Scania, Swedish: Skåne, is the southernmost province of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities. Scania's largest city is Malmö, the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia. To the north, Scania borders the provinces of Halland and Småland, to the northeast Blekinge, to the east and south the Baltic Sea, to the west Öresund. Since 2000, a road and railway bridge, the Øresund Bridge, bridges the sound to Denmark. Scania is part of the transnational Øresund Region. From north to south Scania covers less than 3 % of Sweden's total area; the population of over 1,320,000 represents 13% of the country's population. With 121 inh/km2 Scania is the second most densely populated province of Sweden. Scania was part of the kingdom of Denmark, up until the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. Denmark regained control of the province during the Scanian War 1676–1679 and again in 1711. Scania was formally included in Sweden in 1720; the endonym used in Swedish and other North Germanic languages is Skåne.
The Latinized form Scania occurs in British English as an exonym. However, sometimes the endonym Skåne is used in English text, such as in tourist information sometimes as Skane with the diacritic omitted, wrong both in Swedish and English. Scania is the only Swedish province for which exonyms are still used in many languages, e.g. French Scanie and German Schonen, Polish Skania, Spanish Escania, Italian Scania, etc. For the province's modern administrative counterpart, Skåne län, the endonym Skåne is used in English. In the Alfredian translation of Orosius's and Wulfstan's travel accounts, the Old English form Sconeg appears. Frankish sources mention; the names Scania and Scandinavia are considered to have the same etymology and the southernmost tip of what is today Sweden was called Scania by the Romans and thought to be an island. The actual etymology of the word remains dubious and has long been a matter of debate among scholars; the name is derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjã, which appears in Old Norse as Skáney.
According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage". Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks". Between 1719 and 1996, the province was subdivided in two administrative counties, Kristianstad County and Malmöhus County, each under a governor appointed by the central government of Sweden; when the first local government acts took effect in 1863, each county got an elected county council. The counties were further divided into municipalities; the local government reform of 1952 reduced the number of municipalities, a second subdivision reform, carried out between 1968 and 1974, established today's 33 municipalities in Scania. The municipalities have municipal governments, similar to city commissions, are further divided into parishes; the parishes are entities of the Church of Sweden, but they serve as a divisioning measure for the Swedish population registration and other statistical uses.
In 1999, the county council areas were amalgamated, forming Skåne Regional Council, responsible for public healthcare, public transport and regional planning and culture. During the Danish era, the province had no coat of arms. In Sweden, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560; when Charles X Gustav of Sweden died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province, as each province was to be represented by its arms at his royal funeral. After an initiative from Baron Gustaf Bonde, the Lord High Treasurer of Sweden, the coat of arms of the City of Malmö was used as a base for the new provincial arms; the Malmö coat of arms had been granted in 1437, during the Kalmar Union, by Eric of Pomerania and contains a Pomeranian griffin's head. To distinguish it from the city's coat of arms the tinctures were changed and the official blazon for the provincial arms is, in English: Or, a griffin's head erased gules, crowned azure and armed azure, when it should be armed.
The province was divided in two administrative counties 1719–1996. Coats of arms were created for these entities using the griffin motif; the new Skåne County, operative from 1 January 1997, got a coat of arms, the same as the province's, but with reversed tinctures. When the county arms is shown with a Swedish royal crown, it represents the County Administrative Board, the regional presence of central government authority. In 1999 the two county councils were amalgamated forming Region Skåne, it is the only one of its kind using a heraldic coat of arms. It is the same as the province's and the county's, but with a golden griffin's head on a blue shield; the 33 municipalities within the county have coats of arms. The Scania Griffin has become a well-known symbol for the province and is used by commercial enterprises, it is, for instance, included in the logotypes of the automotive manufacturer Scania AB and the airline Malmö Aviation. Coat of arms: Scania was first mentioned in written texts in the 9th century.
Federalist No. 21, written by Alexander Hamilton, highlights the defects in the Articles of Confederation. It was published on December 12, 1787 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all The Federalist papers were published, it is titled "Other Defects of the Present Confederation", explains how the Articles of Confederation failed in 3 ways: by not giving the government enough power to enforce its laws, that the states do not have a guarantee of their rights, how the states can ignore the tax quotas set by the government. During the 1780s, as the problems of the Articles of Confederation became apparent, two schools of thought emerged. One was the Federalist party, which wanted a strong general government that could unite all of the independent states to protect America from invasion from other countries and from people and groups inside the country who might protest or rebel. With the strong general government of the new constitution, Congress would be able to pass and enforce laws and policies around the country.
The other party, the anti-federalists, wanted the opposite, a weak general government that had little influence or power over the states, counted among their supporters Thomas Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence. The Federalist Papers are 85 individual articles written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and were intended for the people of New York; the purpose of these papers was to convince the states to ratify the United States Constitution by pointing out the flaws in the Articles of Confederation. Jay and Madison all addressed various issues in the articles Hamilton writing the majority of them. Under the Articles of Confederation, the states governed themselves; the general government had little influence on the authoritative role in the United States, though they implemented laws they did not prosecute when those rules were broken. In his essay, Hamilton states "the United States as now composed have no power to exact obedience, or punish disobedience to their resolutions, either by pecuniary mulcts…or by any other constitutional means.".
