Thomas Bourchier (cardinal)
Thomas Bourchier was a medieval English cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Chancellor of England. Bourchier was a younger son of William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu by his wife Anne of Gloucester, a daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, youngest son of King Edward III. One of his brothers was Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex, his great-nephew was John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners, the translator of Froissart. Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham was his half-brother, he was educated at the University of Oxford, after which he entered the church and obtained rapid promotion. After holding some minor appointments he was consecrated Bishop of Worcester on 15 May 1434. In the same year of 1434 he was Chancellor of the University of Oxford, in 1443 was appointed Bishop of Ely. In April 1454 he was made Archbishop of Canterbury, became Lord Chancellor of England in March 1455. Bourchier's short term of office as chancellor coincided with the start of the Wars of the Roses, at first he was not a strong partisan, although he lost his position as chancellor when Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, was deprived of power in October 1456.
In 1458 he helped to reconcile the contending parties as part of The Love Day, but when the war was renewed in 1459 he had become a decided Yorkist. He crowned Duke Richard's son Edward Plantagenet, 4th Duke of York as King Edward IV in June 1461, four years he crowned Edward's queen, Elizabeth Woodville. In 1457 Bourchier took the chief part in the trial for heresy of Reginald Pecock, Bishop of Chichester. In 1473 he was created a cardinal, not after some delay as this honour had been sought for him by King Edward IV in 1465. In 1475 he was one of the four arbitrators appointed to arrange the details of the Treaty of Picquigny between England and France. After the death of King Edward IV in 1483 Bourchier persuaded the queen to allow her younger infant son, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, to join his elder infant brother King Edward V in his residence in the Tower of London. Although Bourchier had sworn, before his father's death, to be faithful to King Edward V, he crowned King Richard III in July 1483.
The third English king crowned by Bourchier was King Henry VII, whom he married to Elizabeth of York in January 1486. Bourchier died on 30 March 1486 at the palatial residence he had transformed, Knole House, near Sevenoaks in Kent, was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, where his monument can be found. Fryde, E. B.. Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Bourchier, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Biography: Thomas Bourchier
1471 papal conclave
The papal conclave of 1471 elected Pope Sixtus IV following the death of Pope Paul II. With the exception of the conclaves of the Western Schism, this conclave was the first since 1305 to feature a working, two-thirds majority of Italians within the College of Cardinals, in no small part because of the absence of six non-Italian cardinals; this was in part due to the unexpectedness of the death of Paul II. The two main factions were those of d'Estouteville and Orsini, the latter of whom secured a major pre-conclave victory in managing to persuade the rest of the College to exclude the cardinals created by Paul II in pectore, in explicit defiance of the last will and testament of the previous pontiff; such creatures would be allowed to participate, for example, in the papal conclave, 1492. Paul II had created at least eight cardinals in secret, at least five of whom were alive at the time of the conclave: Pedro Ferriz, Pietro Foscari, Giovanni Battista Savelli, Ferry de Clugny, Jan Vitez. A conclave capitulation was drawn up at the beginning of the conclave, but unusually it contained no explicit limitations on papal power, except to continue the Crusading war against the Turks.
The aforementioned factions can more be referred to as the "Pieschi" and the "Paoleschi". As in the previous conclaves, Bessarion emerged as an early favorite, with six votes on the second day, those of: d'Estouteville, Capranica, Ammanati-Piccolomini and Barbo; the old arguments against Bessarion, namely that he was a non-Italian, who in addition would be unacceptable to the princes of France, again prevailed. The voting tallies are known with specificity because of the notes of Nicodemo de Pontremoli, sent to Duke of Milan Galeazzo Maria Sforza residing in the State Archives of Milan. Notable favorites in the ensuing scrutinies are: Calandrini and Roverella. Of the favored candidates of Sforza, della Rovere was the most electable, so Gonzaga and Borja lobbied for him behind the scenes, all the while disguising their intentions by voting for others until the morning of August 9th, when along with d'Estouteville and Barbo they changed their votes to della Rovere in the accessus, giving him a total of 13 votes.
The cardinals voting for della Rovere in the scrutiny were: Monferrato, Michiel, Roverella,Forteguerri, Bessarion and Orsini. Contrary to the perennial tradition, the five remaining cardinals did not change their votes to della Rovere in the accessus to make the election "unanimous"
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from 697 AD until 1797 AD. It was based in the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; the Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy, it dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Europe and North Africa, as well as Asia. The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades, most notably in the Fourth Crusade. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea. Venice became home to an wealthy merchant class, who patronized renowned art and architecture along the city's lagoons.
