Ötzi called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, the Hauslabjoch mummy, is the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, hence the nickname "Ötzi", near Similaun mountain and Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy, he is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy. Ötzi was found on 19 September 1991 by two German tourists, at an elevation of 3,210 metres on the east ridge of the Fineilspitze in the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian–Italian border. The tourists and Erika Simon, were walking off the path between the mountain passes Hauslabjoch and Tisenjoch, they believed that the body was of a deceased mountaineer. The next day, a mountain gendarme and the keeper of the nearby Similaunhütte first attempted to remove the body, frozen in ice below the torso, using a pneumatic drill and ice-axes, but had to give up due to bad weather.
The next day, eight groups visited the site, among whom were mountaineers Hans Kammerlander and Reinhold Messner. The body was semi-officially extracted on 22 September and salvaged the following day, it was transported to the office of the medical examiner in Innsbruck, together with other objects found. On 24 September, the find was examined there by archaeologist Konrad Spindler of the University of Innsbruck, he dated the find to be "about four thousand years old", based on the typology of an axe among the retrieved objects. At the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye of 1919, the border between North and South Tyrol was defined as the watershed of the rivers Inn and Etsch. Near Tisenjoch the glacier complicated establishing the watershed at the time, the border was established too far north. Although Ötzi's find site drains to the Austrian side, surveys in October 1991 showed that the body had been located 92.56 metres inside Italian territory as delineated in 1919. The province of South Tyrol therefore claimed property rights, but agreed to let Innsbruck University finish its scientific examinations.
Since 1998, it has been on display at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, the capital of South Tyrol. The corpse has been extensively examined, measured, X-rayed, dated. Tissues and intestinal contents have been examined microscopically, as have the items found with the body. In August 2004, frozen bodies of three Austro-Hungarian soldiers killed during the Battle of San Matteo were found on the mountain Punta San Matteo in Trentino. One body was sent to a museum in the hope that research on how the environment affected its preservation would help unravel Ötzi's past. By current estimates, at the time of his death, Ötzi was 160 centimetres tall, weighed about 50 kilograms, was about 45 years of age; when his body was found, it weighed 13.750 kilograms. Because the body was covered in ice shortly after his death, it had only deteriorated. Initial reports claimed that his penis and most of his scrotum were missing, but this was shown to be unfounded. Analysis of pollen, dust grains and the isotopic composition of his tooth enamel indicates that he spent his childhood near the present village of Feldthurns, north of Bolzano, but went to live in valleys about 50 kilometres farther north.
In 2009, a CAT scan revealed that the stomach had shifted upward to where his lower lung area would be. Analysis of the contents revealed the digested remains of ibex meat, confirmed by DNA analysis, suggesting he had a meal less than two hours before his death. Wheat grains were found, it is believed that Ötzi most had a few slices of a dried, fatty meat bacon, which came from a wild goat in South Tyrol, Italy. Analysis of Ötzi's intestinal contents showed two meals, one of chamois meat, the other of red deer and herb bread; the grain eaten with both meals was a processed einkorn wheat bran, quite eaten in the form of bread. In the proximity of the body, thus originating from the Iceman's provisions and grains of einkorn and barley, seeds of flax and poppy were discovered, as well as kernels of sloes and various seeds of berries growing in the wild. Hair analysis was used to examine his diet from several months before. Pollen in the first meal showed that it had been consumed in a mid-altitude conifer forest, other pollens indicated the presence of wheat and legumes, which may have been domesticated crops.
