A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g. in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate hypothesis" volcanism. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been explained as mantle plumes; these so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.
Volcanoes are not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere. Volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines; the word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology. The study of volcanoes is sometimes spelled vulcanology. At the mid-oceanic ridges, two tectonic plates diverge from one another as new oceanic crust is formed by the cooling and solidifying of hot molten rock; because the crust is thin at these ridges due to the pull of the tectonic plates, the release of pressure leads to adiabatic expansion and the partial melting of the mantle, causing volcanism and creating new oceanic crust.
Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans. Black smokers are evidence of this kind of volcanic activity. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sea-level, volcanic islands are formed. Subduction zones are places where two plates an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. In this case, the oceanic plate subducts, or submerges, under the continental plate, forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, thus creating magma; this magma tends to be viscous because of its high silica content, so it does not attain the surface but cools and solidifies at depth. When it does reach the surface, however, a volcano is formed. Typical examples are the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Hotspots are volcanic areas believed to be formed by mantle plumes, which are hypothesized to be columns of hot material rising from the core-mantle boundary in a fixed space that causes large-volume melting.
Because tectonic plates move across them, each volcano becomes dormant and is re-formed as the plate advances over the postulated plume. The Hawaiian Islands are said to have been formed in such a manner; this theory, has been doubted. The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit; the features of volcanoes are much more complicated and their structure and behavior depends on a number of factors. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have landscape features such as massive plateaus. Vents that issue volcanic material and gases can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puʻu ʻŌʻō on a flank of Hawaii's Kīlauea. Other types of volcano include cryovolcanoes on some moons of Jupiter and Neptune. Active mud volcanoes tend to involve temperatures much lower than those of igneous volcanoes except when the mud volcano is a vent of an igneous volcano.
Volcanic fissure vents are linear fractures through which lava emerges. Shield volcanoes, so named for their broad, shield-like profiles, are formed by the eruption of low-viscosity lava that can flow a great distance from a vent, they do not explode catastrophically. Since low-viscosity magma is low in silica, shield volcanoes are more common in oceanic than continental settings; the Hawaiian volcanic chain is a series of shield cones, they are common in Iceland, as well. Lava domes are built by slow eruptions of viscous lava, they are sometimes formed within the crater of a previous volcanic eruption, as in the case of Mount Saint Helen
Hakone-Yumoto Station is a railway station on the Hakone Tozan Line in Hakone, Japan. Hakone-Yumoto Station is served by the Hakone Tozan Line from Odawara to Gōra, although all Hakone Tozan Line trains start from this station, only Odakyu services operate between Hakone-Yumoto and Odawara; the station lies 6.1 kilometers from the line's official starting point at Odawara Station. Odakyu Electric Railway "Romancecar" limited express trains run between this station; the station has four tracks. There are some shops, information center for sightseeing and hotel reservations, bus terminal in front of the station. Hakone-Yumoto station opened on October 1, 1888, as "Odawara Horse-drawn Railway" terminal Yumoto Station, from Kōzu Station, via Odawara Station. On June 1, 1919, a new electrified funicular railway was opened from Hakone-Yumoto to Gōra, the Hakone Tozan Railway converted the Odawawa to Hakone-Yumoto tram line to a railway in 1935. Since 1950, Odakyu Electric Railway provides through services from Shinjuku Station on its Odawara Line, by Limited Express "Romancecar" and Express.
After March 15, 2008, Odakyu discontinued normal Express services on the Hakone Tozan Line. A new station building was completed in 2009. Buses are operated by several companies. Bus stop No.1 "Z" line for Hakone Checkpoint via Miyanoshita, Kowakidani Station, Kowaki-en, Moto Hakone "J" line for Hakone-en via Miyanoshita, Kowakidani Station, Kowaki-en, Ōwakudani, Kojiri Bus stop No.2 "H" line for Hakone Machi Ko via Miyanoshita, Kowakidani Station, Kowaki-en, Moto Hakone Ko, Hakone Checkpoint Bus stop No.3 "T" line for Togendai via Miyanoshita, Venetian Glass Museum, Kawamukai, Senkyoro-mae, Sengoku-kogen Bus stop No.4 "K" line for Moto Hakone Ko via Hatajuku "D" line for Haneda Airport via Yokohama Station Bus stop No.5 for Odawara Station List of railway stations in Japan Hakone Tozan Railway official website Hakone Tozan Bus official website Hakone-Yumoto Station Map
Hakone is a town in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of June 2012, the town had an estimated population of 13,492, a population density of 145 persons per km²; the total area is 92.82 km². Hakone has been designated as a Japanese National Geopark by the Japanese Geoparks Network. Hakone is to a great degree regarded as a traveler destination. In addition to hot springs and other recreation activities, Hakone is known for its scenery during all four seasons. Hakone is located in the mountainous in the far west of the prefecture, on the eastern side of Hakone Pass. Most of the town is within the borders of the volcanically active Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, centered on Lake Ashi. Kanagawa Prefecture Odawara Yugawara Minami-ashigaraShizuoka Prefecture Gotemba Susono Mishima Oyama Kannami Hakone is the location of a noted Shinto shrine, the Hakone Gongen, mentioned in Heian period literature. During the Genpei War, Minamoto no Yoritomo prayed at this shrine for victory over his enemies, after his defeat at the Battle of Ishibashiyama, fought in neighboring Manazuru.
