Üsküdar, traditionally known in Italian and English as Scutari, in classical antiquity known as Chrysopolis, is a large and densely populated district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus. It is bordered on the north by Beykoz, on the east by Ümraniye, on the southeast by Ataşehir, on the south by Kadıköy, on the west by the Bosphorus, with the areas of Beşiktaş, Beyoğlu, Eminönü on the opposite shore, it is home to about half a million people. Üsküdar is the usual name for the historic center of the municipality. Üsküdar was called Skoutarion during the Byzantine Empire. This word may have been used to describe the scutum shields that guards used that were made of leather; this is believed because the word scutari means'raw tanned leather'. Others who visited the area called it Escutaire. Üsküdar was founded in the 7th century BC by ancient Greek colonists from Megara as Chrysopolis, a few decades before Byzantium was founded on the opposite shore. According to an ancient Greek geographer, the city received the name Chrysopolis because the Persian empire had a gold depository there or because it was associated with Agamemnon and Chryseis' son, Chryses.
On the other hand, according to an 18th-century writer, it received the name because of the excellence of its harbor. The city was used as a harbor and shipyard and was an important staging post in the wars between the Greeks and Persians. In 410 BC Chrysopolis was taken by the Athenian general Alcibiades, the Athenians used it thenceforth to charge a toll on ships coming from and going to the Black Sea. Long overshadowed by its neighbor Chalcedon during the Hellenistic and Roman period, it maintained its identity and increased its prosperity until it surpassed Chalcedon. Due to its less favorable location with respect to the currents of the Bosporus, however, it never surpassed Byzantium. In AD 324, the final battle between Constantine I, Emperor of the West, Licinius, Emperor of the East, in which Constantine defeated Licinius, took place at Chrysopolis; when Constantine made Byzantium his capital, together with Chalcedon, became suburbs. Chrysopolis remained important throughout the Byzantine period because all trade routes to Asia started there, all Byzantine army units headed to Asia mustered there.
During the brief usurpation of the Armenian general Artabasdos, his eldest son, was defeated with his forces at Chrysopolis by the army of Constantine V, before Artabasdos was deposed by the legitimate emperor Constantine and blinded. For this reason, because of its location across from Constantinople, it was a natural target for anyone aiming at the capital. In the 8th century AD it was taken by a small band of Arabs, who caused considerable destruction and panic in Constantinople, before withdrawing. In 988, a rebellion that nearly toppled Basil II began in Chrysopolis, before he was able to crush with the aid of Russian mercenaries. In the 12th century, the city changed its name to Skoutarion, the name deriving from the Emperor's Skoutarion Palace nearby. In 1338 the Ottoman leader Orhan Gazi took Skoutarion, giving the Ottomans a base within sight of Constantinople for the first time. In the Ottoman period Üsküdar was one of the three communities outside the city walls of Constantinople.
The area was a major burial ground, today many large cemeteries remain, including Karacaahmet Mezarlığı, Bülbülderesi Mezarlığı, a number of Jewish and Christian cemeteries. Karacaahmet Mezarlığı is one of Istanbul's largest cemeteries; the Bülbülderesi cemetery is next to Fevziye Hatun mosque. The neighborhood suffered during the ethnic-religious violence of the 6 September 1955, Istanbul pogrom. Shops were looted, women raped, many Greeks and Armenians left; the district of Üsküdar is one of Istanbul's oldest-established residential areas. It is directly opposite the old city of Eminönü and transport across the Bosphorus is easy by boat or bridge. So there are well-established communities here, many retired people, many residents commute to the European side for work or school. During the rush-hour, the waterfront is bustling with people running from ferryboats and motorboats onto buses and minibuses. Üsküdar has the smell of the sea, the sound of foghorns and seagulls and one of the best views of the city.
