32-bit computing

In computer architecture, 32-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 32 bits wide. 32-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 32-bit microcomputers are computers. A 32-bit register can store 232 different values; the range of integer values that can be stored in 32 bits depends on the integer representation used. With the two most common representations, the range is 0 through 4,294,967,295 for representation as an binary number, −2,147,483,648 through 2,147,483,647 for representation as two's complement. One important consequence is that a processor with 32-bit memory addresses can directly access at most 4 GiB of byte-addressable memory; the world's first stored program electronic computer, the Manchester Baby, used a 32-bit architecture in 1948, although it was only a proof of concept and had little practical capacity. It held only 32 32-bit words of RAM on a Williams tube, had no addition operation, only subtraction.

32-bit architectures did not become common until the mid 60s. Memory, as well as other digital circuits and wiring, was expensive during the first decades of 32-bit architectures. Older 32-bit processor families could therefore have many compromises and limitations in order to cut costs; this could be a 16-bit ALU, for instance, or external buses narrower than 32 bits, limiting memory size or demanding more cycles for instruction fetch, execution or write back. Despite this, such processors could be labeled "32-bit," since they still had 32-bit registers and instructions able to manipulate 32-bit quantities. For example, the IBM System/360 Model 30 had an 8-bit ALU, 8-bit internal data paths, an 8-bit path to memory, the original Motorola 68000 had a 16-bit data ALU and a 16-bit external data bus, but had 32-bit registers and a 32-bit based instruction set; the 68000 design was sometimes referred to as "16/32-bit". However, the opposite is true for newer 32-bit designs. For example, the Pentium Pro processor is a 32-bit machine, with 32-bit registers and instructions that manipulate 32-bit quantities, but the external address bus is 36 bits wide, giving a larger address space than 4 GB, the external data bus is 64 bits wide in order to permit a more efficient prefetch of instructions and data.

Prominent 32-bit instruction set architectures used in general-purpose computing include the IBM System/360 and IBM System/370 and the System/370-XA, ESA/370, ESA/390, the DEC VAX, the NS320xx, the Motorola 68000 family, the Intel IA-32 32-bit version of the x86 architecture, the 32-bit versions of the ARM, SPARC, MIPS, PowerPC and PA-RISC architectures. 32-bit instruction set architectures used for embedded computing include the 68000 family and ColdFire, x86, ARM, MIPS, PowerPC, Infineon TriCore architectures. On the x86 architecture, a 32-bit application means software that uses the 32-bit linear address space possible with the 80386 and chips. In this context, the term came about because DOS, Microsoft Windows and OS/2 were written for the 8088/8086 or 80286, 16-bit microprocessors with a segmented address space where programs had to switch between segments to reach more than 64 kilobytes of code or data; as this is quite time-consuming in comparison to other machine operations, the performance may suffer.

Furthermore, programming with segments tend to become complicated. The 80386 and its successors support the 16-bit segments of the 80286 but segments for 32-bit address offsets. If the base address of all 32-bit segments is set to 0, segment registers are not used explicitly, the segmentation can be forgotten and the processor appears as having a simple linear 32-bit address space. Operating systems like Windows or OS/2 provide the possibility to run 16-bit programs as well as 32-bit programs; the former possibility exists for backward compatibility and the latter is meant to be used for new software development. In digital images/pictures, 32-bit refers to RGBA color space. Other image formats specify 32 bits per pixel, such as RGBE. In digital images, 32-bit sometimes refers to high-dynamic-range imaging formats that use 32 bits per channel, a total of 96 bits per pixel. 32-bit-per-channel images are used to represent values brighter than. For example, a reflection in an oil slick is only a fraction of that seen in a mirror surface.

HDR imagery allows for the reflection of highlights that can still be seen as bright white areas, instead of dull grey shapes. A 32-bit file format is a binary file format for which each elementary information is defined on 32 bits. An example of such a format is the Enhanced Metafile Format. 16-bit 64-bit History of video games Word Physical Address Extension This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 Nov

Terry R. LaValley

Terry Ronald LaValley is an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He is the current Bishop of Ogdensburg; the second of six children, LaValley was born in Plattsburgh, New York, to Ronald and Doris LaValley. He was raised in St. Ann's Parish and received his early education at Mooers Central School in Mooers, he graduated from Northeastern Clinton Central High School in Champlain. He attended the State University of New York at Albany for two years before enlisting in the United States Navy, where he served from 1977 to 1983, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree from SUNY Albany in 1980. In 1983, LaValley entered Wadhams Hall Seminary College in Ogdensburg, earning a Certificate of Studies in Philosophy the following year, he continued his studies at Christ the King Seminary in East Aurora. He received a Master of Divinity degree from Christ the King in 1988, he was ordained to the diaconate on February 27, 1988. LaValley was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Stanislaus J. Brzana on September 24, 1988.