As with the rest of Sagami Province, the area came under the control of the Hōjō clan of Odawara during the Sengoku period. After the start of the Edo period, Hakone-juku was a post station on the Tōkaidō highway connecting Edo with Kyoto, it was the site of a major barrier and official checkpoint on the route known as the Hakone Checkpoint, which formed the border of the Kantō region. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, all travellers entering and leaving Edo along the Tōkaidō were stopped here by officials, their travel permits and baggage were examined to enforce Tokugawa laws that restricted the travel of women and weapons. After the start of the Meiji Restoration, Hakone became a part of the short-lived Ashigara Prefecture before becoming part of Ashigarashimo District in Kanagawa prefecture in August 1876. Hakone attained town status in 1889; the imperial household established the summer. After merger with five neighboring towns and villages in September 1956, it reached its present boundaries.
The economy of Hakone is dominated by the tourist industry. Hakone is noted for its onsen hot spring resorts, which attract both Japanese and international visitors due to its proximity to the greater Tokyo metropolis and to Mount Fuji. Sights include the volcanically active Ōwakudani geysers and Hakone Shrine on the shore of the lake, as well as the Hakone Botanical Garden of Wetlands. In April the cherry blossoms and in autumn the Miscanthus sinensis are noted sights. Hakone has a number including the Hakone Open-Air Museum and Pola Museum of Art. Major events include the annual JLPGA CAT Ladies Golf tournament and the Hakone Ekiden, a long distance collegiate foot race, held at the New Year, which runs from Tokyo to Hakone and back over two days in commemoration of the couriers who ran the Tōkaidō road. One famous hotel in Hakone is the historic Fujiya Hotel in Miyanoshita, patronized by noted literary figures and foreign dignitaries in the Meiji and Taishō and early Shōwa periods. A noted local handicraft is a kind of marquetry called Yosegi.
Hakone is well-known among anime fans for being the main location in the manga and anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion, in which it has been renamed Tokyo-3, there are numerous attractions related to the franchise offered in the town. In 2017, Hakone was included as one of 88 anime pilgrimage sites for 2018 by the Anime Tourism Association. Hakone Tozan Railway Hakone Tozan Cable Car Hakone Ropeway Izuhakone RailwayOdawara and Mishima, the terminus of the Odakyū Odawara Line, 70 minutes from Shinjuku, Tokyo. From Odawara, the Hakone Tozan Line continues into various resort towns in Hakone. Odakyu runs the Romancecar limited express between Shinjuku and Hakone-Yumoto. From Gōra, the terminus of Hakone Tozan Line, the Hakone Tozan Cable Car funicular goes to Sōunzan. Ōwakudani can be reached by Hakone Ropeway from Sounzan and the lake, while the lake is crisscrossed by cartoonishly decorated "pirate" ships for tourists. There is Hakone Komagatake Ropeway, which goes to the top of Mount Komagatake.