Venetian merchants were influential financiers in Europe. The city was the birthplace of great European explorers, such as Marco Polo, as well as Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Benedetto Marcello; the republic was ruled by the Doge, elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the city-state's parliament. The ruling class was an oligarchy of aristocrats. Venice and other Italian maritime republics played a key role in fostering capitalism. Venetian citizens supported the system of governance; the city-state employed ruthless tactics in its prisons. The opening of new trade routes to the Americas and the East Indies via the Atlantic Ocean marked the beginning of Venice's decline as a powerful maritime republic; the city state suffered. In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, the Ionian French departments of Greece.
Venice became part of a unified Italy in the 19th century. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the "Most Serene Republics". During the 5th century, North East Italy was devastated by the Germanic barbarian invasions. A large number of the inhabitants moved to the coastal lagoons. Here they established a collection of lagoon communities, stretching over about 130 km from Chioggia in the south to Grado in the north, who banded together for mutual defence from the Lombards and other invading peoples as the power of the Western Roman Empire dwindled in northern Italy; these communities were subjected to the authority of the Byzantine Empire. At some point in the first decades of the eighth century, the people of the Byzantine province of Venice elected their first leader Ursus, confirmed by Constantinople and given the titles of hypatus and dux, he was the first historical Doge of Venice. Tradition, first attested in the early 11th century, states that the Venetians first proclaimed one Anafestus Paulicius duke in 697, though this story dates to no earlier than the chronicle of John the Deacon.
Whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Ursus's successor, moved his seat from Heraclea to Malamocco in the 740s, he represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were unsuccessful. During the reign of Deusdedit, Venice became the only remaining Byzantine possession in the north and the changing politics of the Frankish Empire began to change the factional divisions within Venetia. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine, they desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence; the other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A minor, pro-Lombard faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers and interested in maintaining peace with the neighbouring Lombard kingdom.
The successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence. Many centuries the Venetians claimed that the treaty had recognised Venetian de facto independence, but the truth of this claim is doubted by modern scholars. A Byzantine fleet sailed to Venice in 807 and deposed the Doge, replacing him with a Byzantine governor. During the reign of the Participazio family, Venice grew into its modern form. Though Heraclean by birth, the first Participazio doge, was an early immigrant to Rialto and his dogeship was marked by the expansion of Venice towards the sea via the construction of bridges, bulwarks and stone buildings; the modern Venice, at one with the sea, was being bor
Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II, born Giuliano della Rovere, nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope", was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513. His nine-year pontificate was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, patronage of the arts, his military and diplomatic interventions averted a take-over by France of the Italian States. He proved a bulwark against Venetian expansionism. Pope Julius II commissioned the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica, Michelangelo's decoration and full-scale painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, his discerning eye in hiring the artist Raphael as a young man brought numerous improvements to the Vatican. Giuliano della Rovere Albisola, was born near Savona in the Republic of Genoa, he was of a noble but impoverished family, the son of Raffaelo della Rovere. and Theodora Manerola, a lady of Greek ancestry. He had: Bartolomeo, a Franciscan friar who became Bishop of Ferrara, he had a sister, Lucina.
Giuliano was educated by Fr. Francesco della Rovere, O. F. M. among the Franciscans, who took him under his special charge. He was sent by this same uncle, to the Franciscan friary in Perugia, where he could study the sciences at the University. Della Rovere, as a young man, showed traits of being rough and given to bad language. During the late 1490s he became more acquainted with Cardinal Medici and his nephew, the two dynasties became uneasy allies in the context of papal politics. Both houses desired an end to the occupation of Italian lands by the armies of France, he seemed less enthused by theology. After his uncle was elected Pope Sixtus IV on 10 August 1471, Giuliano was appointed Bishop of Carpentras in the Comtat Venaissin on 16 October 1471. In an act of literal nepotism he was raised to the cardinalate on 16 December 1471, assigned the same titular church as that held by his uncle, San Pietro in Vincoli. Guilty of serial simony and pluralism he held several powerful offices at once: in addition to the archbishopric of Avignon he held no fewer than eight bishoprics, including Lausanne from 1472, Coutances.
