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Ānanda was the primary attendant of the Buddha and one of his ten principal disciples. Among the Buddha's many disciples, Ānanda stood out for having the best memory. Most of the texts of the early Buddhist Sutta-Piṭaka are attributed to his recollection of the Buddha's teachings during the First Buddhist Council. For that reason, he is known as the Treasurer of the Dhamma, with Dhamma referring to the Buddha's teaching. In Early Buddhist Texts, Ānanda was the first cousin of the Buddha. Although the early texts do not agree on many parts of Ānanda's early life, they do agree that Ānanda was ordained as a monk and that Puṇṇa Mantāniputta became his teacher. Twenty years in the Buddha's ministry, Ānanda became the attendant of the Buddha, when the Buddha selected him for this task. Ānanda performed his duties with great devotion and care, acted as an intermediary between the Buddha and the laypeople, as well as the saṅgha. He accompanied the Buddha for the rest of his life, acting not only as an assistant, but a secretary and a mouthpiece.

Scholars are skeptical about the historicity of many events in Ānanda's life the First Council, consensus about this has yet to be established. A traditional account can be drawn from early texts and post-canonical chronicles. Ānanda had an important role in establishing the order of bhikkhunīs, when he requested the Buddha on behalf of the latter's foster-mother Mahāpajāpati Gotamī to allow her to be ordained. Ānanda accompanied the Buddha in the last year of his life, therefore was witness to many tenets and principles that the Buddha conveyed before his death, including the well-known principle that the Buddhist community should take his teaching and discipline as their refuge, that he would not appoint a new leader. The final period of the Buddha's life shows that Ānanda was much attached to the Buddha's person, he saw the Buddha's passing with great sorrow. Shortly after the Buddha's death, the First Council was convened, Ānanda managed to attain enlightenment just before the council started, a requirement.

He had a historical role during the council as the living memory of the Buddha, reciting many of the Buddha's discourses and checking them for accuracy. During the same council, however, he was chastised by Mahākassapa and the rest of the saṅgha for allowing women to be ordained and failing to understand or respect the Buddha at several crucial moments. Ānanda continued to teach until the end of his life, passing on his spiritual heritage to his pupils Sāṇavāsī and Majjhantika, among others, who assumed leading roles in the Second and Third Councils. Ānanda died 20 years after the Buddha, stūpas were erected at the river where he died. Ānanda is one of the most loved figures in Buddhism. He was known for his memory and compassion, was praised by the Buddha for these matters, he functioned as a foil to the Buddha, however, in that he still had worldly attachments and was not yet enlightened, as opposed to the Buddha. In the Sanskrit textual traditions, Ānanda is considered the patriarch of the Dhamma who stood in a spiritual lineage, receiving the teaching from Mahākassapa and passing them on to his own pupils.

Ānanda has been honored by bhikkhunīs since early medieval times for his merits in establishing the nun's order. In recent times, the composer Richard Wagner and Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore were inspired by stories about Ānanda in their work; the word ānanda means ` bliss, joy' in Sanskrit. Pāli commentaries explain. Texts from the Mūlasarvāstivāda tradition, state that since Ānanda was born on the day of the Buddha's enlightenment, there was great rejoicing in the city—hence the name. According to the texts, in a previous life, Ānanda made an aspiration to become a Buddha's attendant, he made this aspiration in the time of a previous Buddha called Padumuttara, many eons before the present age. He aspired to be like him in a future life. After having done many good deeds, he made his resolution known to the Padumuttara Buddha, who confirmed that his wish will come true in a future life. After having been born and reborn throughout many lifetimes, doing many good deeds, he was born as Ānanda in the time of the current Buddha Gotama.