A popular "Hakone Free Pass", allowing unlimited use of most forms of transport for several days, is available. Hakone Free Pass can be bought at Shinjuku Station, Odawara Station, any other chief station along Odakyū Odawara Line, Hakone-Yumoto Station, Gōra Station, any other chief station along Hakone Tozan Line, Sōunzan Station, Tōgendai Station, Sengoku-Annaijo Bus Stop, Moto-Hakone Port, Hakone-Machi Port, JR Gotemba Station Bus Information. Hakone Shindō Japan National Route 1 Japan National Route 138 - Tōyako, Hokkaidō, since July 4, 1964 - Jasper, Canada from July 4, 1972 - Taupo, New Zealand, from October 7, 1987 - St. Moritz, from November 2, 2014 Hakone travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Website Hakone Portal Website
Mount Fuji, located on Honshū, is the highest volcano in Japan at 3,776.24 m, 2nd-highest peak of an island in Asia, 7th-highest peak of an island in the world. It is a dormant stratovolcano that last erupted in 1707–1708. Mount Fuji lies about 100 kilometers south-west of Tokyo, can be seen from there on a clear day. Mount Fuji's exceptionally symmetrical cone, snow-capped for about 5 months a year, is a well-known symbol of Japan and it is depicted in art and photographs, as well as visited by sightseers and climbers. Mount Fuji is one of Japan's "Three Holy Mountains" along with Mount Haku, it is a Special Place of Scenic Beauty and one of Japan's Historic Sites. It was added to the World Heritage List as a Cultural Site on June 22, 2013. According to UNESCO, Mount Fuji has "inspired artists and poets and been the object of pilgrimage for centuries". UNESCO recognizes 25 sites of cultural interest within the Mount Fuji locality; these 25 locations include the mountain and the Shinto shrine, Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha, as well as the Buddhist Taisekiji Head Temple founded in 1290 immortalized by Japanese ukiyo-e artist Katsushika Hokusai.
The current kanji for Mount Fuji, 富 and 士, mean "wealth" or "abundant" and "a man of status" respectively. However, the name predates kanji, these characters are ateji, meaning that they were selected because their pronunciations match the syllables of the name but do not carry a meaning related to the mountain; the origin of the name Fuji is unclear, having no recording of it being first called by this name. A text of the 9th century, Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, says that the name came from "immortal" and from the image of abundant soldiers ascending the slopes of the mountain. An early folk etymology claims that Fuji came from 不二, meaning without nonpareil. Another claims. A Japanese classical scholar in the Edo era, Hirata Atsutane, speculated that the name is from a word meaning, "a mountain standing up shapely as an ear of a rice plant". A British missionary Bob Chiggleson argued that the name is from the Ainu word for "fire" of the fire deity, denied by a Japanese linguist Kyōsuke Kindaichi on the grounds of phonetic development.
It is pointed out that huchi means an "old woman" and ape is the word for "fire", ape huchi kamuy being the fire deity. Research on the distribution of place names that include fuji as a part suggest the origin of the word fuji is in the Yamato language rather than Ainu. A Japanese toponymist Kanji Kagami argued that the name has the same root as wisteria and rainbow, came from its "long well-shaped slope". Modern linguist Alexander Vovin proposes an alternative hypothesis based on Old Japanese reading /puⁿzi/: the word may have been borrowed from Eastern Old Japanese 火主 meaning'fire master', see wikt:富士#Etymology 2. In English, the mountain is known as Mount Fuji; some sources refer to it as "Fuji-san", "Fujiyama" or, redundantly, "Mt. Fujiyama". Japanese speakers refer to the mountain as "Fuji-san"; this "san" is not the honorific suffix used with people's names, such as Watanabe-san, but the Sino-Japanese reading of the character yama used in Sino-Japanese compounds. In Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanization, the name is transliterated as Huzi.
Other Japanese names for Mount Fuji, which have become obsolete or poetic, include Fuji-no-Yama, Fuji-no-Takane, Fuyō-hō, Fugaku, created by combining the first character of 富士, 岳, mountain. In Shinto mythology, Kuninotokotachi is one of the two gods born from "something like a reed that arose from the soil" when the earth was chaotic. According to the Nihon Shoki, Konohanasakuya-hime, wife of Ninigi, is the goddess of Mount Fuji, where Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha is dedicated for her. Mount Fuji is an attractive volcanic cone and a frequent subject of Japanese art after 1600, when Edo became the capital and people saw the mountain while traveling on the Tōkaidō road; the mountain is mentioned in Japanese literature throughout the ages and is the subject of many poems. One of the modern artists who depicted Fuji in all her works was Tamako Kataoka, it is thought. The summit has been thought of as sacred since ancient times and was forbidden to women until the Meiji Era in the late 1860s. Ancient samurai used the base of the mountain as a remote training area, near the present-day town of Gotemba.
