10 Hygiea

Hygiea is a major asteroid located in the main asteroid belt. With a diameter of 434 kilometres and a mass estimated to be 2.9% of the total mass of the belt, it is the fourth-largest asteroid in the Solar System by both volume and mass. In some spectral classifications it is the largest of the dark C-type asteroids with a carbonaceous surface, in others it is second after 1 Ceres. Observations taken with the Very Large Telescope's SPHERE imager in 2017 and 2018, announced in late 2019, revealed that Hygiea has a nearly spherical shape, at least consistent with it being in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus a dwarf planet. Despite its size, Hygiea appears dim when observed from Earth; this is due to its position in the outer main belt. For this reason, six smaller asteroids were observed before Annibale de Gasparis discovered Hygiea on 12 April 1849. At most oppositions, Hygiea has a magnitude, four magnitudes dimmer than Vesta's, observing it requires at least a 100-millimetre telescope. However, while at a perihelic opposition, it can be observed just with 10x50 binoculars as Hygiea would have a magnitude of +9.1.

On 12 April 1849, in Naples, astronomer Annibale de Gasparis discovered Hygiea. It was the first of his nine asteroid discoveries; the director of the Naples observatory, Ernesto Capocci, named the asteroid. He chose to call it Igea Borbonica in honor of the ruling family of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies where Naples was located. In 1852, John Russell Hind wrote that "it is universally termed Hygiea, the unnecessary appendage'Borbonica' being dropped"; the name comes from the Greek goddess of health, daughter of Asclepius. Based on spectral evidence, Hygiea's surface is thought to consist of primitive carbonaceous materials similar to those found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Aqueous alteration products have been detected on its surface, which could indicate the presence of water ice in the past, heated sufficiently to melt; the primitive present surface composition would indicate that Hygiea had not been melted during the early period of Solar System formation, in contrast to other large planetesimals like 4 Vesta..

However, observations in 2019 suggest Hygiea had suffered a head-on collision which had melted it and resulted in its present spherical shape. In images taken with the Very Large Telescope imager in 2017, a bright surface feature is visible, as well as at least two dark craters, which have been informally named Serpens and Calix after the Latin words for snake and cup, respectively. Serpens has a size of 180 km, Calix is about 90 km in diameter. Hygiea is the largest of the class of dark C-type asteroids that are dominant in the outer asteroid belt, beyond the Kirkwood gap at 2.82 AU. Hygiea has an average diameter of 434 ± 14 km. While early studies have found a noticeably oblate shape with a semimajor axis ratio of 1.11, recent results indicate that Hygiea is more spherical, with an axis ratio of 1.06, consistent with a MacLaurin ellipsoid. Aside from being the smallest of the "big four", like Ceres, has a low density, more comparable to the icy satellites of Jupiter or Saturn than to the terrestrial planets or the stony asteroids.

Although it is the largest body in its region, due to its dark surface and farther-than-average distance from the Sun, Hygiea appears dim when observed from Earth. In fact, it is the third dimmest of the first twenty-three asteroids discovered, with only 13 Egeria and 17 Thetis having lower mean opposition magnitudes. At most oppositions, Hygiea has a magnitude of around +10.2, as much as four orders fainter than Vesta, observation calls for at least a 4-inch telescope to resolve. However, at a perihelic opposition, Hygiea can reach +9.1 magnitude and may just be resolvable with 10x50 binoculars, unlike the next two largest asteroids in the asteroid belt, 704 Interamnia and 511 Davida, which are always beyond binocular visibility. A total of 17 stellar occultations by Hygiea have been tracked by Earth-based astronomers, including two that were seen by a large number of observers; the observations have been used to constrain Hygiea's size and rotation axis. The Hubble Space Telescope has resolved the asteroid and ruled out the presence of any orbiting companions larger than about 16 kilometres in diameter.

Orbiting at an average of 3.14 AU from the Sun, Hygiea is the most distant of the "big four" asteroids. It lies closer to the ecliptic as well, with an orbital inclination of 4°, its orbit is less circular than those of Ceres or Vesta, with an eccentricity of around 0.12. Its perihelion is at a quite similar longitude to those of Vesta and Ceres, though its ascending and descending nodes are opposite to the corresponding ones for those objects. Although its perihelion is close to the mean distance of Ceres and Pallas, a collision between Hygiea and its larger companions is impossible because at that distance they are always on opposite sides of the ecliptic. In 2056, Hygiea will pass 0.025 AU from Ceres, in 2063, Hygiea will pass 0.020 AU from Pallas. At aphelion Hygiea reaches out to the extreme edge of the asteroid belt at the perihelia of the Hilda family, in a 3:2 orbital resonance with Jupiter; as one of the most massive asteroids, Hygiea is used by the Minor Planet Center to calculate perturbations.

