Boxholm Municipality is a municipality in Östergötland County in southeast Sweden. Its seat is located in the industrial town of Boxholm; the present municipality was formed in 1971, when the market town Boxholm was amalgamated with Södra Göstring and a parish from the dissolved municipality of Folkunga. Boxholm Strålsnäs The earliest human traces are from the Stone age, circa 8000 BC. From some times, the Nordic Bronze Age, are several remains such as cists and gravefields, and from the Viking Age, ca 800-1,000 AD, are seven kept runestones. After the christianisation of Sweden, churches were built in the 12th and 13th century, several churches have their foundation from that time; the name "Boxholm" is first to be found in the 16th century, as the name of a manor by Arvid Stenbock. Boxholm thus comes from "Bock's holm". An iron works was constructed in 1754, a community grew up around it; the major expansion were however made in the 1850-1900. Boxholm, Iowa Boxholm Municipality - Official site
Vadstena Municipality is a municipality in Östergötland County in southeast Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Vadstena; the old City of Vadstena was during the nationwide local government reform of the 1970s merged into Motala Municipality in 1974. This "marriage" was unsuccessful and a "divorce" was soon agreed upon and in 1980 the present municipality was created, it contains, however, 12 original units. Vadstena is situated by Sweden's second largest lake. Fishing was an important source of food when the town was first founded around the year 1000 AD, it continued to be dependent on fish and ship merchandise. There are two nature reserves in the municipality: The Ombergsliden, 230,000 m2 large, a lime-rich marsh, it has several notable plants, such as the uncommon orchid Tuber geophyte, the carnivorous Butterwort plant. The Kastad kulle torräng is a drumlin rich on lime, hosts several plants otherwise not found in the area, such as the Oxytropis pilosa, otherwise sparsely outside of Gotland.
Vadstena Castle Vadstena Abbey The Vadstena Hospital area and museum with buildings from the 16th century to the 20th century. Herrestad Church, inaugurated in 1112, which makes it one of the oldest dated stone churches in Sweden; the church tower was constructed around a century and is unmodified throughout the centuries. Rogslösa Church, from the 13th century, notable for its ornaments of Celtic influences. There are other interesting medieval churches in the municipality, such as Hagebyhöga Church, Väversunda Church, Hov Church, Örberga Church and Nässja Church. Most of these were begun on in the 12th century. Vadstena Municipality - Official site Tidernas Landskap - For current events
Valdemarsvik Municipality is a municipality in Östergötland County in southeast Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Valdemarsvik. Valdemarsvik was a market town under the city of Söderköping; when the first local government acts came into force in Sweden in 1863 Valdemarsvik was not made a municipality of its own, but part of Ringarum. It was detached from Ringarum in 1914; the municipal reform of 1971 created the present municipality by reuniting Ringarum with Valdemarsvik and adding Gryt and a part of the dissolved Tjust-Ed. The latter territory was transferred from Kalmar County. Geographically, it is notable for a harbour; the local church is with extensive renovations in the early 20th century. Lena Ek, former member of the European Parliament and the Riksdag, lives in Valdemarsvik Nils Liedholm, professional soccer player, was born and raised in Valdemarsvik These are the results of the Riksdag elections of Söderköping Municipality since the 1972 municipality reform; the results of the Sweden Democrats were not published by SCB between 1988 and 1998 at a municipal level to the party's small nationwide size at the time.
"Turnout" denotes the percentage of the electorate casting a ballot, whereas "Votes" only denotes valid votes. Blocs This lists the relative strength of the socialist and centre-right blocs since 1973, but parties not elected to the Riksdag are inserted as "other", including the Sweden Democrats results from 1988 to 2006, but the Christian Democrats pre-1991 and the Greens in 1982, 1985 and 1991; the sources are identical to the table above. The coalition or government mandate marked in bold formed the government after the election. New Democracy got elected in 1991 but are still listed as "other" due to the short lifespan of the party. "Elected" is the total number of percentage points from the municipality that went to parties who were elected to the Riksdag. Valdemarsvik Municipality - Official site Article Valdemarsvik - From Nordisk familjebok
Vättern is the second largest lake by surface area in Sweden, after Vänern, the sixth largest lake in Europe. It is a long, finger-shaped body of fresh water in south central Sweden, to the southeast of Vänern, pointing at the tip of Scandinavia. One of the etymologies for the name Vättern is from the Swedish word for water; this origin is, unclear and in dispute. It has been suggested that the archaic term "vätter", meaning forest or lake spirits, is the origin of the lake's name; the lake's total surface area is about 1,912 km2, with a drainage basin a little over double that, about 4,503 km2. The deepest known point, located to the south of the island of Visingsö, is 128 meters; the average depth is 41 meters. The lake has a perimeter of about 642 km; the volume is 77.0 km3. These numbers tend to be fixed. Situated in Götaland, the lake is drained by Motala ström, starting at Motala, flowing through a controlled canal into the Baltic Sea; the lake includes the scenic island of Visingsö, located outside Gränna.