Ānanda was born in the same time period as the Buddha, which scholars place at 5th–4th centuries BCE. Tradition says that Ānanda was the first cousin of the Buddha, his father being the brother of Suddhodana, the Buddha's father. In the Pāli and Mūlasarvāstivāda textual traditions, his father was Amitodana, but the Mahāvastu states that his father was Śuklodana—both are brothers of Suddhodana; the Mahāvastu mentions that Ānanda's mother's name was Mṛgī. The Pāli tradition has it that Ānanda was born on the same day as Prince Siddhatta, but texts from the Mūlasarvāstivāda and subsequent Mahāyāna traditions state Ānanda was born at the same time the Buddha attained enlightenment, was therefore much younger than the Buddha; the latter tradition is corroborated by several instances in the Early Buddhist Texts, in which Ānanda appears younger than the Buddha, such as the passage in which the Buddha explained to Ānanda how old age was affecting him in body

HMS Barrosa (D68)

HMS Barrosa was a or 1943 Battle-class fleet destroyer of the Royal Navy. She was named after the Battle of Barrosa, which took place in 1811 between British-Allied forces and France, which ended in a French defeat. Barrosa was built by John Company, she was launched on 17 January 1945 and commissioned on 14 February 1947. In 1948, Barrosa joined the 4th Destroyer Flotilla of the Home Fleet. In 1950, Barrosa with one of her sister ships and the aircraft carrier HMS Vengeance, where the small group performed a number of naval exercises and visits to a variety of ports. Barrosa was placed in Reserve that same year. In 1953, Barrosa took part in the Coronation Fleet Review at Spithead in honour of the newly crowned Queen Elizabeth II. Barrosa was positioned in the middle of her sister ships HMS HMS Agincourt. During the same year, Barrosa joined the 4th Destroyer Squadron, having spells with the Home and Mediterranean Fleets. In November 1956 Barrosa formed part of the Royal Navy force deployed in the eastern Mediterranean during the Suez Crisis, as part of the 4th Destroyer Squadron.

On 15 March 1959, Barrosa collided with her sister ship HMS Corunna in the Bay of Biscay. That year, Barrosa entered an extensive programme of modification to become a radar picket, with the addition of the Sea Cat missile, as well as new anti-aircraft weaponry and new radar. In 1963 Barrosa joined the 8th Destroyer Squadron, based in the Far East, before joining the 24th Escort Squadron; as well as radar picket duties, tasks included operations against pirates, on 10 February 1963, Barrosa intercepted a pirate boat, with a gun battle occurring between Barrosa' s search party, with one of the destroyer's crew killed. The ship carried out anti-infiltration patrols during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation. In December 1968 Barrosa was decommissioned and was listed for disposal in 1972. By 1974 Barrosa was being used as a storage hulk at Portsmouth, she arrived at Blyth in Northumberland for scrapping on 1 December 1978. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy.

London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Critchley, Mike. British Warships Since 1945: Part 3: Destroyers. Liskeard, UK: Maritime Books. ISBN 0-9506323-9-2. Friedman, Norman. British Destroyers and Frigates: The Second World War and After. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-015-4. Hodges, Peter. Battle Class Destroyers. London: Almark Publishing. ISBN 0-85524-012-1. Marriott, Leo. Royal Navy Destroyers Since 1945. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1817-0. HMS Barrosa ] via Internet Archive Wayback Machine

Pico do Marumbi State Park

The Pico do Marumbi State Park is a State park in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The Pico do Marumbi State Park is in the municipality of Morretes, Paraná, it has an area of 8,745.45 hectares. It may be reached from Curitiba by a 2-hour ride on the centennial Curitiba-Paranaguá railroad, which has a station at the park. Entrance is free; the climate is tropical, with an annual average temperature of 25 °C. The region is rainy, with driest conditions from April to October; the park has well-preserved forests. It is part of the Lagamar Mosaic; the Pico do Marumbi State Park was created by state governor decree 7300 of 24 September 1990 with an area of 2,342.41 hectares. The Institute of Lands and Forests of the State of Paraná was to administer the park to promote preserving the waters and fauna. Two years were given for preparation of the management plan, to be integrated with the Marumbi Tourist Area. On 2 October 2007 Governor Roberto Requião signed a decree to expand the Pico do Marumbi State Park to 8,745 hectares.

