In Ancient Rome, a province was the basic, until the Tetrarchy, largest territorial and administrative unit of the empires territorial possessions outside of Italy. The word province in modern English has its origins in the used by the Romans. Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, usually former consuls or former praetors and this exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus personal property, following the tradition of earlier, Hellenistic kings. The territory of a people who were defeated in war might be brought under various forms of treaty, the formal annexation of a territory created a province in the modern sense of an administrative unit geographically defined. Republican provinces were administered in one-year terms by the consuls and praetors who had held office the previous year, Rome started expanding beyond Italy during the First Punic War. The first permanent provinces to be annexed were Sicily in 241 BC, militarized expansionism kept increasing the number of these administrative provinces, until there were no longer enough qualified individuals to fill the posts.
The terms of provincial governors often had to be extended for multiple years,241 BC – Sicilia taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed at the end of the First Punic War. 237 BC – Corsica et Sardinia, these two islands were taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed soon after the Mercenary War, in 238 BC and 237 BC respectively. 197 BC – Hispania Citerior, along the east coast of the,197 BC - Hispania Ulterior, along the southern coast of the, part of the territories taken over from the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. 147 BC – Macedonia, mainland Greece and it was annexed after a rebellion by the Achaean League. 146 BC – Africa, modern day Tunisia and western Libya, home territory of Carthage and it was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia. 67 BC – Creta et Cyrenae, Cyrenaica was bequeathed to Rome in 78 BC, however, it was not organised as a province. 58 BC – Cilicia et Cyprus, Cilicia was created as a province in the sense of area of command in 102 BC in a campaign against piracy.
The Romans controlled only a small area, in 74 BC Lycia and Pamphylia were added to the smal Roman possessions in Cilicia. Cilicia came fully under Roman control towards the end of the Third Mithridatic War - 73-63 BC, the province was reorganised by Pompey in 63 BC. Gallia Cisalpina was a province in the sense of an area of military command, during Romes expansion in Italy the Romans assigned some areas as provinces in the sense of areas of military command assigned to consuls or praetors due to risks of rebellions or invasions. This was applied to Liguria because there was a series of rebellions, Bruttium, in the early days of Roman presence in Gallia Cisalpina the issue was rebellion. Later the issue was risk of invasions by warlike peoples east of Italy, the city of Aquileia was founded to protect northern Italy form invasions
The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer.
In Ottoman Turkish, it has been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
Justice and Development Party (Turkey)
The Justice and Development Party, abbreviated AKP in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey. Developed from the tradition of moderate Islamism, the party is the largest in Turkey, the party held a majority of seats for 13 years, but lost it in June 2015, only to regain it in the snap election of November 2015. Its electoral success has been mirrored in the three elections held since the partys establishment, coming first in 2004,2009 and 2014 respectively. The current party leader Binali Yıldırım is the Prime Minister of Turkey, the party has for a long time been supported by the Cemaat Movement of exiled Islamic cleric Fethullah Gülen, whose influence in the judiciary has helped to weaken the opposition against the AKP. Having been an observer in the center-right European Peoples Party since 2005, it left to join the eurosceptic Alliance of Conservatives. Since then, the party has brought about tighter regulations on use and alcohol consumption, having temporarily blocked access to Twitter.
Especially after the government corruption scandal involving several AKP ministers in 2013, the AKP favours a strong centralized leadership, having long advocated a presidential system of government and significantly reduced the number of elected local government positions in 2013. The AK Party was established by a range of politicians of various political parties. The core of the party was formed from the reformist faction of the Islamist Virtue Party, including such as Abdullah Gül. A second founding group consisted of members of the social conservative Motherland Party who had close to Turgut Özal, such as Cemil Çiçek. Some members of the True Path Party, such as Hüseyin Çelik and Köksal Toptan, some members, such as Kürşad Tüzmen had nationalist or Ertuğrul Günay, had center-left backgrounds while representatives of the nascent Muslim left current were largely excluded. In addition a number of people joined a political party for the first time, such as Ali Babacan, Selma Aliye Kavaf, Egemen Bağış.
All of these people joined Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to found the new party, although the party is described as an Islamist party in some media, party officials reject those claims. These characterizations do not reflect the truth, and they sadden us, Çelik added, The AK Party is a conservative democratic party. The AK Partys conservatism is limited to moral and social issues, in a separate speech made in 2005, Prime Minister Erdoğan stated, We are not an Islamic party, and we refuse labels such as Muslim-democrat. Erdoğan went on to say that the AK Partys agenda is limited to conservative democracy, the partys leadership has rejected this label. In 2005, the party was granted membership in the European Peoples Party. In November 2013, the party left the EPP to join the Alliance of European Conservatives
Antakya, is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey. In ancient times, Antakya was known as Antioch, and was for one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire. It was an early center of Christianity. It has a population of about 250,000, most of the population speaks Turkish as their native language, while a minority are native Arabic speakers. Antakya is situated in a well-watered and fertile valley, the area of Antioch has been occupied by humans since the Calcolithic era, as revealed by archeological excavations of the mound of Tell-Açana, among others. The King of Macedonia and Greece Alexander the Great, after defeating the Persians in the Battle of Issus in 333 BC, followed the Orontes south into Syria and occupied the area. The city of Antioch was founded in 300 BC, after the death of Alexander, AD with the rise of Islam, and after the 10th c. In 637, during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, the city became known in Arabic as أنطاكيّة. In 969, the city was recovered for the Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas by Michael Bourtzes and the stratopedarches Peter.