In 1474, Giuliano led an army to Todi and Città di Castello as papal legate. He returned to Rome in May, in the company of Duke Federigo of Urbino, who promised his daughter in marriage to Giuliano's brother Giovanni, subsequently named Lord of Senigallia and of Mondovì. On 22 December 1475, Pope Sixtus IV created the new Archdiocese of Avignon, assigning to it as suffragan dioceses the Sees of Vaison and Carpentras, he appointed Giuliano as the first archbishop. Giuliano held the archdiocese until his election to the papacy. In 1476 the office of Legate was added, he left Rome for France in February. On 22 August 1476 he founded the Collegium de Ruvere in Avignon, he returned to Rome on 4 October 1476. In 1479, Cardinal Giuliano served his one-year term as Chamberlain of the College of Cardinals. In this office he was responsible for collecting all the revenues owed to the cardinals as a group and for the proper disbursements of appropriate shares to cardinals who were in service in the Roman Curia.
Giuliano was again named Papal Legate to France on 28 April 1480, left Rome on June 9. As Legate, his mission was threefold: to make peace between King Louis XI and the Emperor Maximilian of Austria, he reached Paris in September, on 20 December 1480, Louis gave orders that Balue be handed over to the Archpriest of Loudun, commissioned by the Legate to receive him in the name of the Pope. He returned to Rome on 3 February 1482. Shortly thereafter the sum of 300,000 ecus of gold was received from the French in subsidy of the war. On 31 January 1483 Cardinal della Rovere was promoted suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia, in succession to Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville who had died on January 22, it was the privilege of the Bishop of Ostia to consecrate an elected pope a bishop, if he were not a bishop. This occurred in the case of Pius III, ordained a priest on 30 September 1503 and consecrated a bishop on 1 October 1503 by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere. Around this time, in 1483, an illegitimate daughter was born, Felice della Rovere.
On 3 November 1483, Cardinal della Rovere was named Bishop of Bologna and Papal Legate, succeeding Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga, who had died on 21 October. He held the diocese until 1502. On 28 December 1484, Giuliano participated in the investiture of his brother Giovanni as Captain-General of the Papal Armies by Pope Innocent VIII. By 1484 Giuliano was living in the new palazzo which he had constructed next to the Basilica of the Twelve Apostles, which he had restored. Pope Sixtus IV paid a formal visit to the newly restored building on 1 May 1482, it may be that Giuliano was in residence then. Sixtus IV died on 12 August 1484 and was succeeded by Innocent VIII. After the ceremonies of the election of Pope Innocent were completed, the cardinals were dismissed to their own homes, but Cardina
Pedro González de Mendoza
Pedro VI redirects here. There was a Pedro VI of Kongo. Pedro González de Mendoza was a Spanish cardinal and statesman who served as Archbishop of Toledo, Archbishop of Sevilla, Bishop of Sigüenza, Bishop of Calahorra y La Calzada, he was born at Guadalajara in the chief lordship of his family. He was the fourth son of Íñigo López de Mendoza, marqués de Santillana, deceased 1458, one of the cadet brothers of Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1. Duque of l'Infantado and Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st count of Tendilla; the house of Mendoza claimed to descend from the lords of Llodio in Alava, to have been settled in Old Castile, in the 11th century. One chief of the house had been distinguished at the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. Another, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, his grandfather, had been Admiral of Castile in the reign of Henry III of Castile "The Infirm". King Pedro I of Castile, assassinated March 1369, had endowed his great grandfather Pedro González de Mendoza, killed at the Battle of Aljubarrota in 1385, with the lordships of Hita in the province of Guadalajara, Buitrago.
The road to greatness of the Mendozas was completed by this earlier Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, who sacrificed his life to save John I of Castile at the battle of Aljubarrota in 1385. The cardinal's and the 1st duke of Infantado father, Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Santillana—to use the title he was awarded in the last years of his life—, was a poet, was conspicuous during the troubled reign of John II of Castile, deceased 1453. Loyalty to the Crown was the prevailing policy of the Mendoza family. Pedro González de Mendoza, named thus by his father Íñigo after his great grandfather killed by the Portuguese troops at Aljubarrota, was sent into the Church because he was a younger son and that he might be handsomely provided for, he had no vocation, was an example of the worldly and martial prelates of the 15th century. In 1452 at the age of twenty-four, he was chosen by the king John II to be bishop of Calahorra, but did not receive the pope's bull till 1454, he was consecrated Bishop on 21 Jul 1454 by Alfonso Carrillo de Acuña, Archbishop of Toledo with Alonso de Fonseca y Ulloa, Archbishop of Sevilla.