He expanded the Cerrado State Park to 1,830.40 hectares and created the Vale do Codó and Palmas state parks. The governor said. In his first term of office he had created the Guartelá State Park by decree, the governor who succeeded him had reduced it by 90% through a decree; this would not have been possible. The park remained under the administration of the Environmental Institute of Paraná; the decree declared that land within the new boundaries were of public utility, would be expropriated with compensation. The Marumbi Massif is located inside the state park, a complex with eight peaks with varying degrees of difficulty; the massif is in the heart of the Serra do Mar of Paraná. The mountains can be challenging, it is best to employ an experienced guide. Olimpo is the highest, at 1,539 metres, was first climbed by Joaquim Olímpio de Miranda on 21 August 1879; the seven other peaks are Boa Vista at 1,500 metres, Gigante at 1,487 metres, Ponta do Tigre at 1,400 metres, Esfinge at 1,378 metres, Torre dos Sinos at 1,280 metres, Abrolhos at 1,200 metres and Facãozinho at 1,100 metres.

An easy 30 minute walk from the park base leads at 630 metres above sea level. This gives a view over the Paranaguá and Antonina bays and the Serra do Mar; the Marumbinistas Waterfall is a 50 metres fall on the Taquaral River, which has several natural pools where visitors can bathe. The park has a free camping area with toilets and hot water showers. There is a museum with pictures and maps about the conquest of the peak

Lynne Truss

Lynne Truss is an English author, journalist and radio broadcaster and dramatist. She is arguably best known for her championing of correctness and aesthetics in the English language, the subject of her popular and discussed 2003 book, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation; the book was inspired by a BBC Radio 4 show about punctuation, Cutting a Dash. Besides her promotion of linguistic prescription and commentary on English grammar, Truss has written many radio plays, both comedic and dramatic, she has written novels, grammar guides for children. Lynne Truss was born on 31 May 1955 in Kingston upon Thames, she was educated at the Tiffin Girls' School and University College London, where she was awarded a first class degree in English Language and Literature. Truss began her media career as a literary editor, she spent six years as a television critic for The Times, before moving into sports journalism for the same newspaper. She spent four years in the latter field, in 2009 wrote a book about her experiences with it, Get Her Off the Pitch: How Sport Took Over My Life.

In August 2014, Truss was one of 200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian expressing their hope that Scotland would vote to remain part of the United Kingdom in September's referendum on that issue. The Man That Got Away: A Constable Twitten Mystery ISBN 978-1-6355-7073-1 A Shot in the DarkRaven Books ISBN 978-1-4088-9051-6 The Lunar Cats ISBN 978-1-7847-5688-8 Cat Out of Hell – Hammer ISBN 978-0-09-958534-3 Going Loco – Review ISBN 0-7472-5965-8. Giving Up the Ghost – BBC Radio 4 A Certain Age: Twelve Monologues From the Classic Radio Series – Profile Books ISBN 1-86197-879-0 Acropolis Now – set in Ancient Greece Inspector Steine – set in a 1950s English police station Gossip from the Garden Pond Rumblings from the Rafters A Certain Age – BBC Audiobooks ISBN 0-563-51052-8, ISBN 1-4056-7687-6This list excludes standalone plays. Official website "A Certain Age: The Radio Monologues". Episode Guides. Radio show. 2006

American Beauty: Original Motion Picture Score

American Beauty: Original Motion Picture Score is the recording of the original score for the 1999 film, composed by Thomas Newman. The original music accompanied 11 pre-existing songs by other artists; the film was nominated for the Academy Award for Original Music Score and the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score, won the Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music in the BAFTA Awards. The score album won the Grammy Award for the Best Score Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture, Television or other Visual Media in 2001, awarded to producer Bill Bernstein, engineer Dennis Sands, Newman. A soundtrack album for the film was released, on October 5, 1999, entitled American Beauty: Music from the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack; that album includes songs by ten of the eleven artists and two excerpts from the film's score: "Dead Already" and "Any Other Name." The tracks "Any Other Name", "Dead Already", "American Beauty" are used in film trailers, are among the most recognized pieces of film music.