It soon became the seat of a dux, who commanded the forces of the themes and was the most important officer on the Empires eastern border. In 1078, Philaretos Brachamios, an Armenian rebel seized power and he held the city until the Seljuk Turks captured it from him in 1084. The Sultanate of Rum held it only fourteen years before the Crusaders arrived, the Crusaders Siege of Antioch resulted in its fall and the Crusaders caused significant damage during the First Crusade including a 3-day massacre of its population both Christian and Muslim. Following the defeat of the Turkish garrison, Bohemond I became its overlord and it remained the capital of the Latin Principality of Antioch for nearly two centuries. In 1268 it fell to the Egyptian Mamluk Sultan Baibars after another siege, Baibars proceeded to massacre the Christian population. In addition to suffering the ravages of war, the city lost its importance because trade routes to the Far East moved north following the 13th-century Mongol conquests.
Antioch never recovered as a city, with much of its former role falling to the port city of Alexandretta. An account of both cities as they were in 1675 appears in the diary of the English naval chaplain Henry Teonge, the city was the center of the Sanjak of Antakya, part of the Damascus Eyalet. In 1822, Antakya was hit by an earthquake and damaged, when Ottoman general Ibrahim Pasha established his headquarters in the city in 1835, it had only some 5,000 inhabitants
Kibbeh, is a Levantine dish made of bulgur, minced onions, and finely ground lean beef, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices. Other types of kibbeh may be shaped into balls or patties, kibbeh is considered to be the national dish of many Middle Eastern countries. Kibbeh is a dish in Middle Eastern cuisine. Mainly, it is found in Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, Iraq, as well as Armenia, Israel, the word is derived from the Classical Arabic kubbah, which means ball. Various transliterations of the name are used in different countries, in English and kibbeh and in Latin America, kibe, in Levantine cuisine, a variety of dishes made with bulghur and minced lamb are called kibbeh. The northern Syrian city of Aleppo is famous for having more than 17 different types. These include kibbeh prepared with sumac, quince, lemon juice, pomegranate sauce, cherry sauce, and other varieties, such as the disk kibbeh, the plate kibbeh, one variety of kibbeh is kibbeh Raas or Nabulsi kubbeh in reference to the Palestinian city Nablus.
It is a 7- to 15-cm-oblong bulghur shell shaped like an American football, stuffed with a filling of spiced, minced beef or lamb, british soldiers in the Middle East during the Second World War used to call these kibbeh Syrian torpedoes. Fried, torpedo-shaped kibbe have become popular in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, kubba Halab is an Iraqi version of kibbeh created with a rice crust and named after the largest city in Syria, Aleppo. Kubba Mosul, Iraqi, is flat and round like a disc, kubbat Shorba is an Iraqi-Kurdish version prepared as a stew, commonly made with tomato sauce and spices. It is often served with arak and various salads, the Iraqi versions are part of the same versions eaten in Iran. Kibbeh bSsinniyeh or kibbeh bil sinieh is commonly made of a mixture of ground lamb or beef, onion, mint. Normally, this consists of two layers of the meat/cracked wheat mixture baked with a ground meat/onion/pine nut mix in between. Extra butter/olive oil is drained off and ready to serve. Kubba Halab is an Iraqi version of kibbeh created with a rice crust and named after the largest city in Syria, kubba Mosul, Iraqi, is flat and round like a disc.
Kubbat Shorba is an Iraqi-Kurdish version prepared as a stew, commonly made with tomato sauce and it is often served with arak and various salads. The Iraqi versions are part of the same versions eaten in Iran, kibbeh is sometimes served with a tahini dip. Brazilians sometimes add shoyu, sometimes in addition to raw garlic, or Worcestershire or red pepper sauce
Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty and he was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of historys most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16, after Philips assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his fathers Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia, in 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of battles, most notably the battles of Issus. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety, at that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.
He sought to reach the ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea and invaded India in 326 BC and he eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexanders surviving generals, Alexanders legacy includes the cultural diffusion which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt, Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and he is often ranked among the most influential people in human history.
