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├śresund

Øresund or Öresund known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand from Scania. The strait has a length of 118 kilometres and the width varies from 4 kilometres to 28 kilometres, it is 4 kilometres wide at its narrowest point between Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden. Øresund is along with the Great Belt, Little Belt and Kiel Canal one of four waterways that connects the Baltic Sea to the Atlantic Ocean via Kattegat and the North Sea, is one of the busiest waterways in the world. The Øresund Bridge, between the Danish capital Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö, inaugurated on 1 July 2000, connects a bi-national metropolitan area with close to 4 million inhabitants; the HH Ferry route, between Helsingør, Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden, in the northern part of Øresund, is one of the world's busiest international ferry routes with more than 70 departures from each harbour per day.Øresund is a geologically young strait that formed 8500–8000 years ago as a result of rising sea levels.

The Ancylus Lake, a fresh-water body occupying the Baltic basin, had been connected to the sea by the Great Belt. As such the entrance of salt water by Øresund marked the beginning of the modern Baltic Sea as a salt-water sea; the strait is called Øresund in Danish and Öresund in informally Sundet in both languages. The first part of the name is øre "gravel/sand beach", the second part is sund, i.e. "sound, strait". The name is first attested on a runestone dated to ca. AD 1000, where it is written as ura suti, read as Old East Norse /øːrasundi/; the Old West Norse form of the name is Eyrarsund. Ör is the modern form of the old Norse word meaning a gravel beach or shoal forming a spit. Such landforms are common in the area and "ör" is found in many place names along the strait e.g. Helsingør, Skanör, Dragør and Halör, an important center of trade during the Viking Age; the northern boundary between Øresund and Kattegat is a line which goes from Gilleleje at Zealand's northern peak to the westernmost point of Kullaberg at the smaller peninsula north of Helsingborg, known as Kullahalvön.

In the south, the boundary towards the Baltic Sea starts at Stevns Klint, at the westernmost peak of the peninsula just south of Køge Bay, Stevns Peninsula to Falsterbo at the Falsterbo peninsula. Its eastern boundary is the Swedish coastline. Amager has eight connections with Zealand as well as a combined motorway and dual track railway to Scania and Sweden. Øresund, like other Danish and Danish-German straits, is at the border between oceanic salt water and the far less salty Baltic Sea. As the Kattegat in the north has oceanic conditions and the Baltic Sea has brackish water, Øresund's water conditions are rather unusual and shifting; the streams are complex, but the surface stream is northbound which gives a lower surface salinity, though streams can change from one day to another. The average surface salinity is about 10–12 PSU in the southern part but above 20 PSU north of Helsingør. Near the seafloor, conditions are more stable and salinity is always oceanic below a certain depth that varies between 10 and 15 metres.

In the southern part, the depth is 5–6 metres, this is the definite border of oceanic salt water, therefore a border for many maritime species of animals. Only 52 known salt-water species reside in the central Baltic Sea, compared to around 1500 in the North Sea. Close to 600 species are known to exist in at least some part of Øresund. Well-known examples, for which the bottom salinity makes a distinct breeding border, include lobster, small crabs, several species of flatfish and the lion's mane jellyfish. There are daily tides, but the lunar attraction cannot force much water to move from west to east, or vice versa, in narrow waters where the current is either northbound or southbound. So, not much of the difference in water levels in Øresund is due to daily tides, other circumstances "hide" the little tide that still remains; the current has a much stronger effect than the tide on the water level, but strong winds may affect the water level. During exceptional conditions, such as storms and hurricanes, oceanic water may flow into the Baltic Sea at all depths.

Such events give deep waters in the southern Baltic Sea higher salinity, which makes it possible for cod to breed there. If no such inflow of oceanic water to the Baltic Sea occurs for around a decade, the breeding of cod becomes endangered; when the current shifts from northbound to southbound, it never turns 180 degrees with the same flow, instead does the current "slow down to zero" and begins to flow in opposite direction. Political control of Øresund has been an important issue in Swedish history. Denmark maintained military control with the coastal fortress of Kronborg at Elsinore on the west side and Kärnan at Helsingborg on the east, until the eastern shor

Aurora (1789 ship)

Aurora was launched at Whitby in 1789. Between 1799 and 1806 she made four voyages as a whaler to the British Southern Whale Fishery, she was last listed in 1809 with stale data since her whaling voyages. Aurora first appeared in the Register of Shipping in 1800 with J. Bevan, Mellish & Co. owner, trade London–South Seas. It gave her origin as "British", stated that she had undergone a thorough repair. By the 1802 volume the RS showed Aurora's master as Massey, her origin as Whitby, her having undergone the thorough repair in 1799. Aurora first appeared in Lloyd's Register in 1802 with S. Macey, Millen & Co. owner, trade London–Southern Fishery. Peter Mellish owned Aurora for all four of her whaling voyages.1st whaling voyage: Captain Stephen Macey sailed from London on 3 May 1799, bound for Walvis Bay. Aurora returned to London on 15 April 1801.2nd whaling voyage: Captain James Birnie acquired a letter of marque on 2 June 1801. Aurora left England on 23 June, returned on 4 July 1804.3rd whaling voyage: Captain Thomas Gray, sailed from England on 21 February 1803.

He sailed during the Peace of Amiens and so did not acquire a letter of marque. Aurora returned on 6 April 1804.4th whaling voyage: Captain Peter Long acquired a letter of marque on 4 July 1804. Captain Peleg Long sailed from England on 4 September 1804. Cyrus reported that Aurora had been at Saint Helena on 26 March 1806, having arrived from Brazil with 200 barrels of sperm oil and 300 barrels of whale oil. At St Helena Aurora took on part of the cargo of oil from Commerce, which intended to continue to seek out whales. Aurora returned to England on 10 June 1806. Aurora was last listed in 1809 with stale data since her whaling voyages. Citations References Weatherill, Richard The ancient port of Whitby and its shipping

Abdel-Zaher El-Saqqa

Abdel-Zaher El-Saqqa is an Egyptian retired footballer. He won 112 caps for the Egypt national side, scoring 4 goals. Beginning his career in Egypt with El Mansoura, El-Saka has played in Turkey with Denizlispor, Gençlerbirliği, Konyaspor and Eskişehirspor, he has Turkish citizenship with the name Abdel Zaher El Saka. "Gençlerbirliği Site Profile". Archived from the original on 2008-10-28. Retrieved 2008-10-28. Abdel-Zaher El-Saqqa at the Turkish Football Federation Abdel-Zaher El-Saqqa – FIFA competition record Abdel-Zaher El-Saqqa at National-Football-Teams.com