Pollen grains of hop-hornbeam were discovered. The pollen was well preserved, with the cells inside remaining intact, indicating that it had been fresh at the time of Ötzi's death, which places the event in the spring or early summer. Einkorn wheat is harvested in the late summer, sloes in the autumn. High levels of both copper particles and arsenic were found in Ötzi's hair. This, along with Ötzi's copper axe blade, 99.7% pure copper, has led scientists to speculate that Ötzi was involved in copper smelting. By examining the proportions of Ötzi's tibia and pelvis, Christopher Ruff has determined that Ötzi's lifestyle included long walks over hilly terrain; this degree of mobility is not characteristic of other Copper Age Europeans. Ruff proposes that this may indicate that
Jerry Hardin is an American actor. Hardin has appeared in film and television roles, including the character nicknamed Deep Throat in the The X-Files. Hardin was born in Texas and studied acting at London's Royal Academy of Dramatic Art before beginning his acting career in New York, he is married with two children. Jerry Hardin was born in Dallas on November 20, 1929, his father was a rancher, Jerry spent his youth involved with his local church and performing in school plays. He attended Southwestern University in Georgetown, Texas, on a scholarship before going on to study at London's Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, earning a scholarship there through the Fulbright Program, he spent several years there before returning to the United States to begin acting in New York, performing in regional theatre for twelve years. Hardin began acting on television in the 1950s in character roles, he amassed over a hundred appearances by the early 1990s, in addition to more than seventy-five theatrical credits by the early 1960s.
His television appearances include roles in the 1976 western series Sara, World War III, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Voyager and Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman. Hardin appeared in such films as Thunder Road, Our Time,The Rockford Files, Chilly Scenes of Winter, 1941, Missing, Honkytonk Man, Mass Appeal, Warning Sign, Big Trouble in Little China, Let's Get Harry, Wanted: Dead or Alive, Little Nikita, The Milagro Beanfield War, The Hot Spot, The Firm, his role in 1993's The Firm won Hardin the attention of television writer Chris Carter, who cast him in the recurring role of Deep Throat in the series The X-Files. Hardin believed his initial appearance in the second episode of the first season, airing on September 17, 1993, would be a one-time role, but he soon found himself commuting to the series' Vancouver filming location on short notice. After filming the character's death in the first season finale, "The Erlenmeyer Flask", Hardin was toasted with champagne, told by Carter that "no one really dies on X-Files".
As such, Hardin made several more appearances as Deep Throat after this, seen in visions in the third season's "The Blessing Way" and the seventh season's "The Sixth Extinction II: Amor Fati", in flashbacks in the fourth season's "Musings of a Cigarette Smoking Man", as one of the guises assumed by a shapeshifting alien in the third season's finale, "Talitha Cumi". Hardin is married, with two children, his wife Diane is an acting coach. Despite Hardin's claim that he "did my best to discourage my own children from doing it", his daughter Melora Hardin is an actress, known for roles as Trudy Monk in Monk and Jan Levinson in The Office, his son Shawn Hardin works for television studio NBC. Edwards, Ted. X-Files Confidential. Little and Company. ISBN 0-316-21808-1. Lovece, Frank; the X-Files Declassified. Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-1745-X. Lowry, Brian; the Truth is Out There: The Official Guide to the X-Files. Harper Prism. ISBN 0-06-105330-9. Jerry Hardin on IMDb
The Illinois Central Railroad's No. 1 was the railroad's only 4-6-4 "Hudson" type locomotive and the only 4-6-4 in North America built for freight service. It was rebuilt in the railroad's own shops from Illinois Central 7000 class 2-8-4 "Berkshire" No. 7038 in 1937 as an experiment to haul fast freight trains, which were growing too large for 4-6-2 "Pacific" types and required more speed than the road's 2-8-2 locomotives could manage. The experiment was not successful; the locomotive proved prone to slipping, because its factor of adhesion was low. John L. McIntyre, the road foreman of engines at Clinton, Illinois where the locomotive was assigned during the 1938–1939 period, made some modifications to the locomotive, including to the weight equalization across the locomotives' wheels and to reduce the cylinder diameter from 27 to 24 inches; the latter was to reduce the starting tractive effort to a level the locomotive's grip on the rails could handle. The improvements were successful, but not to the degree that the railroad ordered any further conversions.
In 1945, the locomotive was renumbered 2499 and assigned to passenger service between Louisville and Fulton, Kentucky. It was soon after scrapped. Barris, Wes. "Illinois Central Hudsons". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 2006-03-07. Retrieved 2006-01-23. "Illinois Central Number 1". Illinois-Central.net. Retrieved 2006-01-23