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Ēostre

Ēostre or Ostara is a Germanic goddess who, by way of the Germanic month bearing her name, is the namesake of the festival of Easter in some languages. Ēostre is attested by Bede in his 8th-century work The Reckoning of Time, where Bede states that during Ēosturmōnaþ, pagan Anglo-Saxons had held feasts in Ēostre's honour, but that this tradition had died out by his time, replaced by the Christian Paschal month, a celebration of the resurrection of Jesus. By way of linguistic reconstruction, the matter of a goddess called *Austrō in the Proto-Germanic language has been examined in detail since the foundation of Germanic philology in the 19th century by scholar Jacob Grimm and others; as the Germanic languages descend from Proto-Indo-European, historical linguists have traced the name to a Proto-Indo-European goddess of the dawn *H₂ewsṓs, from which descends the Common Germanic divinity from whom Ēostre and Ostara are held to descend. Additionally, scholars have linked the goddess's name to a variety of Germanic personal names, a series of location names in England, discovered in 1958, over 150 inscriptions from the 2nd century CE referring to the matronae Austriahenae.

Theories connecting Ēostre with records of Germanic Easter customs, including hares and eggs, have been proposed. Prior to the discovery of the matronae Austriahenae and further developments in Indo-European studies, debate has occurred among some scholars about whether or not the goddess was an invention of Bede. Ēostre and Ostara are sometimes referenced in modern popular culture and are venerated in some forms of Germanic neopaganism. Old English Ēostre continues into modern English as Easter and derives from Proto-Germanic *Austrǭ, itself a descendant of the Proto-Indo-European root *h₂ews-, meaning'to shine'; the goddess name Ēostre is therefore linguistically cognate with numerous other dawn goddesses attested among Indo-European language-speaking peoples. These cognates lead to the reconstruction of a Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess. In three of the Indo-European stocks, Baltic and Indo-Iranian, the existence of a Proto-Indo-European'goddess of the dawn' is given additional linguistic support in that she is designated the'daughter of heaven'."

By way of linguistic reconstruction, the matter of a goddess called *Austrō in the Proto-Germanic language has been examined in detail since the foundation of Germanic philology in the 19th century by scholar Jacob Grimm and others. As the Germanic languages descend from Proto-Indo-European, historical linguists have traced the name to a Proto-Indo-European goddess of the dawn *H₂ewsṓs, from which descends the Common Germanic divinity from whom Ēostre and Ostara are held to descend. Additionally, scholars have linked the goddess's name to a variety of Germanic personal names, a series of location names in England, discovered in 1958, over 150 inscriptions from the 2nd century CE referring to the matronae Austriahenae. A cluster of place names in England contain and a variety of English and continental Germanic names include the element *ēoster, an early Old English word reconstructed by linguists and an earlier form of the goddess name Ēostre; the Council of Austerfield called by King Aldfrith of Northumbria shortly before 704 convened at a place described in contemporary records both as in campo qui Eostrefeld dicitur and in campo qui dicitur Oustraefelda, which have led to the site's being identified with Austerfield near Bawtry in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

Such locations include Eastry in Kent, Eastrea in Cambridgeshire, Eastrington in the East Riding of Yorkshire. The element *ēoster appears in the Old English name Easterwine, a name borne by Bede's monastery abbot in Wearmouth–Jarrow and which appears an additional three times in the Durham Liber Vitae; the name Aestorhild appears in the Liber Vitae, is the ancestor of the Middle English name Estrild. Various continental Germanic names include the element, including Austrechild, Austrighysel and Ostrulf. In 1958, over 150 Romano-Germanic votive inscriptions to the matronae Austriahenae were discovered near Morken-Harff, Germany. Most of these inscriptions are in an incomplete state; some of these inscriptions refer to the Austriates, evidently the name of a social group. In chapter 15 of his 8th-century work De temporum ratione, Bede describes the indigenous month names of the English people. After describing the worship of the goddess Rheda during the Anglo-Saxon month of Hrēþ-mōnaþ, Bede writes about Ēosturmōnaþ, the month of the goddess Ēostre: Some debate has occurred over whether or not the goddess was an invention of Bede's.

Writing in the late 19th century, Charles J. Billson notes that scholars before his writing were divided about the existence of Bede's account of Ēostre, stating that "among authorities who have no doubt as to her existence are

Louis Bourdaloue

Louis Bourdaloue was a French Jesuit and preacher. He was born in Bourges. At the age of sixteen he entered the Society of Jesus, was appointed successively professor of rhetoric and moral theology, in various Jesuit colleges, his success as a preacher in the provinces led his superiors to call him to Paris in 1669 to occupy for a year the pulpit of the church of St. Louis. Owing to his eloquence he was speedily ranked in popular estimation with Corneille and the other leading figures during the height of Louis XIV's reign, he preached at the court of Versailles during the Advent of 1670 and the Lent of 1672, was subsequently called again to deliver the Lenten course of sermons in 1674, 1675, 1680 and 1682, the Advent sermons of 1684, 1689 and 1693. This was all the more noteworthy as it was the custom never to call the same preacher more than three times to court. On the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes he was sent to Languedoc to confirm the new converts in the Catholic faith, he had much success in this delicate mission.

