The.22 Hornet or 5.6×35mmR is a varminting, small-game hunting and competition centerfire rifle cartridge commercially introduced in 1930. It is more powerful than the rimfire.22 WMR and the.17 HMR, achieving higher velocity with a bullet twice the weight of the.17 HMR bullet. The Hornet differs significantly from these in that being a centerfire cartridge makes it handloadable and reloadable, thus much more versatile, it was the smallest commercially available.22 caliber centerfire cartridge until the introduction of the FN 5.7×28mm. The.22 Hornet fills the gap between such popular varmint/predator cartridges as the.22 WMR and the.223 Remington. In regard to muzzle velocity, muzzle energy and noise, it is well suited to vermin and predator control in built-up areas. Prior to the development of the modern.22 Hornet, there was a conceptually similar but physically different cartridge by the same name invented in the 1890s by Reuben Harwood", sometimes called the ".22 Harwood Hornet" to avoid confusion, as the two rounds are not compatible.
Harwood's cartridge was formed by necking down.25-20 Single Shot brass to.22 caliber, was loaded with black powder. The modern.22 Hornet's ancestry is attributed to experiments done in the 1920s using the black-powder.22 WCF at Springfield Armory. Winchester adopted what had so far been a wildcat cartridge in 1930, producing ammo for a cartridge for which no commercially made guns yet had been built, it was not until 1932. Wildcat variants of the.22 Hornet, such as the.22 K-Hornet and.22 Ackley Improved Hornet, can boost bullet velocity and energy above factory.22 Hornet levels, but performance still falls short of what is deer-legal in the Netherlands or the United Kingdom, although it is legal for deer in some other countries and some American states. Factory ammunition is available from all major manufacturers with bullets weighing 34, 35, 45, or 46 grains, with bullets invariably either hollow point or soft point. Muzzle velocity is in the 2,500 to 3,100 ft/s range, muzzle energy is just over 700 ft·lbf for factory ammo fired from a rifle.
Published handload data from major handloading-product companies shows how versatile the.22 Hornet can be. According to the Hodgdon Powder Company reloading data, the heavier bullets show a serious affinity for Lil'Gun smokeless powder to produce much higher velocities than other powder with heavy bullets in this small case. Beginning during World War II, aircrew survival rifles in.22 Hornet were developed and issued by the U. S. military. They were a bolt-action rifle with adjustable stock, a break-open rifle/shotgun over-under, a takedown bolt-action rifle. Military survival issue.22 Hornet ammunition was loaded with soft-point expanding jacketed bullets, not complying with the Hague Convention. The United States was the only exception to a complete prohibition of the use of expanding bullets in war, due to its ambiguous policy. However, the cartridge boxes were labeled "Under no circumstances is the ammunition to be used for offensive or defensive measures against enemy personnel; this ammunition is provided for use with your emergency survival Rifle for the Killing of Game for food under emergency survival conditions only."
The.22 Hornet is a popular cartridge for the Field/Hunter's pistol category in IHMSA and NRA metallic silhouette shooting. Survivalist Mel Tappan on the.22 Hornet: "It is accurate, has no recoil and a light report.... Ts performance pests within 150 or 175 yards, it is by no means a reliable deer cartridge with handloads."Sam Fadala of GUNS magazine calls it "perfect for mid-range varmints of all stripes," everything from small game, mountain birds, javelina, peccaries and Australian wild pigs and goats. The Hornet is considered an optimal cartridge for turkey hunting, though it is not as powerful as modern.22 centerfires. At mid-century, southern sportsman Henry Edwards Davis pronounced the Winchester Model 70 chambered for the Hornet "the best commercial rifle for wild turkeys the world has seen". In 2011, Lane Kinney was awarded the "Top Turkey in the World" award by Safari Club International for a record-setting Osceola turkey taken with a T/C Contender pistol in.22 Hornet. The Hornet's virtual absence of recoil has made it quite popular among deer hunters in some areas, although it is regarded as underpowered for deer unless bullet placement is precise.
American hunter Jack O'Connor decried this practice in the 1950s, stating the Hornet could "under no circumstances" be considered a deer cartridge. Many jurisdictions such as the Netherlands, the UK and some states in the USA prohibit the Hornet for use on deer. The.22 Hornet proved popular among the Alaskan Inuit due to low cost, who used it for hunting seals and polar bears. Rifles are being chambered in.22 Hornet by Ruger, New England Firearms, CZ and various other mass-market manufacturers. Most current-production rifles in.22 Hornet are either bolt-action or single-shot designs, with the exception of a few "survival" rifle/shotgun over-under designs such as the Savage Model 24 from Savage and a few European-made kipplauf break-action, single-shot rifles. Older guns have a slower twist rate of 1-16" (or one t
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This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 99th United States Congress listed by seniority. As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 99th Congress. Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members. Seniority depends on the date. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman. Committee chairmanship in the House is associated with seniority. However, party leadership is not associated with seniority. Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.
United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, by Michael J. Dubin ISBN 0-7864-0283-0 99th United States Congress List of United States congressional districts List of United States Senators in the 99th Congress by seniority Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives