SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Easter

Easter called Pascha or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day after his burial following his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent, a 40-day period of fasting and penance. Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as "Holy Week", which contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the 50th day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the 40th day, the Feast of the Ascension. Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts which do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow only the cycle of the Sun.

The First Council of Nicaea established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified, it has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March. If calculated on the basis of the more accurate Gregorian calendar, the date of that full moon sometimes differs from that of the astronomical first full moon after the March equinox. Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast is called by the words for passover in those languages. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, decorating Easter eggs; the Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide.

Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, Easter parades. There are various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally; the modern English term Easter, cognate with modern Dutch ooster and German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an. Bede provides the only documentary source for the etymology of the word, in his Reckoning of Time, he wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month". In Latin and Greek, the Christian celebration was, still is, called Pascha, a word derived from Aramaic פסחא, cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח; the word denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt. As early as the 50s of the 1st century, Paul the Apostle, writing from Ephesus to the Christians in Corinth, applied the term to Christ, it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover ritual.

In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin Pascha. Pascha is a name by which Jesus himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration; the New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is one of the chief tenets of the Christian faith. The resurrection established Jesus as the Son of God and is cited as proof that God will righteously judge the world. For those who trust in Jesus' death and resurrection, "death is swallowed up in victory." Any person who chooses to follow Jesus receives "a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead". Through faith in the working of God those who follow Jesus are spiritually resurrected with him so that they may walk in a new way of life and receive eternal salvation, being physically resurrected to dwell in the Kingdom of Heaven. Easter is linked to Passover and the Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion of Jesus that preceded the resurrection.

According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as in the upper room during the Last Supper he prepared himself and his disciples for his death. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; the first Christians and Gentile, were aware of the Hebrew calendar. Jewish Christians, the first to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, timed the observance in relation to Passover. Direct evidence for a mor

Ultra-royalist

The Ultra-royalists were a French political faction from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. An Ultra was a member of the nobility of high society who supported Roman Catholicism as the state and only legal religion of France, the Bourbon monarchy, traditional hierarchy between classes and census suffrage against popular will and the interests of the bourgeoisie and their liberal and democratic tendencies; the Legitimists, another of the main right-wing families identified in René Rémond's classic opus Les Droites en France, were disparagingly classified with the Ultras after the 1830 July Revolution by the victors, the Orléanists, who deposed the Bourbon dynasty for the more liberal king Louis Philippe. Following the return of Louis XVIII to power in 1815, people suspected of having ties with the governments of the French Revolution or of Napoleon suffered arrest. Several hundred were killed by angry mobs or executed after a quick trial at a drum head court-martial; the episodes happened in the south of France.

Historian John Baptist Wolf argues Ultra-royalist—many of whom had just returned from exile—were staging a counter-revolution against the French Revolution and against Napoleon's revolution. Throughout the Midi — in Provence, Avignon and many other places — the White Terror raged with unrelenting ferocity; the royalists found in the willingness of the French to desert the king fresh proof of their theory that the nation was honeycombed with traitors, used every means to seek out and destroy their enemies. The government was unwilling to intervene. Inaugurating the Bourbon Restoration, a restricted census suffrage elected to the Chamber of Deputies an Ultra-royalist majority in 1815–1816 and again from 1824 to 1827. Known to be "more royalist than the king", the Ultras were the dominant political faction under Louis XVIII and Charles X. Opposed to the limitation of the sovereign's power under the constitutional monarchy, they hoped to restore the Ancien Régime and annul the rupture created by the French Revolution.

Passionately espousing the ruling ideology of the Restoration, the Ultras opposed liberalism and democracy. While Louis XVIII hoped for a moderate restoration of the Ancien Régime, acceptable to the masses who had participated in the Revolution, the Ultras held rigidly to the dream of an integral restoration, their power was due in part to electoral laws which favored them: on one hand a Chamber of Peers composed of hereditary members and on the other hand a Chamber of Deputies elected under a restricted census suffrage of 100,000 voters. In 1815, an Ultra majority was elected to the chamber of deputies. Louis XVIII dubbed them La Chambre Introuvable, which translates as "the impossible chamber" due to his astonishment at a group of deputies more royalist than himself. Under the guidance of his chief minister the Armand-Emmenuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu, Louis XVIII decided to dissolve this turbulent assembly, invoking Article 14 of the Constitutional Charter. There followed a "Liberal Interlude" from a period of "wilderness years" for the Ultras.

On 13 February 1820, the Duke of Berry was stabbed by a republican assassin as he left the Paris Opera House with his wife and died the next day. This outrage strengthened the Ultras, who introduced laws such as the Law of the Double Vote which allowed them to further dominate the Chamber of Deputies. In addition to other factors, Louis XVIII's health was in serious decline, reducing his resistance to Ultra demands: before he came to the throne, the Comte d'Artois dominated the government; the 1824 death of Louis XVIII, whom they saw as too moderate, lifted the spirits of the Ultras: they expected their leader, the new king Charles X, would soon become an absolute monarch, answerable only to God. In January 1825, Villèle's government enacted the Anti-Sacrilege Act, instituting capital punishment for the theft of sacred monstrance vases; this "anachronistic law" was never applied and was repealed in the first months of Louis Philippe's reign. The Ultras wanted to create courts to punish Radicals and passed laws restricting freedom of the press.

The 1830 July Revolution replaced the Bourbons with the more liberal Orléanist branch and sent the Ultras back to private life in their country chateaux. However, they retained some influence until at least the 16 May 1877 crisis and further, their views softened, their principal aim became the restoration of the House of Bourbon and they became known from 1830 on as Legitimists. The historian René Rémond has identified the Legitimists as the first of the "right-wing families" of French politics, followed by the Orléanist and the Bonapartists. According to him, many modern far-right movements, including parts of Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front and Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre's Society of St. Pius X, should be considered as parts of the Legitimist family. Anti-Sacrilege Act Legitimists Political parties under Restoration

Enron loophole

The "Enron loophole" exempts most over-the-counter energy trades and trading on electronic energy commodity markets from government regulation. The "loophole" was enacted in sections § 2 and of the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000, signed by U. S. president Bill Clinton on December 21, 2000. It allowed for the creation, for U. S. exchanges, of a new kind of derivative security, the single-stock future, prohibited since 1982 under the Shad-Johnson Accord, a jurisdictional pact between John S. R. Shad chairman of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Phil Johnson chairman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. In September 2007, Senator Carl Levin introduced Senate Bill S. 2058 to close the "Enron Loophole". This bill was attached to H. R. 6124, the Food and Energy Act of 2008 known as "The 2008 Farm Bill". President George W. Bush vetoed the bill, but was overridden by both the House and Senate, on June 18, 2008 the bill was enacted into law. Wendy Gramm, Senator Phil Gramm's wife, coincidentally was the former chairman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.

After leaving the CFTC, she took a seat on Enron's board of directors. On June 22, 2008 U. S. Senator Barack Obama blamed the "Enron loophole" for allowing speculators to run up the cost of fuel by operating outside federal regulation. Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 Energy law