As of 2006, the central square is being dug up for a tunnel under the Bosphorus which will carry an underground railway. However, this is predictably continuously running into artifacts of great archaeological value; the area behind the ferry dock is a busy shopping district, with many restaurants and a number of important Ottoman mosques. However, there are few cafes, billiard halls, places for youth to congregate; the private Üsküdar University, founded by the Human Values and Mental Health Foundation, has a campus here. Uskudar has two public libraries: Selimiye Public Library. Üsküdar is a municipality within borders of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The municipality is subdivided into neighborhoods; the boundaries and names of the official neighborhoods change from time to time and sometimes do not correspond to recognized neighborhoods or to residents' own perceptions. The most prominent neighborhood is Üsküdar's historic center, centered on the ferr
"Easy Come, Easy Go" is a song written by Aaron Barker and Dean Dillon, recorded by American country music artist George Strait. It was released in August 1993; the song reached the top of the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart and on the Canadian RPM Country Tracks chart. It peaked at number 71 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100, making it a minor crossover hit. A breakup song, the narrator discusses how he and his lover have agreed to mutually end their relationship because they weren't meant to be with each other; the song debuted at number 57 on the Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart dated August 21, 1993. It charted for 20 weeks on that chart, spent two weeks at Number One on the chart dated October 23, 1993, it peaked at number 71 on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming Strait's first entry on that chart. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Medical ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging technique, or therapeutic application of ultrasound. It is used to create an image of internal body structures such as tendons, joints, blood vessels, internal organs, its aim is to find a source of a disease or to exclude pathology. The practice of examining pregnant women using ultrasound is called obstetric ultrasound, was an early development and application of clinical ultrasonography. Ultrasound are sound waves with frequencies. Ultrasonic images known as sonograms, are made by sending pulses of ultrasound into tissue using a probe; the ultrasound pulses echo off tissues with different reflection properties and are recorded and displayed as an image. Many different types of images can be formed; the most common is a B-mode image, which displays the acoustic impedance of a two-dimensional cross-section of tissue. Other types can display blood flow, motion of tissue over time, the location of blood, the presence of specific molecules, the stiffness of tissue, or the anatomy of a three-dimensional region.
Compared to other dominant methods of medical imaging, ultrasound has several advantages. It is portable and can be brought to the bedside, it is lower in cost than other imaging modalities and does not use harmful ionizing radiation. Drawbacks include various limits on its field of view, such as the need for patient cooperation, dependence on physique, difficulty imaging structures behind bone and air or gases, the necessity of a skilled operator a trained professional. Sonography is used in medicine, it is possible to perform both diagnosis and therapeutic procedures, using ultrasound to guide interventional procedures such as biopsies or to drain collected fluid. Sonographers are medical professionals who perform scans which are traditionally interpreted by radiologists, physicians who specialize in the application and interpretation of a wide variety of medical imaging modalities, or by cardiologists in the case of cardiac ultrasonography. Clinicians are using the ultrasound in office and hospital practice.
Sonography is effective for imaging soft tissues of the body. Superficial structures such as muscle, testis, breast and parathyroid glands, the neonatal brain are imaged at a higher frequency, which provides better linear and horizontal resolution. Deeper structures such as liver and kidney are imaged at a lower frequency 1–6 MHz with lower axial and lateral resolution as a price of deeper tissue penetration. A general-purpose ultrasound transducer may be used for most imaging purposes but specialty applications may require the use of a specialty transducer. Most ultrasound procedures are done using a transducer on the surface of the body, but improved diagnostic confidence is possible if a transducer can be placed inside the body. For this purpose, specialty transducers, including endovaginal and transesophageal transducers are employed. At the extreme small transducers can be mounted on small diameter catheters and placed into blood vessels to image the walls and disease of those vessels. In anesthesiology, ultrasound is used to guide the placement of needles when placing local anaesthetic solutions near nerves.
It is used for vascular access such as central venous cannulation and difficult arterial cannulation. Transcranial Doppler is used by neuro-anesthesiologists for obtaining information about flow-velocity in the basal cerebral vessels. In angiology or vascular medicine, duplex ultrasound is used to diagnose arterial and venous disease; this is important in neurology, where carotid ultrasound is used for assessing blood flow and stenoses in the carotid arteries, transcranial Doppler is used for imaging flow in the intracerebral arteries. Intravascular ultrasound uses a specially designed catheter, with a miniaturized ultrasound probe attached to its distal end, threaded inside a blood vessel; the proximal end of the catheter is attached to computerized ultrasound equipment and allows the application of ultrasound technology, such as piezoelectric transducer or CMUT, to visualize the endothelium of blood vessels in living individuals. In the case of the common and serious problem of blood clots in the deep veins of the leg, ultrasound plays a key diagnostic role, while ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs focuses on more superficial veins to assist with planning of suitable interventions to relieve symptoms or improve cosmetics.
Echocardiography is an essential tool in cardiology, assisting in evaluation of heart valve function, such as stenosis or insufficiency, strength of cardiac muscle contraction. Such as hypertrophy or dilatation of the main chambers. Point of care emergency ultrasound has many applications in emergency medicine; this includes differentiating cardiac causes of acute breathlessness from pulmonary causes, the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma exam for assessing significant hemoperitoneum or pericardial tamponade after trauma. Other uses include assisting with differentiating causes of abdominal pain such as gallstones and kidney stones. Emergency Medicine Residency Programs have a substantial history of promoting the use of bedside ultrasound during physician training. Abdominal and endoanal ultrasound are used in gast