Other towns on the lake include Vadstena, Jönköping, Askersund, Åmmeberg and Karlsborg. It is bounded by the Provinces of Närke, Östergötland and Småland. In the north there is a scenic but not Alsen. About 62% of the drainage basin is still covered with spruce and deciduous forest. About 26.7% is dedicated to agriculture. While many of smaller lakes in southern Sweden are thought to have originated by glacial stripping of an irregular weathering mantle in the last 2.5 million years Vättern formed by tectonics as a graben 700 to 800 million years ago in the Neoproterozoic. Granitic basement rocks in the lake are deformed by the Protogine Zone; the basin is filled by sedimentary rock of the Visingsö Group of Neoproterozoic age. This group include rocks such as conglomerate, sandstone and carbonates; the older of these sediments deposited. Acritarch microfossils such as Chuaria circularis are common in Visingsö Group. Vättern is located in a graben, formed by crustal movements in the east-west direction 40 to 50 Mya.
During the most recent millions of years multiple glaciations have covered the lake and its surroundings, leaving glacial striations and drumlins as they receded. The present-day lake began as an independent body of water left by the receding Scandinavian glacier after the last glacial period around 10,000 BP, it became a minor bay of the Baltic ice lake. Most of the lake's relict species date from that time. Subsequently, it was a bay of Yoldia Sea and became connected to Ancylus Lake, discharging from the north end of its extent. At about 8000 BP an accident of the uneven Scandinavian isostatic land rise brought Vättern above Ancylus and the two became distinct; the annual post-glacial rebound today is 3.5 mm in northeastern Motala and 2.6 mm in southern Jönköping. This means; the lake contains both zooplankton, such as Copepoda and Cladocera. The benthos species include Crustacea, Oligochaeta and Bivalvia. In addition are several species of fish, including Salvelinus salvelinus, Coregonus lavaretus and Salmo salar.
The lake is known for its Vättern char, as it is called, Salvelinus alpinus. It is said, it is however not nearly as famous as the one living in Storsjön. Vättern has been famous for the excellent quality of its transparent water. Many of the municipalities in the area receive their drinking water directly from Vättern; the lake water requires little treatment before being pumped into the municipal systems and the natural, untreated water can be safely drunk from any point in the lake. It has been suggested; the surrounding municipalities process 100% of their sewage. Vättern is known for the annual recreational cycling race Vätternrundan, attracting some 20,000 participants to finish the 300 km trip around the shores of the lake. Vättern is noted for its fishing, serving people in the nearby districts. Tourist sport fishermen and vacationers are free to fish in the lake; the lake is used for commercial fishing. A number of industries provide employment in the drainage basin: mining, manufacturing and paper.
Agriculturalists raise cattle, sheep and poultry. According to the Catholic Church, Saint Catherine of Vadstena performed a miracle involving three people in peril on lake ice. Thomas Nashe mentions this lake in his Terrors of the Night, although he mistakenly locates the lake in Iceland: Admirable, above the rest, are the incomprehensible wonders of the bottomless Lake Vether, over which no fowl flies but is frozen to death, nor any man passeth but he is senselessly benumbed like a statue of marble. All the inhabitants round about it are deafened with the hideous roaring of his waters when the winter breaketh up, the ice in his dissolving gives a terrible crack like to thunder, whenas out of the midst of it, as out of Mont-Gibell, a sulphureous stinking smoke issues, that wellnigh poisons the whole country. Lake Vether is mentioned in Samuel Johnson's essay for The Idler No. 96, on Hacho of Lapland. Ingmar Bergman shot a scene in his classic film Wild Strawberries on a restaurant terrace overlooking Vättern.