He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his wife, Olympias. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his wife for some time. Several legends surround Alexanders birth and childhood, sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wifes womb with a seal engraved with a lions image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of dreams, that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb. On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and it was said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception
Bagras or Baghrās, ancient Pagrae is a town and its nearby castle in the İskenderun district of Turkey, in the Amanus Mountains. Strabos Geographica mentions it as being on the borders of Gindarus, the castle provided a base for a force to cover the Amanian Gate. It was built in two levels around a knoll, the fortification resembling Armenian work, and with water supplied by aqueducts. It was rebuilt about 1153 by the Knights Templar under the name Gaston and it was retaken in 1191 by the Armenians, and their possession of it became a major point of contention between them and the Antiochenes and Templars. After much negotiation, it was returned to the Templars in 1216. According to the Armenian chronicles, it withstood a siege by the forces of Aleppo at about this time, after the fall of Antioch to Baibars in 1268, the garrison lost heart, and one of the brothers deserted and presented the keys of the castle to him. The remaining defenders decided to destroy what they could and surrender the castle, despite the loss of the castle, Hethum II of Armenia and Leo IV of Armenia soundly defeated a Mamluk raiding force in the nearby pass in 1305.
The first detailed historical and archaeological evaluation, including a plan of the entire complex, was completed in 1979 by R. W. Edwards. The fortification has more than thirty chambers which encompass the steep outcrop on three primary levels, although the site initially had phases of Arab and Byzantine construction, most of the exterior masonry is from the Frankish occupations. Repairs to the towers and walls were made by the Armenians with their distinctive masonry during brief periods of control, bağras was never integrated into the complex defensive system that the Armenians built along the Taurus and Anti-Taurus Mountains of Cilicia from the 12th through the 14th centuries. Picture of Bagras today Gaston castle at Forteresses dOrient
The tangerine is an orange-colored citrus fruit that is closely related to, or possibly a type of, mandarin orange. The name was first used for coming from Tangier, Morocco. Under the Tanaka classification system, Citrus tangerina is considered a separate species, under the Swingle system, tangerines are considered to be a group of mandarin varieties. While tangerines genetically resemble mandarins, the genetics are not thoroughly studied. The term is applied to any reddish-orange mandarin, but the term tangerine may yet acquire a definite genetic meaning. Tangerines are smaller and less rounded than common oranges, the taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger, than that of an orange. A ripe tangerine is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, the peel is very thin, with very little bitter white mesocarp, which makes them usually easier to peel and to split into segments. All of these traits are shared by mandarins generally, peak tangerine season lasts from autumn to spring.
Tangerines are most commonly peeled and eaten out of hand, the fresh fruit is used in salads and main dishes. The peel is used fresh or dried as a spice or zest for baking and drinks, fresh tangerine juice and frozen juice concentrate are commonly available in the United States. The number of seeds in each segment varies greatly, Moragne tangierines were grown at Palatka by a Major Atway. Major Atway was said to have imported them from Morocco, which was the origin of the name tangerine, Major Atway sold his groves to N. H. Moragne in 1843, giving the Moragne tangerine the other part of its name. The Moragne tangerine produced a seedling which became one of the oldest and most popular American varieties, the Dancy tangerine. The Dancy is no longer commercially grown, it is too delicate to handle and ship well, it is susceptible to Alternaria fungus. Dancys are still grown for consumption, and many hybrids of the Dancy are grown commercially. Both these cultivars may be pure mandarins, unlike many cultivars, until the 1970s, the Dancy was the most widely grown tangerine in the US, the popularity of the fruit led to the term tangerine being broadly applied as a marketing name.
Florida classifies tangerine-like hybrid fruits as tangerines for the purposes of sale and regulation, among the most important tangerine hybrids of Florida are murcotts, a late-fruiting type of tangor marketed as honey tangerine and Sunbursts. The fallglo, a hybrid is grown
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit. The majority of species are found in nature as wild mangoes. The genus belongs to the cashew family Anacardiaceae, mangoes are native to South Asia, from where the common mango or Indian mango, Mangifera indica, has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most widely cultivated fruits in the tropics. Other Mangifera species are grown on a more localized basis. It is the fruit of India and the Philippines. Mango trees grow to 35–40 m tall, with a radius of 10 m. The trees are long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years, in deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m, with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots, the tree sends down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, simple, 15–35 cm long, and 6–16 cm broad, when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark, glossy red, dark green as they mature.
The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm long, each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm long, with a mild, over 400 varieties of mangoes are known, many of which ripen in summer, while some give double crop. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen, the ripe fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, red, or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, unpeeled mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, the seed contains the plant embryo. Mangoes have recalcitrant seeds, they do not survive freezing and drying, the English word mango originated from the Malayalam word māṅṅa via Portuguese during spice trade with Kerala in 1498. The origin of the -o ending in English is unclear, when mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled because of lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were pickled and came to be called mangoes, especially bell peppers, and by the 18th century, in Mandarin Chinese, mango is 芒果, or mángguǒ in Pinyin.