The shōgun Minamoto. Founded by Nikko Shonin in 1290 on the lower slopes of Mount Fuji in Shizuoka Prefecture is the Taiseki-ji temple complex, the central base headquarters of Nichiren Shōshū Buddhism, visited by thousands of westerners and Asian believers from neighbouring countries each year who go on varying Tozan pilgrimages; the first ascent by a foreigner was by Sir Rutherford Alcock in September 1868, from the foot of the mountain to the top in eight hours and three hours for the descent. Alcock's brief narrative in The Capital of the Tycoon was the first disseminated description of the mountain in the West. Lady Fanny Parkes, the wife of British ambassador Sir Harry Parkes, was the first non-Japanese woman to ascend Mount Fuji in 1869. Photographer Felix Beato climbed M
The Hakone Ropeway is the name of an aerial lift, as well as its operator. The funitel line links between Sōunzan and Tōgendai via Ōwakudani, all within Hakone, Japan; the line became funitel in the second of its kind in the nation, after Hashikurasan Ropeway. It makes a part of the sightseeing route between Lake Ashi; the company belongs to the Odakyū Group. Hakone Ropeway was a single line until 2001. From 2002, it became a system consisted of two distinct sections, although they are still treated as the same line. System: Gondola lift, until 2001 Funitel, from 2002 Distance: 1.4 kilometres Vertical interval: 281 m Maximum gradient: 25°33′ Operational speed: 5.0 m/s Passenger capacity per a cabin: 18 Cabins: 18 System: Gondola lift, until 2006 Funitel, from 2007 Distance: 2.5 kilometres Vertical interval: 298 m Maximum gradient: 19°42′ Operational speed: 5.0 m/s Passenger capacity per a cabin: 18 Cabins: 30 All stations at Hakone, Kanagawa. List of aerial lifts in Japan Official website
Ōwakudani Station is a station on the Hakone Ropeway in the town of Hakone, Japan. It is 1.5 kilometers from the Hakone Ropeway's terminus at Sōunzan Station, 2.5 kilometers from the Hakone Ropeway's opposing terminus at Tōgendai Station. It is located at an altitude of 1,044 meters in the Ōwakudani area of Hakone. Ōwakudani Station is served by the Hakone Ropeway. The boarding area is separated for Sōunzan direction and Tōgendai direction, with access by stairs or escalator, as the station is built barrier free for use by handicapped passengers. Ōwakudani Station opened on December 1959 with the opening of the Hakone Ropeway Line. Izuhakone Bus 大涌谷 Bus Stop 35.243341°N 139.019476°E / 35.243341.
A funitel is a type of Cableway used to transport skiers, although at least one is used to transport finished cars between different areas of a factory. It differs from a standard gondola lift through the use of two arms attached to two parallel overhead cables, providing more stability in high winds; the name funitel is a blend of the French words telepherique. When used to transport skiers, funitels are a fast way to get to a higher altitude. However, because skis or snowboard have to be taken off and held during the trip, because of the absence of seats, funitels can sometimes be uncomfortable for long trips, in the same way other large gondolas can be. Funitels combine a short time between successive cabins with a high capacity per cabin. A funitel consists of one or two loops of cable strung between two terminals over intermediate towers. In order to maximize the stability of the passenger cabins, the cables are arranged in two pairs moving in separate directions. Although it might appear that there are four cables in total, most of the time they are all connected as a single, long loop.
The passenger cabins are connected to a pair of cables with four spring-loaded grips. Because the cable runs at a speed faster than that at which most people would care to board or disembark, the cabins must be slowed down while in the terminals to allow skiers to get on and off; this is accomplished by detaching the cabin from the cable and slowing it down with progressively slower rotating tires mounted on the ceiling of the terminal. Once the cabin has reached a speed at which it is safe to load or unload passengers, the cabin is moved about the end turnaround by tires mounted on the floor; the cabin is accelerated to line speed with a second set of rotating tires. The first funitel was constructed in Val-Thorens, 1990, by Denis Creissel and enterprises Reel and Städeli-Lift; the first funitel constructed outside Europe was near Mammoth Mountain, California at June mountain resort, built by Yan lifts in 1980s. The owner of Yan claims to have invented the funitel lift, it was taken down in 1990 due to grip and all around errors.
The second funitel constructed outside of Europe was the one in Montmorency Falls, Canada, 1993. Encamp sector, Grandvalira ski resort St. Anton am Arlberg Ischgl Kitzsteinhorn Hintertux Montmorency Falls, Quebec City Val-Thorens La Plagne: Built by Doppelmayr it runs from Plagne Centre up to La Grande Rochette. L'Alpe d'Huez Super Besse Les Deux Alpes Athens: Parnitha Funitel Hashikurasan Ropeway, Tokushima Hakone Ropeway, Kanagawa Tanigawadake Ropeway, Tanigawadake Tenjindaira Ski Resort, Gunma Zaō Ropeway, Yamagata Zaō Onsen Ski Resort, Yamagata Bratislava – used to transport cars in Volkswagen factory Jasná - ski resort Verbier Crans-Montana Carbone Rubicon Mountain Resort Squaw Valley Ski Resort List of aerial lift manufacturers Lift Engineering Skiing and Skiing Topics Doppelmayr funitel Page Poma funitel page