Lakes of Sweden Media related to Vättern at Wikimedia Commons "Vetter". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. Vattern
Linköping is a city in southern Sweden, with 158,841 inhabitants as of 2018. It is the 7th largest city in Sweden, it is the capital of Östergötland County. Linköping is the episcopal see of the Diocese of Linköping and is well known for its cathedral. Linköping is the center of an old cultural region and celebrated its 700th anniversary in 1987. Dominating the city's skyline from afar is the steeple of the cathedral, Domkyrka. Nowadays Linköping is known for its high-technology industry. Linköping wants to create a sustainable development of the city and therefore plans to become a carbon neutral community by 2025. Located on the Östergötland Plain, Linköping is linked to Norrköping 40 kilometres to the east near the sea; the city is named after the Lionga ting assembly which according to Medieval Scandinavian laws was the most important thing in Östergötland. Exact location of the Lionga ting is not known; the term" - köping" means. Linköping is famed for being an early diocese, second in Sweden only to Skara.
The diocese is first mentioned in 1104 in the so-called "List of Florence". The monastery of Vreta Kloster near Roxen north of Linköping was established in 1128, the oldest parts of the cathedral are from the 12th century. On several occasions attempts to achieve a separate Swedish archdiocese were based in Linköping, when they were successful in 1164, Uppsala was chosen instead. Religious centers tend to become educational centers, Linköping was no exception. A cathedral school can be traced from 1266. In 1627 the current Linköping cathedral school was established, making it the third oldest gymnasium in Sweden. Linköping was the site for the final settlement of the dispute between king Sigismund III Vasa and his uncle Duke Charles, the latter prevailing in the battle of Stångebro on 25 September 1598; this led to the rise to the throne of Charles and the end of the short-lived Swedish-Polish personal union, as well as the execution of five of Charles's political opponents on the main square of Linköping on 20 March 1600.
Linköping was a small town until 1937, when the Saab aircraft industry was formed, starting a period of rapid expansion. Linköping University was established in the 1960s. Today the city is a center of software industry. Linköping has a humid continental climate, though with maritime influences, retaining the large differences between seasons but being comparatively mild when measured against other areas of the world on similar latitudes. Linköping tends to be cooler in summer than nearby areas in the Mälar valley, but still is the weather station in Sweden among the listed for monthly statistics, that has come the closest to a subtropical month, with July 1914 having a mean temperature of 21.8 °C, with the subtropical border being at 22 °C for the warmest month. Summer highs average in the low 20' and winter temperatures hover just above the freezing point during the day falls below it at night. Top 5 largest immigrant communities: 1. Iraq – 3800 2. Somalia 2345 3. Eritrea 1129 4. Iran 988 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 667 Linköping offers a wealth of leisure activities to people of all ages.
Residents and visitors are able to enjoy art, history, markets and sporting events. Special sights of interests are: the locks of Berg on the Göta Canal, the locks of the Kinda Canal, Gamla Linköping, Valla skogen and Valla fritidsområde, Flygvapen museum, Linköping's domkyrka, Slotts- och domkyrkomuseet and Östergötlands Länsmuseum. Konsthallen Passagen is an art gallery located in the main square. Tornby, to the north of the city centre, is a vast shopping area with huge retail outlets and immense parking lots; the city and its environs offer all sorts of green landscapes to experience. Two examples are a park named after the group responsible for it, Trädgårdsföreningen, the Tinnerö area with its oak woodland. Local bodies of water include the lakes Roxen, Rängen and Järnlunden, the River Stångån/Kinda Canal and the Göta Canal with the Berg locks; these areas can be accessed by bicycle, or boat. Linköping is the home of the Linköping Symphony Orchestra; the city is one of the sites of the Östergötland Music Days each summer, the host of the Student Orchestra Festival in May every other year.