Some YouTubers who make flight reports used the track "Dead Already", which they claimed "was a music fit for aviation and commercial flight travel". American Beauty American Beauty soundtrack

Barnacle Bill (1957 film)

Barnacle Bill is a 1957 Ealing Studios comedy film, starring Alec Guinness. He plays an unsuccessful Royal Navy officer, six of his maritime ancestors; this was the final Ealing comedy as well as the last film Guinness made for Ealing Studios, although some sources list Davy as the final Ealing comedy. By coincidence, his first Ealing success was Kind Hearts and Coronets, in which he played multiple roles; the film was written by the screenwriter of Passport to Pimlico. William Horatio Ambrose wants to live up to the proud family tradition. In humorous vignettes, Guinness portrays six of his ancestors, starting with a confused caveman perpetually going in circles in his coracle and ending with his own father's ignominious demise at the Battle of Jutland. Ambrose has a debilitating problem however: he gets violently seasick at the slightest excuse; as a result, his contribution to the Second World War consists of testing cures for the malady. When he retires from the Royal Navy as a captain, he purchases a dilapidated late Victorian era amusement pier with his life savings.

The workers are an apathetic bunch, led by an insolent Figg, who quits as soon as the new owner begins imposing some semblance of discipline. With the assistance of his new second-in-command, a former RN rating named Tommy, much hard work with help by a group of bored local teenagers, Ambrose soon has the pier repaired, he has to deal with the local town council, headed by the crooked Mayor Crowley and the hostile Arabella Barrington, who mistakes him for a Peeping Tom when they first meet. Every time he comes up with an ingenious way to make his business profitable, they see to it that the council outlaws it; when Crowley decides to confiscate and demolish Ambrose's pier and Barrington's bathing huts to further his own business interests, she resigns from the council and informs Ambrose. He counters by registering his property as a "foreign" naval vessel, under the flag of convenience of the easygoing country of "Liberama", which puts it outside the town's jurisdiction, he soon attracts many happy, paying passengers for his stationary inaugural "cruise".

Thwarted, Crowley hires Figg to demolish the structure late at night. Using a seasickness remedy suggested by Barrington, Ambrose is able to take to sea and foil the scheme, but in the process, part of the pier becomes detached and floats away, he remains aboard to prevent salvagers from claiming it and drifts over to France, where he is hailed as a naval hero. As appearing in Barnacle Bill,: Alec Guinness as Captain William Horatio Ambrose. Irene Browne as Mrs Barrington Maurice Denham as Mayor Crowley Percy Herbert as Tommy Victor Maddern as Figg Allan Cuthbertson as Chailey Donald Pleasence as Cashier Harold Goodwin as Duckworth Richard Wattis as Registrar of Shipping Lionel Jeffries as Garrod George Rose as Bullen Lloyd Lamble as Superintendent Browning Harry Locke as Reporter Jackie Collins as June Eric Pohlmann as Liberamanian Consul Joan Hickson as Mrs Kent Charles Cullum as Major Kent Miles Malleson as Angler Charles Lloyd-Pack as Tritton Warren Mitchell as Artie White Elsie Wagstaff as Mrs Gray Sam Kydd as Frogman Guinness appeared in the film as a favour to the director.

In years, however, he recalled it as "wretched... I never wanted to do and only did out of friendship to Charley Frend." Although Barnacle Bill was the last Ealing comedy, it was shot at Hunstanton Pier and Borehamwood Studios, as Ealing Studios had closed and was sold to the BBC for television production. “Barnacle Bill” opened at the Empire Cinema in London on the 11 December 1957 and was released with the title “All At Sea” in America. Barnacle Bill as All at Sea was reviewed in The New York Times by Bosley Crowther, his review was sympathetic to the failings of the film and script but he did see redeeming qualities in Guinness's performance. "Mr. Clarke's whimsical notion doesn't sail quite the untroubled sea, it runs into roughness and which requires rather diligent overacting and farcical behavior by all hands. But Mr. Guinness, who has made an art of underplaying, never goes too far overboard..." According to MGM records above, the film cost $659,000 to make and earned $405,000 in the US and Canada, plus $545,000 elsewhere, resulting in a return on investment of 44%, a profit of $291,000.

List of British films of 1957 Barnacle Bill at the TCM Movie Database Barnacle Bill on IMDb