As bishop of Calahorra he was señor, or civil and military ruler, of the town and its dependent district. In his secular capacity he led the levies of Calahorra in the civil wars of the reign of Henry IV, he fought for the king at the second battle of Olmedo on August 20, 1467, was wounded in the arm. During these years he became attached to Mencia de Lemos, a Portuguese lady-in-waiting of the Consort queen, she bore him two sons, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar Mendoza, once selected to be the husband of Lucrezia Borgia, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1st Count of Melito who became the grandfather of the princess of Eboli of the reign of Philip II of Spain. By Inés de Tovar, a lady of a Valladolid family, he had a third son who afterwards emigrated to France. In 1468 Pedro became Bishop of Sigüenza. In 1473 he was created cardinal, was promoted to the Archdiocese of Seville and named chancellor of Castile. During the last years of the reign of King Henry IV. he was the partisan of the Princess Isabella, afterwards queen, while his eldest brother Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 2nd marquis of Santillana, remained however faithful to king Henry IV of Castile, till his death in December 1474.
Pedro, the cadet brother, fought for her at the Battle of Toro on March 1, 1476 when King Henry IV had died already. He had a prominent part in placing her on the throne. In 1482 he became Archbishop of Toledo; when his oldest brother and head of the whole family, swore allegiance to Princess Isabella after Henry's death in December 1474, he was duly rewarded by Queen Isabella I of Castile, awarding Diego the title of Duke of the Infantado on 22 July 1475. The title would be awarded the Grandee of Spain in 1519 by king Charles I of Spain. During the conquest of Granada Pedro contributed to the maintenance of the army. On January 2, 1492 he occupied the town in the name of the Catholic sovereigns. Though his life was worldly, though he was more soldier and statesman than priest, the "Great Cardinal", as he was called, did not neglect his duty as a bishop, he used his influence with the queen and at Rome to arrange a settlement of the disputes between the Spanish sovereigns and the papacy. He was an advocate of Christopher Columbus.
Though he maintained a splendid household as archbishop of Toledo, provided handsomely for his children, he devoted part of his revenue to charity, a part he endowed the college of Santa Cruz at Valladolid University. His health broke down at the close of 1493. Queen Isabella nursed him on his deathbed in Guadalajara, it is said that he recommended her to choose as his successor the Franciscan Jimenez de Cisneros, a man who had no likeness to himself save in political faculty and devotion to the authority of the Crown. The life of the cardinal, by Salazar de Mendoza, Cronica del gran cardinal Don Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, is discursive and garrulous but valuable. See Prescott, History of Ferdinand and Isabella; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mendoza, Pedro Gonzalez de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 126
Philibert Hugonet was a French Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal. Philibert Hugonet studied in the Diocese of Mâcon, where his uncle, Étienne Hugonet, had been bishop since 1451, he spent six years studying at the University of Pavia, becoming a doctor of both laws. After completing his education, he was a member of several embassies sent by Charles the Bold, notably embassies to Pope Paul II and to Fernando V of Castilla, his brother, Guillaume Hugonet, was the Chancellor of the Duchy of Burgundy during this period, until he was assassinated in April 1477. He never returned to Flanders after the death of his brother. Hugonet became a canon of a protonotary apostolic. After the death of his uncle, he was elected the new Bishop of Mâcon on October 2, 1472, subsequently occupied the see until his death. At the request of Charles the Bold, Pope Sixtus IV made him a cardinal priest in the consistory of May 7, 1473, he received the red hat in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore on May 10, 1473, on May 17 was awarded the titulus of Santa Lucia in Selci.
On August 17, 1477, he opted for the titulus of Santi Giovanni e Paolo. In December 1478, Sixtus IV made Cardinal Hugonet papal legate to Viterbo and the Patrimonium Sancti Petri, he left Italy for the Kingdom of France on May 15, 1480, returning on July 30, 1481. On July 10, 1484, he was named Bishop of Autun without relinquishing the bishopric of Mâcon; the next month he participated in the papal conclave that elected Pope Innocent VIII. Two weeks after the conclave endend, on September 11, Hugonet died in his residence in Campo de' Fiori, Rome, he is buried in Santa Maria del Popolo
Roman Catholic Diocese of Lleida
The Diocese of Lleida, known as the Diocese of Lerida in English, is located in north-eastern Spain, in the province of Lleida, part of the autonomous community of Catalonia. The diocese forms part of the ecclesiastical province of Tarragona, is thus suffragan to the Archdiocese of Tarragona; the diocese of Lleida was created in the 3rd century. After the Moorish conquest of Lleida in 716 the episcopal see was moved to Roda and to Barbastro; the city of Lleida was conquered from the Moors by the Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1149, the see was again transferred to its original seat. The Bishop's Palace is located in Rambla d'Aragó. Lleida is one of the most populous cities in Catalonia, built on the right bank of the River Segre, about 100 miles from Barcelona; the town is oriental in appearance, its streets are narrow and crooked. The population in 1900 was 23,683; the old Byzantine-Gothic Cathedral, of which the ruins are to be seen on the citadel, dates from 1203. During the Middle Ages the University of Lleida was famous.