Catholics and Protestants were unanimous in praising his fiery eloquence in the Lent sermons which he preached at Montpellier in 1686. Towards the close of his life he confined his ministry to charitable institutions and prisons, he died in Paris on 13 May 1704. His strength lay in his power of adapting himself to audiences of every kind, his influence was due as much to his character and his manners as to the force of his reasoning. Voltaire said that his sermons surpassed those of Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, it is said that their simplicity and coherence as well as the direct appeal that they made to hearers of all classes gave them a superiority over the more profound sermons of Bossuet. Many of them have been adopted as textbooks in schools, his sermons were edited by François de Paule Bretonneau. Eight of his sermons were translated and published as Eight Sermons for Holy Week and Easter by George Francis Crowther in 1884

Ignatius Kung Pin-Mei

Ignatius Kung Pin-Mei was the Catholic Bishop of Shanghai, from 1950 until his death in 2000. He spent 30 years in Chinese prisons for defying attempts by China's Communist government to control Catholics in the country through the government-approved Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association. At the time of his death he was the oldest member of the College of Cardinals. On September 8, 1955, along with several hundred priests and church leaders, was arrested and imprisoned, he was sentenced five years to life imprisonment for counter-revolutionary activities. Kung was secretly named a Cardinal in pectore in the consistory of 1979 by Pope John Paul II; the formula in pectore is used when a pope names a cardinal without announcing it publicly in order to protect the safety of the cardinal and his congregation. After he was released in 1986, he was kept under house arrest until 1988. Kung learned he was a cardinal during a private meeting with the Pope in Vatican City in 1988, his membership in the College of Cardinals was made public in 1991.

By he had reached 80, so he did not have the right to participate in a conclave. He died in 2000, aged 98, from stomach cancer in Connecticut, his funeral was held at St. John the Evangelist Church in Stamford with Cardinal James Francis Stafford, President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, presiding. Kung's body was transported to Star of the Sea Church in San Francisco, for a Low Mass with Cardinal Paul Shan Kuo-hsi of Taiwan presiding. A requiem Pontifical High Mass using the Tridentine Liturgy in Latin was said the following day at Five Wounds Parish in San Jose, with Cardinal Shan again presiding. Kung is interred next to Dominic Tang, S. J. at Santa Clara Mission Cemetery in Santa Clara, California. Paul Philip Mariani. Church Militant Bishop Kung and Catholic Resistance in Communist Shanghai.. ISBN 9780674063174. Cardinal Kung Pin Mei Foundation, website Profile on Catholic hierarchy Cardinal Wung on First Things

Mediterranean Ridge

The Mediterranean Ridge is a wide ridge in the bed of the Mediterranean Sea, running along a rough quarter circle from Calabria, south of Crete, to the southwest corner of Turkey, from there eastwards south of Cyprus and Turkey. It is an accretionary wedge caused by the African Plate subducting under the Eurasian and Anatolian plates; as the African Plate moves north-northeastward, it is plowing up the igneous and sedimentary rocks of the Mediterranean seafloor, lifting them from the seabed and creating Cyprus and other islands along the ridge. Along the ridge, five deep basins full of anoxic brine have been found, where Messinian evaporite deposits of brine caught up in this ongoing orogeny have dissolved. In the far future, it could grow into a long high mountain range if the continued northward movement of Africa obliterates the east part of the Mediterranean Sea

Bolt (2008 film)

Bolt is a 2008 American computer animated comedy-adventure film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It is the 48th Disney animated feature film. Directed by Chris Williams and Byron Howard, the film stars the voices of John Travolta, Miley Cyrus, Malcolm McDowell, Diedrich Bader, Nick Swardson, Greg Germann, Susie Essman and Mark Walton; the film's plot centers on a white dog named Bolt who, having spent his entire life on the set of a television series, thinks that he has super powers. When he believes that his human, has been kidnapped, he sets out on a cross-country journey to "rescue" her. Bolt was released in the United States on November 21, 2008. Despite a marginal box-office performance, the film received a strong positive critical reception and is renowned for playing an important role in instigating what is referred to as the Disney Revival, as well as setting the studio in a new creative direction that would lead to other critically acclaimed features such as Tangled and Frozen.

Bolt was Disney Animation's first feature film to be produced under the complete creative guidance of then-Pixar executive John Lasseter in his role as chief creative officer for the studio, as well as the first computer-animated feature film to implement non-photorealistic rendering. The film was nominated for a series of awards, such as the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Feature Film and Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song. A White Shepherd puppy named. Five years Bolt and Penny star in a hit television series called Bolt, in which Bolt uses various superpowers to protect Penny from the villain. To gain a more realistic performance, the show's producers have deceived Bolt his entire life, arranging the filming in such a way that Bolt believes everything in the show is real and that he has superpowers, including a devastatingly powerful sonic scream-like "superbark". After a cliffhanger episode causes Bolt to believe Penny has been kidnapped, he escapes from his on-set trailer in Hollywood but knocks himself unconscious and is trapped inside a box of foam peanuts, shipped to New York City.

