16-bit computing

In computer architecture, 16-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 16 bits wide. 16-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16-bit microcomputers are computers. A 16-bit register can store 216 different values; the signed range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits is −32,768 through 32,767. Since 216 is 65,536, a processor with 16-bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KB of byte-addressable memory. If a system uses segmentation with 16-bit segment offsets, more can be accessed; the MIT Whirlwind was quite the first-ever 16-bit computer. Other early 16-bit computers include the IBM 1130, the HP 2100, the Data General Nova, the DEC PDP-11. Early multi-chip 16-bit microprocessors include the five-chip National Semiconductor IMP-16, the two-chip NEC μCOM-16, the three-chip Western Digital MCP-1600, the five-chip Toshiba T-3412. Early single-chip 16-bit microprocessors include the Panafacom MN1610, National Semiconductor PACE, General Instrument CP1600, Texas Instruments TMS9900, the HP BPC.

Other notable 16-bit processors include the Intel 8086, the Intel 80286, the WDC 65C816, the Zilog Z8000. The Intel 8088 was binary compatible with the Intel 8086, was 16-bit in that its registers were 16 bits wide, arithmetic instructions could operate on 16-bit quantities though its external bus was 8 bits wide. A 16-bit integer can store 216 distinct values. In an unsigned representation, these values are the integers between 0 and 65,535. Hence, a processor with 16-bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KB of byte-addressable memory. 16-bit processors have been entirely supplanted in the personal computer industry, are used less than 32-bit CPUs in embedded applications. The Motorola 68000 is sometimes called 16-bit because its internal and external data buses were 16 bits wide; the 68000 was a microcoded processor with three internal 16-bit ALUs. Only 24 bits of the program counter were available on original DIP packages, with up to 16 megabytes of addressable RAM. 68000 software is 32-bit in nature and forward-compatible with other 32-bit processors in the same family.

The 68008 was a version of the 68000 with an 8-bit external data path and 1-megabyte addressing for the 48-pin DIP version, 4 megabytes for the 52-pin PLCC version. Several Apple Macintosh models--e.g. the LC series--used 32-bit 68020 and 68030 processors on a 16-bit data bus to save cost. Similar analysis applies to Intel's 80286 CPU replacement, called the 386SX, a 32-bit processor with 32-bit ALU and internal 32-bit data paths with a 16-bit external bus and 24-bit addressing of the processor it replaced. Just as there are multiple data models for 64-bit architectures, the 16-bit Intel architecture allows for different memory models—ways to access a particular memory location; the reason for using a specific memory model is the size of the assembler instructions or required storage for pointers. Compilers of the 16-bit era had the following type-width characteristic: Tiny Code and data will be in the same segment. Code and stack together cannot exceed 64 KB. Small Code and data will be in different segments, near pointers are always used.

There will be 64 KB of 64 KB for data/stack. Medium Code pointers will use far pointers, enabling access to 1 MB. Data pointers remain of the near type. Compact Data pointers will use far and code will use near pointers. Large/huge Code and data pointers will be far. In the context of IBM PC compatible and Wintel platforms, a 16-bit application is any software written for MS-DOS, OS/2 1.x or early versions of Microsoft Windows which ran on the 16-bit Intel 8088 and Intel 80286 microprocessors. Such applications used a 20-bit or 24-bit segment or selector-offset address representation to extend the range of addressable memory locations beyond what was possible using only 16-bit addresses. Programs containing more than 216 bytes of instructions and data therefore required special instructions to switch between their 64-kilobyte segments, increasing the complexity of programming 16-bit applications. Microprocessor: 16-bit designs Influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market: Before the IBM PC's introduction 74181 Audio bit depth – as 16-bit is the most common bit depth used, e.g. on CD audio

Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime

Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime is a 1991 book about the philosopher Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgment, focusing on Kant's description of the sublime, by the French philosopher Jean-François Lyotard. The book received positive reviews following the appearance of its English translation in 1994. Lyotard discusses the philosopher Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgment, focusing on Kant's description of the sublime. Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime was first published in 1991 by Éditions Galilée. In 1994, Stanford University Press published an English translation by Elizabeth Rottenberg as part of the series Meridian: Crossing Aesthetics; the book received positive reviews from Thomas Huhn in Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism and A. T. Nuyen in Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Huhn described the book as "brilliant", writing that Lyotard provided a "provocative reading of Kant's doctrine of the sublime". Nuyen credited Lyotard with providing a "close and careful" discussion of portions of the Critique of Judgment.

