraves embedded in the wall above their plain openings, while above oval bull's-eye windows are draped with the swags of husks that became a common feature of the neoclassical manner; the garden front has a colossal order of pilasters raised on the high basement occupied by the full height of the ground floor.
Boullée's ideas had a major influence on his contemporaries, not least because of his role in teaching other important architects such as Jean Chalgrin, Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart, Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand. Some of his work only saw the light of day in the 20th century; the volume contained his work from 1778 to 1788, which comprised designs for public buildings on a wholly impractical grand scale. Boullée's fondness for grandiose designs has caused him to be characterized as both a megalomaniac and a visionary, his focus on polarity and the use of light and shadow was innovative, continues to influence architects to this day. He has influenced recent architects such as Aldo Rossi. Peter Greenaway's film The Belly of an Architect concerns a fictitious architect, staging an exhibition devoted to Boullée's work; the film contains many visual references to Boullée. Jean-Michel Faidit and starry temples in the Enlightenment: Boullée’s Newton Cenotaph, architectural precursor to Planetaria? Revue Plan
Busan kt Sonicboom is a professional basketball team based in Busan, South Korea. The team is a member of the Korean Basketball League, they play at the Sajik Arena. Their biggest rivals are the LG Sakers from neighbouring city of Changwon, matches between these two are always fiercely fought affairs. 1997–1999: Gwangju Nasan Flamans 1999–2000: Gwangju Goldbank Clickers 2000–2001: Yeosu Goldbank Clickers 2001–2003: Yeosu Korea Tender Purmi 2003: Busan Korea Tender Maxten 2003–2009: Busan KTF Magic Wings 2009–present: Busan kt Sonicboom KBL ChampionshipRunners-up: 2006–07KBL Regular SeasonWinners: 2010–11 Runners-up: 2009–10 Third place: 2006–07, 2011–12 Official website Busan KT Sonicboom at Asia-Basket
No. 313 Squadron RAF was a Czechoslovak-manned fighter squadron of the Royal Air Force in the Second World War. The squadron was formed at RAF Catterick on 10 May 1941, it was the last RAF squadron to be formed of escaped Czechoslovak pilots. Its first commander was the British Squadron Leader Gordon Sinclair. On 29 July, Czechoslovak fighter pilot Josef Jaške was appointed as joint commander of the squadron; the plan was for responsibility to be transferred from Sinclair to Jaške. The squadron was equipped with Supermarine Spitfire I fighters. On 30 June 1941 it moved to RAF Leconfield in the East Riding of Yorkshire. In August the squadron was re-equipped with the Spitfire IIA, on 25 August it moved to RAF Portreath in Cornwall. In October the squadron was re-equipped with the Spitfire VB/C. On 15 December 1941 Sqn Ldr Karel Mrázek succeeded Jaške as commanding officer and the squadron moved to RAF Hornchurch in Essex. On 8 June 1942 the squadron moved to RAF Church Stanton in Somerset and on 26 June Sqn Ldr Jaroslav Himr succeeded Mrázek as commanding officer.
In 1943 the squadron moved to Scotland, firstly on 28 June to RAF Sumburgh "A" in Shetland, shortly thereafter to RAF Peterhead "B" in Aberdeenshire. The squadron flew the Spitfire VI in June and July 1943. On 20 July it moved to RAF Hawkinge in Kent. On 18 September it moved to RAF Ibsley in Hampshire and on 24 September Sqn Ldr František Fajtl succeeded Himr as commanding officer. On 1 February 1944 Sqn Ldr Václav Bergman succeeded Fajtl as commanding officer. In February the squadron was re-equipped with the Spitfire IX; this model was fitted with 190-gallon "slipper" tanks to extend its range, enabling the squadron to escort bombers on raids deep into Germany. On 20 February the squadron moved to RAF Mendlesham in Suffolk. On 14 March it moved again, to RAF Rochford in Essex. On 3 April 1944 the squadron moved to RAF Appledram in West Sussex. On 22 May Sqn Ldr Alois Hochmál succeeded Bergman as commanding officer. From 29 June the squadron spent a few days at RAF Tangmere in West Sussex. On 4 July it spent a week at RAF Lympne in Kent.
On 11 July 1944 the squadron moved to RAF Skeabrae on Orkney in Scotland. The squadron flew the Spitfire VII in July and August 1944. On 3 October 1944 the squadron moved to RAF North Weald in Essex. In October it reverted to the Spitfire IX, which it continued to operate until the end of its history as an RAF unit. On 1 September 1944 Sqn Ldr Karel Kasal succeeded Hochmál as commanding officer, on 15 November Sqn Ldr Otmar Kučera succeeded Kasal. On 29 December the squadron moved to RAF Bradwell Bay in Essex. From 27 February to 8 May 1945 the squadron was based at RAF Manston in Kent. On 3 August members of all of the RAF's Czechoslovak squadrons held a farewell parade at RAF Manston. Air Marshal John Slessor inspected the parade, accompanied by A/M Karel Janoušek. On 24 August 313 Squadron moved to Ruzyně Airport in Prague, it became a squadron of the new Czechoslovak Air Force, on 15 February 1946 was disbanded as an RAF squadron. "313 Squadron". History RAF Formations. Ministry of Defence. "No. 313 Squadron RAF".
RAF Fighter Command 1939 – 1945. RAF Commands. 2013. – movement and equipment history "No 313 Squadron". Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation. Darlington, Roger. "Czechoslovaks in the RAF"