At present, Lleida is sede vacante, since Mgr. Francesc-Xavier Ciuraneta Aymí resigned on March 8, 2007; the diocese is under the temporary administration of Mgr. Xavier Salinas Viñals, Bishop of Tortosa. Lleida was Herda. During the Punic Wars it sided with the Carthaginians. La Canal says that the diocese was erected in 600, but others maintain it goes back to the third century, there is mention of a St. Lycerius, or Glycerius, as Bishop of Lleida in AD 269. In 514 or 524 a council attended by eight bishops passed decrees forbidding the taking up of arms or the shedding of blood by clerics. A provincial council in 546 regulated ecclesiastical discipline; the signatures of other bishops of Lleida are attached to various councils up to the year 716, when the Moors took possession of the town, the see was removed to Roda. An unbroken list of bishops of Lleida goes back to the year 887. In 1101 King Pedro I of Aragon took the city of Barbastro from the Moors and transferred the see from Roda to Barbastro.
The first bishop, went to Rome to obtain the pope's permission for this transfer. The city of Lleida was conquered from the Moors by the Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1149, the episcopal see was again transferred to its original seat. A council in 1173 was presided over by Cardinal Giacinto Bobone, who afterwards became Pope Celestine III. A council in 1246 absolved king James I of Aragon from the sacrilege of cutting out the tongue of the Bishop of Girona; the seminary was founded in 1722. During the Peninsular War the French held it, in 1823 Spain once more obtained possession of it. Owing to its natural position its strategic value has always been great, it was fortified in 1910; the cathedral chapter prior to the Concordat of 1851 consisted of 6 dignities, 24 canons, 22 benefices, but after the concordat the number was reduced to 16 canons and 12 beneficed clerics. In 1910 the Catholic population of the diocese was 185,000 souls scattered over 395 parishes and ministered to by 598 priests.
Besides 395 churches for public worship, there were in the diocese five religious communities of men, six of women, several hospitals in charge of nuns. The seminary accommodated 500 students. In 1995, following the Ilerdensis et Barbastrensis de finum mutatione decree, 84 culturally Catalan La Franja parishes that had traditionally belonged to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lleida for over eight centuries, were segregated and transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Barbastro-Monzón; these were followed by a further 27 parishes in June 1998. The amputated parishes were in the Baix Cinca Catalan-speaking Aragonese areas. After the parish segregation a controversy began regarding the return of ancient works of art belonging to the segregated parishes and which were stored at the Lleida Diocesan Museum; the decree and the ensuing controversies were perceived as anti-Catalan measures by many in Lleida and in the concerned parishes, as they were not consulted, part of a strategy to assimilate the La Franja people into the Spanish-speaking mainstream congregation by cutting them off from their cultural roots.
All the names are given in Catalan: c. 269: St. Lleïr — c. 516: Oronci — c. 519: Pere c. 540: Andreu — c. 546: Februari — c. 589: Polibi — c. 592: Julià — c. 599: Ameli — c. 614: Gomarel — c. 635: Fructuós — c. 653: Gandelè — c. 690: Eusend — c. 715: Esteve — c. 780: San Medard — c. 842: JacobAfter the Moorish conquest the Diocese of Lleida is transferred to Roda. After the Moorish conquest the Diocese of Lleida is transferred to Roda. All the names are given in Catalan: In 1101 the Diocese of Roda is transferred to Barbastro. In 1101 the Diocese of Roda is transferred to Barbastro. All the names are given in Catalan: In 1149 the episcopal see returned to Lleida. In 1149 the episcopal see returned to Lleida. La Franja Bishop of Lleida Catholic Encyclopedia, 1910 and 1907: Lleida and Barbastro IBERCRONOX: Obispado de Lérida and Obispado de Barbastro-Monzón This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia.
New York: Robert Appleton. Diocese of Lleida