Peter Fenves discussed the work in Eighteenth-Century Studies, praising Lyotard for posing the "question of the subject of aesthetic judgment" with "renewed vigor". In The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, the philosopher Alan D. Schrift suggested that Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime is Lyotard's most important work since The Differend. Books Journals

Bobbin lace

Bobbin lace is a lace textile made by braiding and twisting lengths of thread, which are wound on bobbins to manage them. As the work progresses, the weaving is held in place with pins set in a lace pillow, the placement of the pins determined by a pattern or pricking pinned on the pillow. Bobbin lace is known as pillow lace, because it was worked on a pillow, bone lace, because early bobbins were made of bone or ivory. Bobbin lace is one of the two major categories of handmade laces, the other being needlelace, derived from earlier cutwork and reticella. A will of 1493 by the Milanese Sforza family mentions lace created with twelve bobbins. Bobbin lace evolved from braid-making in 16th-century Italy. Genoa was famous for its braids, hence it is not surprising to find bobbin lace developed in the city, it traveled along with the Spanish troops through Europe. Coarse passements of gold and silver-wrapped threads or colored silks became finer, bleached linen yarn was used to make both braids and edgings.

The making of bobbin lace was easier to learn than the elaborate cutwork of the 16th century, the tools and materials for making linen bobbin lace were inexpensive. There was a ready market for bobbin lace of all qualities, women throughout Europe soon took up the craft which earned a better income than spinning, weaving or other home-based textile arts. Bobbin lace-making was established in charity schools and convents. In the 17th century, the textile centers of Flanders and Normandy eclipsed Italy as the premiere sources for fine bobbin lace, but until the coming of mechanization hand-lacemaking continued to be practiced throughout Europe, suffering only in those periods of simplicity when lace itself fell out of fashion. Bobbin lace may be made with fine threads. Traditionally it was made with linen, wool, or cotton threads, or with precious metals. Today it is made with wire and other filaments. Elements of bobbin lace may include toile or toilé, réseau, fillings of part laces, gimp, tallies and rolls.

Not all styles of bobbin lace include all these elements. Many styles of lace were made in the heyday of lacemaking; the advent of machine-made lace at first pushed lace-makers into more complicated designs beyond the capabilities of early machines simpler designs so they could compete on price, pushed them out of business entirely. The resurgence of lace-making is a recent phenomenon and is done as a hobby. Lacemaking groups still meet in regions as varied as Devonshire and Orange County, California. In the European towns where lace was once a major industry in Belgium, Spain and centre Portugal and Slovenia lacemakers still demonstrate the craft and sell their wares, though their customer base has shifted from the wealthy nobility to the curious tourist. Still new types of lace are being developed such as the 3D Rosalibre and a colored version of Milanese lace by borrowing rolls from Duchesse lace to store various shades and colors. Other artists are giving grounds a major role by distorting and varying stitches, pin distances and thread sizes or colours.

The variations are explored by mathematics and algorithms. The lace maintaining its shape without stiffening is no longer a requirement. Inspiring journals and foundations show that old techniques with a new twist can challenge young people to create works that can classify as art. A Dutch design graduate in 2006 discovered; the first fences became museum pieces. The fences are now produced in Bangalore by concrete rebar plaiters; the major tools to make bobbin lace are a pillow, bobbins and prickings. The part laces require a crochet hook fine types of lace require fine hooks. There are different types of pillows and bobbins linked to areas and type of lace. Bobbins, which are traditionally made of wood or bone, are used to hold the thread, they come in different shapes associated with certain types of lace. The parts of a bobbin are the neck, where the thread is wound, a head, where thread is hitched to keep it from coming unwound, the shank, used as a handle. Bobbins from England may have a beaded spangle at the end of the shank, which makes the bobbin heavier and helps with tensioning the thread.

Bobbins are 3 1/2 - 4 inches long, though they may be shorter or longer. Bobbins are used in pairs. There are many types of bobbins, including: Belgian bobbins: They have a single head and a bulbous rounding near the end of the shank that helps with tensioning threads. Binche bobbins: The bulbous rounding need the end of the shank is small, making these bobbins good for fine, straight laces. East Midlands bobbins: These double-headed bobbins are slender and spangled, they are called Bucks or Midlands bobbins. Honiton bobbins: Honiton bobbins are straight below the single head, the end of the shank comes to a blunt point, which helps with sewing, they may be called a lace stick. Square bobbins: Square bobbins have a shank with flattened sides, which makes it easier to keep them from rolling on the pillow; the pillows must be firm. The pillows were traditionally stuffed with straw, but nowadays polystyrene is used. An early type of pillow can be seen in The Lace-Maker by Caspar Netscher; the pillow has a wooden frame, is sloping.

The lace-maker rests it on her lap. The bolster or cylind