Hygiea is in an unstable three-body mean motion resonance with Saturn. The computed Lyapunov time for this asteroid is 30,000 years, i

13 Carat Diamond and Other Stories

13 Carat Diamond and Other Stories is a collection of short stories by Khin Myo Chit. It was published in 1969, with a second edition released in October 2005; the collection contains the culture of Burma, as well as fiction. The title story, The 13 Carat Diamond, first appeared in The Guardian magazine in 1955, was included in 50 Great Oriental Stories, published by Bantam Classics; the story describes the author's own experiences in war-time Burma. The anthology includes the stories: The 13-Carat Diamond Home-Coming The Golden Princess Electra Triumphs The Ruse The Bearer of the Betel Casket The Egg and I I Believe in Miracles Of Mice and Men Sweet Airs that Give Delight Fortune-Telling is Fun The Late Princess Mindat Why Writers Write A Writer's Prayer The Man Who Twirls His Beard Chit Pe the Lunatic and Money Till the Hair Rots and Falls to the Ground catalogue page page Sample pages of the book can be viewed at Google Books

Pietro Trifone

Pietro Trifone, is an Italian linguist. Trifone lectures History of Italian language at the department of Philology and literature of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, he has led research work at the Sapienza Università di Roma, D'Annunzio University of Chieti–Pescara and Foreigners University of Siena. With Maurizio Dardano he has written a reference grammar of the Italian language. With Luca Serianni he has edited the Storia della lingua italiana in three volumes, with contributions by fifty scholars, his research activity embraces various fields, ranging from the analysis of grammatical structures of contemporary Italian to the history of literary and popular language with reference to the relationship between linguistic change and social life. He carried out studies on the following topics: - plurilingualism of 16th century. From 1996 to 2004 he held the office of Rector of the Foreigners University of Siena. In the University of Rome Tor Vergata he holds the position of coordinator of the PhD in Comparative Studies.

He is member of the Accademia della Crusca, of the Accademia dell'Arcadia, of the Istituto Nazionale di Studi Romani and co-director of the magazines «La lingua italiana. Storia, testi» and «Carte di viaggio. Studi di lingua e letteratura italiana». Camillo Scroffa, I cantici di Fidenzio. Con appendice di poeti fidenziani, a cura di Pietro Trifone, Salerno Editrice, Roma, 1981 Dizionario politico popolare, a cura di Pietro Trifone, Salerno Editrice, Roma, 1984 Roma e il Lazio, Utet Libreria, Torino, 1992 Storia della lingua italiana, a cura di Luca Serianni e Pietro Trifone, 3 voll. Einaudi, Torino, 1993–1994 La sintassi dell'italiano letterario, a cura di Maurizio Dardano e Pietro Trifone, Roma, 1995 La nuova grammatica della lingua italiana, Bologna, 1997 L'italiano a teatro. Dalla commedia rinascimentale a Dario Fo, Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, Pisa-Roma, 2000 Rinascimento dal basso. Il nuovo spazio del volgare tra Quattro e Cinquecento, Roma, 2006 Dire l'ineffabile. Caterina da Siena e il linguaggio della mistica, a cura di Lino Leonardi e Pietro Trifone, Edizioni del Galluzzo, Firenze, 2006 Malalingua.

L'italiano scorretto da Dante a oggi, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2007 Storia linguistica di Roma, Roma, 2008 Lingua e identità. Una storia sociale dell'italiano, a cura di Pietro Trifone, nuova ediz. Carocci, Roma, 2009 Storia linguistica dell'Italia disunita, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2010, Gramática de la lengua italiana, Perugia, 2011, L'italiano nel mondo, Roma, 2012, Grammatica italiana di base, terza edizione, Bologna, 2014 Città italiane, storie di lingue e culture, a cura di Pietro Trifone, Roma, 2015, La lingua del teatro, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2015 Pocoinchiostro. Storia dell'italiano comune, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2017 Pagina docente sul sito web del Dipartimento di Studi filologici, linguistici e letterari dell'Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"