The enforcement of laws was put on the people in the country, deciding for themselves to submit to the laws the national government enacted or disregarding them due to the lack of repercussions. It is stated, by Justice Story, that calling the form of government they had prior to the adoption of the Constitution a "compact" implied that the states would govern themselves and could decide to breach the contract among themselves. Confusion between the state government and the people would occur, due to the lack of enforcement of the laws from either the state or national government; this new form of republic would represent both the people and the states and allow states and national governments to coexist. State interests were the route of the Confederation. Americans had to be convinced to put their trust in the "promotion of individual interests and the protection of individual liberty"; the Framers were cabining and debating the influence of the government. The Framers had looked towards history to see that republic and princes had not worked well, both would lead to defect from alliances and leagues when presented in that circumstance.
It is stated that a strong general government is needed, but it is essential for states to maintain authority over certain aspects that do not affect the rest. While some power would remain in the constituent polities and others should be given to the "system". Alexander Hamilton feared that if states and fractions prevailed, the Union, unless backed by a strong general government, would break into two or three rival confederacies that would be the target of European alliance systems. Along with this, the national government would not intervene with state's internal affairs. In order for the United States to be a successful country, the states had to stay unified in some way. Had the states maintained their own government and became their own entities, they would be at risk towards the invasion from other countries. Hamilton believed separate states would be inferior to the countries that threaten invasion, this would cause more conflicts and would take a greater effort to rectify Federalist 21 wanted to establish what Hamilton calls "a mutual guarantee of the state government's".
This mutual guarantee would be like a security blanket to the states, allowing the national government to give aid in conflict. After the Revolutionary War, the states were in no shape to fight in a battle, they were underfunded to stage a legitimate counterattack. The government could not protect its states; this would cause a lot of problems since the states were separate entities at the time and anyone of them could have invaded their next door neighbor, the nation was just in a war so they would have been weak and invaded by another country. If that happened, the government would not have been able to do anything like send in soldiers to help fight for the states freedom. Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government had no power to aid the state; the third defect Hamilton focused on was that there was no definite or equal quota that each individual state had to pay. The national debt was increasing, there was no sort of income tax to diminish this debt. Hamilton advocated for other ways of minimizing the national debt.
He proposed options such as increasing taxes, adapting a new monetary system for the United States, and
William D. Carmody is a retired American men's college basketball coach the head coach at the College of the Holy Cross, he was the head coach of the Wildcats men's basketball team at Northwestern University from 2000 through 2013. From 1996 through 2000, Carmody was the head coach at Princeton University. Carmody was born in Rahway, New Jersey, grew up in Spring Lake, where he attended St. Rose High School, a Roman Catholic private school, in nearby Belmar, he attended and graduated from Union College in Schenectady, New York, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history in 1975. He led Union's basketball team to a 59–11 record in his three years as a starter. After graduating from Union College, Carmody served as head coach of Fulton-Montgomery Community College in Johnstown, New York, led the team to a 17–10 record and conference title in his only season there, he returned to Union the following year as an assistant coach under head coach Bill Scanlon. In 1980, Carmody became a part-time assistant at Providence College, where he worked for 2 seasons under head coach Gary Walters.
From 1982 through 1996, he was an assistant basketball coach at Princeton University under the Tigers' legendary coach, Pete Carril. After fourteen years, he became the head coach in 1996. Despite not being able to offer athletic scholarships due to Ivy League rules, Carmody's 1997–1998 team reached a ranking as high as 7th nationally, was ranked 8th nationally going into the NCAA Tournament; this led to a number-five seed in the NCAA Tournament. That team lost in the second round of the tournament to #4 seed Michigan State, was ranked 16th nationally at the conclusion of the tournament, he is considered one of the leading practitioners of the Princeton offense. While coaching Princeton, he established the Ivy League career winning percentage record of 78.6%, going 92–25. In 2000, he succeeded Kevin O'Neill as the head coach of the Northwestern Wildcats Men's Basketball Team. One of his top assistants from 2000 to 2006 was Craig Robinson, the brother of former First Lady Michelle Obama. From 2008–2014, Robinson was the head coach at Oregon State University.
In 2003–04, Carmody led the Wildcats to an 8–8 record in Big Ten play, their first non-losing record in conference play since 1967–68. On January 18, Northwestern defeated the then-number-seventeen Minnesota Golden Gophers. On January 21, 2009, Carmody's Kevin Coble-led Wildcats defeated number-seven Michigan State University at the Breslin Center in East Lansing, Michigan earning their second consecutive win over an opponent ranked in the AP top 25, marking the first time in school history for such a feat; the 2008–09 unit became the first in school history to win 20 games and flirted with the first NCAA Tournament appearance in school history. On December 28, 2009, Northwestern was ranked number 25 in the Associated Press Basketball Poll, marking the first time Northwestern had been ranked in the AP Poll since 1969; the 2009–10 team notched the school's second-ever 20-win season. Despite Carmody's efforts to upgrade the Wildcat program, his teams never finished higher than fifth in the Big Ten, his 2003–04 team was the only one that finished with a.500 record in conference play.
After the Wildcats suffered their first losing season in six years, Carmody was fired on March 16, 2013. He left behind only Dutch Lonborg. After spending the 2014–15 season as a special assistant and advisor to Fairfield coach Sydney Johnson, Carmody was hired as the head coach of the Holy Cross Crusaders in March 2015. In Carmody's first year with the Crusaders, his team won the Patriot League Tournament Championship. After going 0–9 on the road in league play, he completed a magical conference tournament run of 4–0 on the road to claim the crown. Holy Cross profile Northwestern profile Princeton profile