One of the most notable choirs in Linköping is the Linköping University Male Voice Choir. Linköping is the home of theatrical heavy metal band Ghost and rock band the Pusjkins; the area around the main square was re-planned in the 1960s, many old houses were destroyed. Some, were moved to Gamla Linköping, in the city's western part, neighbouring the university's main campus, it is a popular site with both residents and tourists. NärCon, the largest anime and gaming convention in the Nordic countries, is held in Linköping. Teams from Linköping are prominent in floorball and ice hockey; the hockey team all
Västra Götaland County
Västra Götaland County is a county or län on the western coast of Sweden. The county is the second largest of Sweden's counties and it is subdivided into 49 municipalities, its population of 1,616,000 amounts to 17% of Sweden's population. The formal capital and seat of the governor of Västra Götaland County is Gothenburg; the political capital and seat of the Västra Götaland Regional Council is Vänersborg. The county was established in 01 January 1998, when Älvsborg County and Bohus County and Skaraborg County were merged. Sweden's counties are of greater importance than its provinces; the counties are the main administrative units for politics and population counts. Due to its size and young age, the Västra Götaland County has no common inheritance. Of cultural and historical significance are the provinces that Västra Götaland County consists of: Västergötland, Bohuslän and Dalsland. There is an insignificant part of the province Halland within the county. In addition, the previous counties that were abolished in 1998 had been in use since the 17th century, therefore have some cultural and historical significance.
Västra Götaland County borders to the counties of Värmland, Örebro, Östergötland, Jönköping and Halland. It is bounded by the Norwegian county of Østfold, lakes Vättern and Vänern, as well as the strait of Skagerrak. Västra Götaland was created in 1998 by a merger of the three former counties of Gothenburg and Bohus County, Älvsborg County and Skaraborg County; the seat of residence for the Governors or Landshövding is Gothenburg, while the seat of political administration and power is Vänersborg. The Governor is the head of the County Administrative Länsstyrelse; the Västra Götaland Regional Council or Västra Götalandsregionen is an evolved County Council that for a trial period has assumed certain tasks from the County Administrative Board. Similar trial councils are applied for Gotland County; the arms for the County of Västra Götaland were granted in 1998. They are a combination of the provincial arms of Västergötland, Bohuslän and Dalsland and the arms of the city of Gothenburg; when the arms are shown with a royal crown they represent the County Administrative Board, the regional presence of government authority.
Blazon: "Quartered, I. the arms of Gothenburg, II. The arms of Bohuslän, III; the arms of Dalsland turned in courtoisie, IV. the arms of Västergötland." List of Västra Götaland Governors Region Västra Götaland Västra Götaland County Administrative Board Gothenburg Regional Association of Local Authorities Sjuhärad Regional Association of Local Authorities Skaraborg Regional Association of Local Authorities Fyrbodals Regional Association of Local Authorities
Örebro County is a county or län in central Sweden. It borders the counties of Västra Götaland, Värmland, Dalarna, Västmanland, Södermanland and Östergötland, it is culturally divided into the hilly northern region of Bergslagen, where mining and metallurgic industry have been important since the Middle Ages, the southern Mälardalen of lakes and farms. Sweden's counties are administrative units, whereas the provinces of Sweden fit cultural and historical boundaries. Örebro County consists of the province of Närke, the western half of Västmanland and minor parts of eastern Värmland and northeastern Västergötland. Örebro County is named after its capital city, Örebro, which in 2010 was the sixth largest city of Sweden. Official 2010 numbers sourced in the localities section indicate that 38% of the county population is living in the city of Örebro alone. Örebro itself contains just as many inhabitants as the 23 other largest localities put together, has grown ever since the official statistics began in the late 1960s.
The county was named Värmland County until 1779 when Värmland County seceded. The main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests of the county, to promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case; the County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Örebro Governors; the County Council of Örebro or Örebro läns landsting, appointed by the electorate of the county, is responsible for health care and public transportation. The southern Närke plain, the forested north and the highland to the west makes for a varying landscape. Örebro County has coastlines on two of them. Capital Örebro is alongside Hjälmaren, located inland along Svartån; the southern area of the county has a transitional climate between oceanic and continental, with warm summers and cold, variable winters.
Örebro has a July high of around 23 °C and winter highs around 0 °C with frosts being frequent from November to April. The proximity to the major lakes moderates winter temperatures somewhat, undermining the continental effects of its inland position; the northern areas of the county are cooler year-round. The summer temperatures on the Närke Plain are some of the warmest in all of Scandinavia and by extension Northern Europe. Örebro County is divided into 12 municipalities. The arms for the County of Örebro is a combination of the arms of Västmanland and Värmland; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Duke of Närke, a title for members of the royal family County Administrative Board of Örebro