In New York, Bolt resumes his search for Penny and finds that his "superpowers" are useless. He encounters a feral cat who bullies pigeons out of their food. Bolt compels Mittens to guide him back to Penny — Mittens being convinced her captor is a lunatic — and the two start their journey westward by truck. Meanwhile, in Hollywood, Penny is distraught over Bolt's disappearance but is convinced by the studio to continue filming with a less experienced lookalike dog. Surprised at his first feelings of hunger, Bolt is shown by Mittens how to act like a cute but needy dog, obtaining food for them both at an RV park, they are joined by a fearless hamster and fanatical Bolt fan. Rhino's unwavering faith in Bolt substantiates the dog's illusions about himself, but allows Mittens to figure out Bolt is from a television show, she tries to tell Bolt this, but Bolt becomes frustrated. Attempting to "superbark" her the noise draws the attention of an Animal Control patrol and Bolt and Mittens are both captured and taken to an animal shelter.

Bolt, freed from the patrol van by Rhino realizes and accepts that he is just a normal dog, but regains his confidence after Rhino exhorts him to heroism. They rescue Mittens from the shelter, as they continue west and Mittens form a close friendship in which she teaches Bolt how to be an ordinary dog and enjoy typical dog activities. Mittens makes plans for the three of them to stay in Las Vegas, but hearing Bolt is still drawn to find Penny, she tells him Penny is only an actor, humans never love their pets, betray and abandon them, as happened to her. Bolt continues on alone to Hollywood. Bolt reaches the studio and finds Penny embracing his lookalike, unaware that Penny still misses him and her affection for the lookalike is only a part of a rehearsal. A broken-hearted Bolt leaves, but Mittens, on a gantry in the studio, sees Penny telling her mother how much she misses Bolt. Mittens explains. At the same time, the Bolt lookalike panics during the show's filming and accidentally knocks over some flaming torches, setting the sound stage on fire with Penny trapped inside.

Bolt arrives and the two reunite inside the burning studio, but are unable to escape before Penny begins to suffocate from the smoke. Penny begs Bolt to go but Bolt refuses to leave her. Bolt uses his "superbark" through the building's air vent, alerting the firefighters to their location and allowing both of them to be rescued in time. Penny and her mother quit when their overeager agent proposes they exploit the incident for publicity purposes; the show continues with a replacement "Bolt" and "Penny" and a new storyline involving alien abduction. Penny adopts Mittens and Rhino, she and her family move to a rural home to enjoy a simpler, happy lifestyle with Bolt and her new pets. John Travolta as Bolt, a White Shepherd who lives his whole life believing he is a superhero until he finds himself in the “real world” for the first time. Susie Essman as Mittens, a sarcastic and feisty alley cat who reluctantly joins Bolt and Rhino on their journey. Mark Walton as Rhino, an adorable but ferocious hamster, a Bolt super-fan.

Miley Cyrus as Penny, Bolt's beloved owner and his co-star on the hit TV show, Bolt. Chloë Grace Moretz as Young Penny Malcolm McDowell as Dr. Calico, the evil mastermind on Bolt and Penny's TV show. Nick Swardson as Blake Diedrich Bader as Veteran Cat Gre

Comic Book Tattoo

Comic Book Tattoo is an Eisner Award and Harvey Award-winning anthology graphic novel made up of fifty-one stories, each based on or inspired by a song by American singer-songwriter Tori Amos, published by Image Comics in 2008. Rantz Hoseley, longtime friend of Amos, served as the book's editor. Together and Amos gathered eighty different artists to collaborate on the book. Comic Book Tattoo includes an introduction by another longtime friend of Amos, Neil Gaiman, creator of The Sandman series. From the start, it was decided that Comic Book Tattoo would not contain comic book versions of music videos for Amos's songs, nor illustrations created from literal interpretations of Amos's lyrics. Of her role in the project, editor Hoseley said, "It was important to that she see how the different creators were treating'her girls', but at the same time, not tying the creator's hands or make them feel restricted in any way and making sure that they felt the freedom to tell the kind of story that they felt about."

When approached to contribute to the project, the graphic artists were asked to create a story that reflects that which the songs make them feel. About the finished collection, Amos said, "I have been surprised and pleasantly shocked by these comics that are extensions of the songs that I have loved and therefore welcome these amazing stories of pictures and words because they are uncompromisingly inspiring, it shows you thought is a powerful, formidable essence and can have a breathtaking domino effect." * - Song is a B-side from aforementioned album - Artist served as a colorist - Artist served as a letterer Comic Book Tattoo was made available in three formats, with the addition of another special edition released in November 2008. The available versions are.