This is most likely a loanword from English, mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years and reached Southeast Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. By the 10th century CE, cultivation had begun in East Africa, the 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported it at Mogadishu. Cultivation came to Brazil, the West Indies, and Mexico, the mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates, almost half of the worlds mangoes are cultivated in India alone, with the second-largest source being China
A Mediterranean climate /ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate, is the climate typical of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean climate is characterised by dry summers and mild, moist winters, Mediterranean climate zones are associated with the four large subtropical high pressure cells of the oceans, the Azores High, South Atlantic High, North Pacific High, and South Pacific High. These climatological high pressure cells migrate by latitude according to the angle of the Sun, shifting north-eastward in the summer. These semi-permanent high pressure systems play a role in the formation of the worlds subtropical and tropical deserts as well as the Mediterranean Basins climate. The Azores High is associated with the Mediterranean climate found in the Mediterranean Basin, the Sahara Desert, the South Atlantic High is similarly associated with the Namib Desert and Kalahari Desert, and the Mediterranean climate of the western part of South Africa. Under the Köppen climate classification, hot climates and cool dry-summer climates are often referred to as mediterranean.
Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group, temperate climates or C zones have an average temperature above 0 °C, but below 18 °C, in their coolest months. The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern, Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, use a 40 mm level, the third letter indicates the degree of summer heat, a represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C, while b indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C. Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates usually occur on the sides of continents. Under Trewarthas system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C or higher, during summer, regions of mediterranean climate are dominated by subtropical high pressure cells, with dry sinking air capping a surface marine layer of varying humidity and making rainfall unlikely.
In many Mediterranean climates there is a strong character to daily temperatures in the warm months. The majority of the regions with mediterranean climates have relatively mild winters, however winter and summer temperatures can vary greatly between different regions with a mediterranean climate. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season, in contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around. In North America, areas with Csc climate can be found in the Olympic, Cascade and these locations are found at high altitude nearby lower altitude regions characterized by a warm-summer mediterranean climate or hot-summer mediterranean climate. A rare instance of this occurs in the tropics, on Haleakalā Summit in Hawaii. In South America, Csc regions can be found along the Andes in Chile, the town of Balmaceda is one of the few towns confirmed to have this climate. Small areas with a Csc climate can be found at elevations in Corsica
Döner kebab is a type of Turkish kebab, made of meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie. Similar dishes cooked on a vertical rotisserie are the Arab shawarma, Greek gyros, seasoned meat stacked in the shape of an inverted cone is turned slowly on the rotisserie, next to a vertical cooking element. The outer layer is sliced vertically into thin shavings as it cooks, since the early 1970s, the sandwich or wrap form has become popular around the world as a fast food dish sold by kebab shops, and is often called simply a kebab. The sandwich generally contains salad or vegetables, which may include tomato, cabbage, onion with sumac, fresh or pickled cucumber, or chili, and various types of sauces. Before taking its form, as mentioned in Ottoman travel books of the 18th century. Grilling meat on horizontal skewers has an ancient history in the Eastern Mediterranean, since then, Hacı İskender has been considered the inventor of Turkish döner kebap, though he might have been preceded by Hamdi Usta from Kastamonu around 1830.
With time, the took a different marinade, got leaner. It was not until a later, that döner kebab was introduced and popularized in Istanbul. His restaurant, first opened in 1945, was discovered by journalists and began serving döner and other kebab dishes to kings, prime ministers, film stars. It has been sold in form in Istanbul since at least the mid-1960s. The döner kebab, and its derivatives shawarma and gyros, served in a sandwich, the first doner kebab shop in London opened in 1966, while Greek-style gyros was already popular in Greece and New York City in 1971. In Germany the döner kebab was popularized by Turkish guest workers in the early 1970s with a center in Berlin, the English word kebab comes from the Arabic, كَبَاب, partly through Urdu and Turkish. It may refer to a number of different kebab dishes made with roasted or grilled meat, Döner is a Turkish word, from dönmek. It is sometimes spelled döner kebap, the Turkish spelling, in English, it may be spelled doner, donair or sometimes donner.
In German, it is spelled Döner Kebab, which can be spelled Doener Kebab if the ö character is not available, particularly in British English, a döner kebab sandwich may be referred to simply as a kebab. In Greece, it was originally called döner but came to be known as gyros, from γύρος, the Arabic name شاورما derives from another Turkish word, çevirme, meaning turning. Persians refer to it as kebab torki, there are many variations of döner in Turkey, Porsiyon Pilavüstü İskender Kebapçı İskender is trademarked by Yavuz İskenderoğlu, whose family still runs the restaurant in Bursa. Dürüm, wrapped in a thin lavaş that is grilled after being rolled