His first assignment was as a curate at the Church of the Sacred Heart in Massena. During his time at Sacred Heart, he served as associate secretary of the diocesan marriage tribunal and a member of the Presbyteral Council, he completed his graduate studies at St. Paul's University in Ottawa, Canada, where he earned a Doctor of Canon Law degree in 1994. Upon his return to New York, LaValley was named administrator of both St. Peter's Church in Hammond and St. Patrick's Mission Church in Rossie, as well as adjutant judicial vicar. In 1996, he became episcopal vicar for diocesan services and chancellor of the Diocese of Ogdensburg. In addition to these responsibilities, he was appointed pastor of St. Raphael Church in Heuvelton and administrator of St. James Church in Gouverneur, he returned to St. Raphael's in 2000, became rector of St. Mary's Cathedral in 2003. In 2004, he was relieved of his duties as episcopal vicar and chancellor, named the Bishop Robert J. Cunningham's delegate to implement and oversee compliance with the Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People.

On May 28, 2009, he was elected the apostolic administrator of the diocese by the College of Consultors, following installation of Bishop Cunningham as Bishop of Syracuse. On February 23, 2010, LaValley was appointed the fourteenth Bishop of Ogdensburg by Pope Benedict XVI, his episcopal consecration and installation took place at St. Mary's Cathedral on April 30, 2010; as bishop, LaValley serves as the spiritual leader of the 150,000 Catholics in New York's North Country. He is the first native of the Ogdensburg Diocese to serve as its bishop since the appointment of Joseph H. Conroy in 1921. Roman Catholic Diocese of Ogdensburg Official Site St. Ann's Parish Church of the Sacred Heart St. Raphael Church St. James Church St. Mary's Cathedral

Charlotte Knight

Charlotte Knight, known after her marriage as Charlotte, Lady Rouse-Boughton, was an English horticulturalist who bred the Waterloo cherry.. She was the youngest daughter and heiress of the botanist Thomas Andrew Knight, a member of a wealthy iron-founding dynasty founded by his grandfather Richard Knight of the Bringewood Ironworks in Shropshire, her father was the heir of his brother the art connoisseur Payne Knight, MP, who rebuilt Downton Castle in Shropshire. In 1817, aged just 16, Charlotte Knight was presented with the Silver Medal of the Horticultural Society of London in recognition of the quality of the Waterloo cherry, her father, himself a noted botanist, had written in 1816 that the new variety "sprang from a seed of the Ambrée of Du Hamel and the pollen of the May-Duke". It was named after the Battle of Waterloo, which had taken place two years before in 1815, as it had fruited first at Elton Hall in Herefordshire a few days after Napoleon's defeat at that battle, it ripens early, in late June to early July, can serve as a pollinator to varieties.

She was mentioned in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, published in 1818. It credited her for raising the early black cherry otherwise known as the Waterloo cherry; the writer and gardener Christopher Stocks notes in his book Forgotten Fruits that Charlotte Knight "deserves posthumous recognition" given how rare it was for women to generate new cultivars: "of all the hundreds of varieties of fruits and vegetables in this book, Waterloo is the only one not to have been created by a man". In 1824 she married Sir William Edward Rouse-Boughton, 2nd and 10th Baronet, a member of parliament for Evesham in Worcestershire, by whom she had 3 sons and 5 daughters, including: Sir Charles Henry Rouse-Boughton, 3rd and 11th Baronet, eldest son and heir. Andrew Johnes Rouse Boughton, 2nd son, who inherited Downton Castle in Shropshire, one of the Knight estates inherited by his mother, adopted the surname Knight. Charlotte Boughton was buried in the parish church of Worcestershire.

A portrait of Lady Rouse-Boughton, painted by Henry Collen and engraved by John Cochran, was published in the Court Magazine in July 1834. A copy is in the National Portrait Gallery, London which has two photographs of her daughter Catherine. Materials on family history collected by Catherine Charlotte Rouse Boughton: catalogue entry at National Archives